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Full text of "The Massachusetts magazine : devoted to Massachusetts history, genealogy, biography"

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tOjc JHassatljiUtdfs jHagannc. 

A Quarterly cMagazine Devoted to History, Genealogy and Biography 
Thomas Franklin Waters, Editor, ipswich, ma«s. 
ASSOCIATE AND ADVISORY EDITORS 

Frank A. Gardner, M. D. Charles A. Flagg Albert W. Dennls 

SAT.EM, MASS. WASHINGTON. D. C. 8ALEM. MASH. 

Issued in January, April, July and October. Subscription, $2.50 per year, Single copies 75c. 



VOL. I 



JANUARY, 1908 



NO. I 



(Cmtfcnfe af fins Issue- 

Whittier, the Poet, as Historian .... Thomas F. Waters . 3 

Massachusetts as Described by Capt. John 

Smith in 1614 10 

» 

Whittier's Birthplace Alice May Douglass . 11 

The Massachusetts Man Edward Everett Hale 12 

Patriot Army at the Siege of Boston 13 

Col. John Glover's Marblehead Regiment F. A. Gardner , M. D. 14 

John Adams' Home 21 

A Letter from Abigail Adams to her Husband 23 

Errors in Genealogies — The Cheney Family Charles H. Pope . . 24 

The Old Fairbanks House Mrs. Lillie B. Titus 25 

The Founders of the Mass. Bay Colony . . F. A.Gardner, M. D. 27 

War in Colonial Life Rufus Choate ... 37 

Some Massachusetts Historical Writers 38 

The Manning Homestead William II. Manning 43 

Criticism and Comment 44 

Pilgrims and Planters Lucie M. Gardner . 49 

Department of the American Revolution F. A. Gardner, M. D. 51 

Our Editorial Pages Thomas F. Waters . 56 



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ON SALE. Copies of this magazine are on sale in Xe>o York, at Baker, Taylor & Co., 33 East 17th Street 
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4 Central Street.Salem, Mass. 




WHITTIER, THE POET, AS 
HISTORIAN 



By Rev. Thomas F. Waters 




HE enthusiastic observance of the centenary of 
Mr. Whittier's birth has dispelled all doubt, if any 
doubt existed, as to the affectionate and appreciative 
regard, with which the man and his work are held 
throughout New England, and in no small degree, 
through our land. The personal element enters very 
largely into the common thought of him, it must be 
acknowledged. He was a man of rare and beautiful 
character. His sincere and wonderful love of the 
Right, his religious devotion, his fearless and power- 
ful championship of the slave, and his exaltation of Peace, have won a great 
place for him in the love of all. His tender sympathy, his unfeigned sim- 
plicity of thought and utterance have made him preeminently the friend 
of the dark hour, and the lonely and sorrowful home. 

But the wise and discriminating estimates of his literary work by so 
many skilled students have made it apparent, that he is a man to be 
reckoned with as a master workman in his chosen field. He is something 
more than an unschooled farm lad, bred to the hard toil of the farm, sell- 
conscious and retiring, obedient to the impulse of an inner Voice, con- 
straining him to write, as real as the inner Light, in which he always re- 
joiced, who only attained name and fame, by the surprising excellency of 
his poetry, when due consideration is made for his humble origin and his 
lack of all intellectual advantage. He is a poet, who asks no odds of the 
generation, which knew the subtleties of Emerson, the erudite scholarship 
of Longfellow, the many-sided and dazzling genius of Lowell, but holds 
his own, by his unquestioned gift of song. 
Prof. Bliss Perry, the brilliant editor of 



the Atlantic, has raised the 



4 THE MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 

question, whether the literary fame of Whither will be permanent, and 
he answers it with the confident prediction that his later works, especially 
Snow Bound, will endure. Prof. Woodberry, one of the most capable 
students of modern English, ranks Snow Bound, with The Cotter's Satur- 
day Night, and The Deserted Village. Xew biographies of exceptional 
value published this year, attest the freshness of his fame. 

These estimates of the poet are critical as well as laudatory. They 
recognize the frequent carelessness of his rhyme, the defectiveness of his 
metre, and the signs of haste and extreme feeling that characterize his 
earlier work.- Too often.it is evident that he is not doing his best. Some- 
times he is not sure of lis facts. Such carelessness of method is always 
regrettable, but particulate so, when the poet assumes the role of historian. 
His love of the old legenls, his sentimental regard for the past, his quick 
appreciation of thrilling tr romantic episodes, led him to make frequent 
excursions into the field o history. In his portraiture of the home life of 
his boyhood, nothing coul be more felicitous and yet absolutely truthful. 
But he ranged through ealier times, and found much that moved him to 
write in that marvellous eventeenth century, so full of life and feeling. 
so mvsterious in its deep nder-currents. and so appalling in its conflicts. 
The Indian, the child of te great wilderness, the Quaker, obeying his 
Inner Light at such cruel est. the Witch, suspected of diabolic deeds and 
of near kinship with the Drj; were enticing figures to his temperament. 
The supernatural manifestat»ns. the delusions, the persecutions, the savage 
cruelties of that century mae natural appeal to his imagination, touched 
his sympathies and roused h indignation. 

So Mr. Whittier wrote mih of these things, idyls of Indian life, impas- 
sioned glorifications of the psecuted Quakers, romantic lyrics of witch- 
craft and the supernatural, uprose as well as poetry. His prose writings 
are little read but his poems r <? read by exerybody. Little children study 
them in school, and a thousanor ten thousand grown men and women are 
indebted to them, perhaps untnsciously for their impressions of these 
historic periods to one. who se-s from the professional historian, or from 
the archives of the time, a well lanced and comprehensive judgment. The 
beauty and power of 'these poer, and the certainty that they will maintain 
their place among the New En^nd classics, make the question pertinent : 
Is his picture true to the life? 

The ideal historian must be erect in his facts, and must recognize that 
old neighborhood legends and ditions have no historic value, save as 
thev furnish tone and color to ahentic records. He must be fair in his 
judgments, always restraining horejudices, and weighing evidence with 
a well-balanced mind. He muste wise in the selection of his material, 
mindful of proportion, and the prable impression resulting from his tale. 
Our query as to whether Mr. \\ tier possessed these qualifications can 
best be answered by a brief survey certain portions of his work. 

Of his Indian poems little ne be said, as they are confessedly 
imaginative and ideal. They are t to be taken seriously, as the most 



WHITTIER, THE POET, AS HISTORIAN 5 

careless reader is aware that the Indian had no literature, and left no 
authentic record of his true life. It is very questionable, however, if a 
first-hand study of Indian character, as revealed in Mrs. RowlandsonV 
Narrative of her captivity, in Rev. .William Hubbard's History of the 
Indian wars, as well as Eliot's record of his mission work, and the contem- 
poraneous history of the Indians of Martha's Vineyard, would confirm the 
idealistic portraiture of our poet. 

Concerning the trustworthiness of the general impression produced by 
his treatment of the Witch and the Quaker, more substantial ground for a 
definite opinion is easily found. Belief in witch-craft was prevalent in the 
Colony from' a very early period. In 1652, John Broadstreet was before the 
Ipswich Court ''for suspition of haveing familiarity w the devill," but the 
charge w r as modified to a second offence of lying. 

Goodwife Cole was arraigned before the Court of Assistants, in 1656, on 
suspicion of practising witchcraft at Hampton. It was charged that she 
had bewitched goodwife Marten's child, and had changed another from a 
man to an ape, as Goody Marten's child. Richard Ormsby. the 
Constable of Salisbury, testified, "that being aboute to stripp Eunice Cole 
to bee whipt, ****** looking uppon her breasts, under one of her breasts **** 
I saw a blew thing like unto a teate, hanging downward about three-quarters 
of an inch long, not very thick. She pulled or scratched it off." For 
this offence she was whipped, and in 1673, being tried again for having 
familiarity with the devil, she was sentenced to Boston gaol. 

Again in 1674, at the County Court held in Salem, "Christopher Brown 
haveing reported that he had been discoursing with one whom he appre- 
hended to be the Devill, which came like a Gentleman, in order to his 
binding himself to be a servant to him, upon his examination, his discourse 
seeming inconsistent with Truth, the Court giving him good councell and 
caution, for the present dismisses him/' 

In 1680, the Court of Assistants found Elizabeth Morse guilty of 
familiarity with the Devil, and she was sentenced to be hanged, but was 
reprieved on June 1st till the next session in October. She was allowed to 
return to her home in Newbury, "Provided she goe not above sixteen Rods 
from her owne house & land at any time, except to the meeting-house in 
Newbery, nor remove from the place Appointed hir by the minister & 
selectmen to sitt in whilst there.'' 

But in the year 1692, this moderate treatment of suspected witches, who 
were charged generally with personal dealings with the Devil, gave place to 
excessive severity. The outbreak in Salem Village in that year led to 
the summary arrest and trial of at least one hundred and thirty men and 
women, in twenty different towns and villages, and nine children, ranging 
from Mary Lacey, Jr., fourteen years old, to little Dorothy Good, five 
years of age, who was accused with her mother, and confined with her in 
Ipswich jail. The trials were conducted without the least semblance of 
fairness. The most senseless charges were made against venerable mothers 
in Israel, the pillars and ornaments of the churches, as well as the graceless 



6 THE MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 

ne'er-do-wells, who had long borne an evil name. They were accused of 
causing the death of the domestic cattle, of disturbing the sleep of their 
victims by appearing to them at night and abusing them, of pinching and 
torturing little puppets, which caused the same pain in the persons of their 
victims, however far removed. Apparitions of the dead, who had slept in 
their graves for many years, appeared and charged the suspected witches 
with murdering them. 

This spectral evidence could not be combatted. No rational defence 
against the monstrous evil doings nor positive denial had any weight in 
the frenzied .trials. Condemnation and execution followed swiftly upon 
the arrest. Nineteen men and women, including a minister of the Gospel, 
were hanged, and Giles Corey was pressed to death. 

No such awful delusion as this ever fell upon New England. At any 
moment, any home might be entered by the officers of the law, and any 
member of the family dragged away in chains to jail, and then to 
the gallows. A dreadful panic of mortal fear prevailed, as the hysterical 
girls cried out at last against the Rev. Mr. Wiilard of Boston. The 
scenes at the gallows were incredible for refined and inhuman cruelty. 

Mr. Whittier treats this unimaginable episode with great mildness. 
"The Changeling" is an imaginary setting of one of Goody Cole's misdeeds. 
She has bewitched the two-year bride, who imagines that her baby has 
been stolen by the witch, who has left her an imp instead. Her husband, 
laying his hand upon her head prays for her. 

"Then into the face of its mother 
The baby looked up and smiled; 
And the cloud of her soul was lifted, 
And she knew her little child." 

The young wife bethinks herself of the witch and cries, 

"Now mount and ride, my goodman, 
As thou lovest thy own soul ! 
Woe's me, if my wicked fancies, 
Be the death of Goody Cole." 

He rode away to Newbury, roused Samuel Sewall from his bed. secured 
from him a warrant for the release of Goody Cole, which he bore at top 
speed to Ipswich, 

"And Goody Cole at cockcrow 

Came forth from Ipswich jail." 

"As we have said, Eunice Cole was charged repeatedly with malicious 
transformations, and was sentenced to Boston jail. Mr. Whittier gives the 
Depositions of Goody Marston and Goodwife Susanna Palmer verbatim 
from the Court Record, in Margaret Smith's Journal, and he was well 
aware that this trial occurred nearly forty years before the crisis was 
reached. But she was not among the unfortunates who were tried and 



WHITTIER, THE POET, AS HISTORIAN 7 

condemned to death when the insane delusion was at its height, nor is there 
record that she was confined in Ipswich jail. But these are trifling in- 
accuracies. The more serious fault is that the malign influence of the 
witch is depicted as yielding easily to a single, earnest prayer, and that a 
single judge is represented as having authority, on his own account, to 
release a condemned witch from prison. 

"The Witch's Daughter" is based upon an historic character as well. 
Susanna Martin of Amesbury was charged with many absurd crimes 
against the persons of her neighbors, and with causing the death of cows 
in several cases. She was condemned and hanged. The cruel fate of the 
mother has brief notice. 

"That mother, poor, and sick, and lame, 
Who daily, by the old arm-chair, 
Folded her withered hands in prayer; 

Who turned, in Salem's dreary jail, 

Her worn old Bible o'er and o'er, 

When her dim eyes could read no more." 

The execution is described: 

''The seasons scarce had gone their round, 
Since curious thousands thronged to see 
Her mother on the gallows-tree. 

And mocked the palsied limbs of age, 

That faltered on the fatal stairs, 

And wan lip trembling with its prayers." 

But the poet minimizes the awful significance of these dark days, when he 
brings the afflicted daughter, a year later, to a neighborhood husking and 
puts in the mouth of a pert young miss 

"The little witch is evil-eyed. 

Her mother only killed a cow, 

Or witched a churn or dairy-pan, 

But she, forsooth, must charm a man." 

In "The Witch of Wenham," the whispered insinuation of the sly- 
maiden at the husking is formulated into the offence, laid to the young lass 
of Wenham, of using her wiles to win her lover. 

"She charms him with her great blue eyes, 
She binds him with her hair." 

The sheriff arrests her on the fantastic complaint of sundry women : 
"And many a goodwife heard her speak 
By Wenham water words 
That made the buttercups take wings 
And turn to yellow birds. 



8 THE MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 

They say that swarming wild bees seek 
The hive at her command, 
And fishes swim to take their food 
From out her dainty hand. 

Meek as she sits in meeting-time, 
The godly minister 
Notes well the spell that doth compel 
The young men's eyes to her." 

But no such romantic accusation found place in those times. If there 
be a bit of historic fact at the bottom, the story of the charges preferred, 
the arrest, the escape and flight, fall far short of a true picture of those 
days of doom. 

"The Garrison of Cape Ann" gives a more vivid picture of the weird 
and uncanny atmosphere of the black year, 1692 ; but this and every other 
poem, and the description of Goody Morse's dark deeds, and the gathering 
of the village beldames at the anticipated execution of the witch, in 
Margaret Smith's Journal, fall far short of the grim Truth. The darkness, 
the terror, due to the constant intrusion of supernatural foes and devilish 
intrigue, the universal fear of impending disaster, the unnatural persecution 
of innocent children and faultless gentle folk are not even suggested in the 
episodes our Poet chose. In the interest of an adequate portrayal, we could 
wish that he had chosen more impressive episodes, and made the fact more 
clear, that Goody Cole, and Elizabeth Morse, and the winsome Wenham 
girl were not fair types of the accused, nor were their reputed crimes fit 
samples of the awful charges, which sent so many innocent victims to their 
death. 

Mr. ,\\ nittier's treatment of the Quaker persecution was called in 
question years ago. Dr. Geo. E. Ellis, the historian of the Puritans, in a 
public address, criticised "The King's Missive," as a prejudiced and partisan 
statement of the Quaker controversy. Mr. Whittier replied to his 
strictures, and maintained that the ''indecencies'' and other flagrant dis- 
orders of the Quakers, were the natural result of the cruel treatment they 
suffered at the hands of the Puritans. 

Whatever opinion may be held of the moral right of the Puritan Com- 
monwealth to pass such repressive edicts, there can be little question as 
to the legal right. The first law against that "cursed set of heretics." 
enacted in 1656, forbade any Captain to land them. The next year, it was 
ordered that any Quaker coming again into this jurisdiction, should have 
one of his ears cut off; for another offence he should lose the other^ear: 
and every Quaker woman should be severely whipped : for a third offence 
the tongue was to be bored through with a red hot iron. In 1661. whipping 
at the cart's tail was ordered, and branding. Finally sentence of death was 
passed upon any Quaker, returning to the Colony. 

The Quakers knew the penalties, but they defied the Law. They 



WHITTIER, THE POET, AS HISTORIAN 9 

courted the lash, and prison, and the gallows. Mr. Whittier begins "The 
Quaker of the Olden Time": 

"The Quaker of the olden time! 
How calm and firm and true! 
Unspotted by its wrong and crime, 
He walked the dark earth through." 

"Firm and true'' to his own conscience, no doubt he was, but not "calm." 
He was not a meek and patient sufferer. In Margaret Smith's Journal, the 
poet relates the extraordinary conduct of Margaret Brewster, who went 
into the church at Newbury during the public service of worship, bare- 
footed, clad only in a coarse canvas frock, her long hair hanging loose, 
sprinkled with ashes. Turning towards the four corners of the meeting- 
house she cried, "Woe to the persecutors! Woe to them, who for a pretence 
make long prayers ! Humble yourselves, for this is the day of the Lord's 
power, and I am sent as a sign among you !" He also relates the conduct 
of Lydia Wardwell of Hampton, who, with her husband, had been reduced 
to poverty by persecution. She w^as summoned by the church to appear 
and give reason for her non-attendance. She obeyed the call but came in 
naked or half clothed. Mr. Whittier's claim that these indecencies were 
justly traceable to the public w r hippings of Quakers, stripped to the waist, 
savors of a natural partisanship for his spiritual forbears. The Quaker 
often invaded the ''steeple-houses" and spake evil of dignitaries, and well 
attested specimens of Quaker rant show that he could hold his own in any 
contest of billinsgate and abuse. 

A well-balanced and fair judgment will recognize that neither Puritan 
nor Quaker can be held free from an excessive bias for his own con- 
viction of Truth and Right. It was natural enough for the Quaker poet 
to resent the injustice, as he views it, which the Quaker suffered, but it is 
not fair to the civil rulers and the clergy to dwell upon 

"That law, the wicked rulers against the 
poor have made, 

Who to their house of Rimmon and idol- 
priesthood bring, 

No bended knee of worship, nor gainful 
offering," 

or to continue the bitter strain, 

"And weep and howl, ye evil priests and 

mighty men of wrong, 
The Lord shall smite the proud, and lay 

his hand upon the strong, 
Woe to the wicked rulers in his avenging 

hour! 
Woe to the wolves who seek the flocks, 

to raven and devour." 



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THE MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 



The simple truth is that the Puritan was as quick and heroic in his 
obedience to conscience as the Quaker. He feared God and kept His 
commandments. He bound himself by stern laws. He hedged about the 
Sabbath day with requirements, grievous to the flesh. He guarded it- 
holy hours with excessive zeal. He could not abate the rigorof the law. 
though the good soldier, Jonathan Atherton, prayed for a remission of the 
penalty of a loss of a fortnight's pay, put upon him, because he had cut a 
piece out of an old hat on the Sabbath, to make an inner sole for his shoes. 
that galled his feet- and made it painful for him to walk, and emptied three 
•or four cartridges out of his bag, which had become worn with his march- 
ing, and had fallen to pieces.. Nor could he excuse the light-hearted girl 
who went to meeting with her gay-colored scarf, and brave show of ribbons, 
but summoned her to the bar of judgment. 

The times were stern, and the Puritan was the creature of his age. 
Quaker and Puritan have been asleep in their graves these many years. 
Milder counsels have larger place. We wish the Quaker poet had' been 
less eager to dig up the hatchet, and reopen the ancient conflict. 



^TT (^Massachusetts as Described by Capt. 
^"^ John Smith in 1614. 

"The countrie of Massachusetts, ... is the Paradise 
of all those parts: for, heere are many lies all 
planted with come ; groves, mulberries, salvage gar- 
dens, and good harbors : the coast is for the most 
part, high clayie sandie cliffs. The sea coast as 
you passe, shewes you all along large corne fields, 
' and great troupes of well proportioned people. . . . 
We found the people in those parts verie kinde ; but 
in their furie no lesse valiant. For, upon a quarrell 
wee had with one of them nee onely with three 
others crossed the harbor of Quonahasset to cer- 
taine rocks whereby wee must passe ; and there let 
flie their arrowes for our shot, till we were out of 
danger." 

From "A Description of New England," published in 1616. 






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WHITTIER'S BIRTHPLACE. 

By Alice May Douglass 



In Current Events Magazine. 



"At East Haverhill stands the birthplace and early home of the poet 
Whittier, and the house is now under the care of an association which 
keeps it open to the public the year round. The "farm" is easy of access, 
being on the trolley line, and is extremely beautiful in itself, apart from its 
associations. In fact, it seems an ideal spot set apart as the birthplace of 
a bard. 

"We pass in from the road by the broad footpath and pass reverently 
into the house. We enter from the little porch into the kitchen, made 
sacred by "Snowbound." The chief attraction of this room is the fireplace, 
before which the boy poet dreamed the dreams which later delighted the 
whole world. Here also are to be seen old candle-snuffers ; an old foot- 
stove; the bridal dishes of the poet's mother, a specimen of silver luster, 
{■% which ware is very old, and old knives. 

"Upon the wall, near the cupboard, hangs a catalogue of the pupils of 
Haverhill Academy, which bears the date of November, 1827. This was 
removed to the birthplace from the academy itself, where it had hung for 
many years upon the wall of the schoolroom. One of the names given in 
it is, "John Greenleaf Whittier, Haverhill. Lodgings A. W. Thayer." In 
this same catalogue is the name of Evelina M. Bray, the beautiful classmate 
with whom he fell in love, but who never became his wife. 

"From the kitchen we went a step or two into the mother's room, the 
place where the poet first opened his eyes a hundred years ago. Here we 
found the mother's bed, the linen spun and woven by her hands, an old- 
time bureau, and candlesticks and snuffers. 

"One other room is open to the public — the parlor, which also opens off 
the kitchen. It contains several interesting pictures, that of Franklin. 
a profile of the poet at the age of twenty-two, of his mother and sister. 
Elizabeth, and of Joshua Coffin, his teacher. Here was the family table 
between the two windows, a linen-chest, the pewter water-mug, and his 
beloved books. 

"One of the most interesting relics is the sampler of Lydia Ayre, the 
little girl who hated to spell the word and go above her less fortunate 
friend." 



12 



THE MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 



AVhittier was born in this house, December 17, 1807. His father was 
John Whittfer, a farmer, in moderate circumstances, to whom the house 
had descended from father, grandfather and great-grandfather. The great- 
grandfather was Thomas Whittier, who came from England, in the ship 
Confidence, in 1638, and built this home>about 1690. 

The homestead was generously bought by Hon. James H. Carlton and 
transferred to a self perpetuating board of nine trustees, headed by Alfred 
A. Ordway of Haverhill. This board has restored the buildings as nearly 
as may be in the same condition as when occupied by Whittier. By recent 
purchases new adjoining lands have been acquired, so that the homestead 
includes nearly all of the original farm. 

Mr. Whittier's niece contributed to the refurnishing of the house many 
of the household treasures that were carried to her home in 1836. 




The ^Massachusetts oMan. 

HERE is a passion for work in Massachusetts. From 
this her prosperity and her history are born. The real 
Massachusetts man likes to subdue the earth. He be- 
lieves God bade him subdue it. If he cannot do it in 
one way he does it in another. Wholly beneath all 
changes of charter or dynasty, quite irrespective of gov- 
ernment or of law is the passion to create something which did not exist 
before. The Massachusetts man does not do this simply because he is 
hungry or naked or cold. He does it because God sent him to do it. The 
motto of the State might be: ''Do all to the glory of God." If he cannot 
raise wheat he catches beaver. If he cannot catch beaver, he catches codfish 
and mackerel. If he cannot catch these, he builds ships and sells them; or 
he uses them himself, or he pursues whales over the world. If he may not 
go for fish and for whales, he goes for the enemy who forbids him. If the 
folly of his own government breaks up his commerce by sea, instead of that 
he begins a great system of manufacture by land. If the changes of com- 
merce put an end to the voyages by which he made himself at home in the 
Pacific, he builds one and another systems of railways to unite the two great 
oceans, and is recognized as the master of a commerce a hundred times 
larger than that in which he engaged before. 

It is this passion to control nature, existing among all her children who 
are true to the maternal instinct, that has made Massachusetts what she is. 

EDWARD EVERETT HALE. 



THE PATRIOT ARMY AT THE SEIGE OF BOSTON" 

One of the surprises which greets the newly interested student of the 
American Revolution, is the "state of preparedness'' which existed at the 
very beginning of open hostilities. Many people think as the British did at 
first, that the Colonials were little better than an armed mob. These 
preparations had been going on for years however, under the guidance of 
men who had done good service for the Crown in the French and Indian 
War. 

Many of the officers were veterans of Louisburg and the Crown Point 
expedition, and had learned to be good organizers as well as fighters. 
Furthermore, a strong militia organization had been maintained in the 
years following the earlier struggle, and the military spirit, natural to the 
race, had been fostered and developed. As a proof of the strength of the 
army and the ability of its officers as organizers, the following chart is sub- 



mitted. 



The original is now 



in the archives at the State House. 



Army 1775, 
1775, 



Boston 
July? 



His Excel- 
lency Geo. 
Washington 
Esq. Com- 
manding. 



Mai. Gen. 
Ward. 



Brig.Gen. 
Thomas. 



Brig.Gen. 
Spencer.* 



( G * 

Co 



Gen. Ward's 
Thomas's 
Fellow's 
Cotton's 
Danielson's 
D. Brewer's 
Leonard's 



Reg't 



Maj. Gen 
Lee.* 



Gen. 
Col. 



Col. 



Maj. Gen. 
Putnam.* 



Brig.Gen. 
Sullivan.* 



Brig.Gen. 
Greene.* 



Brig.Gen. 
Heath. 



Spencer's 
Parson's 
Learned 's 
Walker's 
Jas. Reed's 
Huntington' 

Stark's 

Poor's 

Reed's 

Nixon's 

Mansfield's 

Doolit tie's 



Col. Vernon's 

" Hitchcock's 

" Church's 

" Whitcomb's 

" Gardner's 

" Jona. Brewer's 

" Little's 

Gen. Heath's 
Col. Paterson's 
" Scammon's 
" Gerrish's 
" Phinnev's 
" Prescott's 

Gen. Putnam's 

Col. Glover's 
" Frye's 
" Bridge's 
" Woodbury's 
" Sergeant's 



:} 



N. H. 



R. I. 



R. Wing 

or 
1st. Div. 

Station- 
ed at 
Roxbury 
and it's 
southern 
dependen- 
cies. 



Posted 

on 
Winter 

HilL 



Posted 

on 

Prospect 

Hill. 



k at wdoubt between No. I k No- 2 



Wing 
or 
2nd 
Div. 



* From other state?. Coi. 
Joseph Read's and GoL 
Gridley's Regt's oniitteJ. 



[This is the first of a series of articles, giving the organization and history of all the Massachusetts 
regiments which took part in the war of the Revolution.] 

COLONEL JOHN GLOVER'S 
MARBLEHEAD REGIMENT 



By Frank A. Gardner, M. D, 



It is eminently proper that this series of articles upon the Massachusetts 
Regiments in the War of the American Revolution, should begin with an 
account of the Marblehead or "Marine" Regiment, commanded by Colonel 
John Glover. Few regiments in the entire Continental Army were in more 
important engagements, or rendered greater service. It has the added 
distinction of being one of the first to be organized. On the 10th of Jan- 
uary, 1775, a town meeting was held in Marblehead "to make provision to 
pay persons who may enlist as minute men, and take other suitable steps 
for perfecting the militia in the arts of war."* A committee was appointed, 

consisting of Gerry, Orne, Lee and others, and they reported as follows : 
"Whereas a proportionable part of the Inhabitants of this Town may soon 
be called forth to assist in defending the Charter and Constitution of the 
Province as well as the Rights & Liberties of all America ; and in Order 
thereto It is Necessary they should be properly Disciplined and Instructed 
in the Arts of War. And whereas for this purpose a greater proportion of 
time must be immediately spent by those who are first To take the field. 
than by such as shall Succeed & joyn them It is both just and reasonable 
that they shall be rewarded for their Extra Services." — [Marblehead 
town records.] Eight hundred pounds was granted, and Capt. 
James Mugford was appointed paymaster for the "detached Militia or 
Minute Men," with instructions to pay the money to those only who 
presented an order endorsed by a committee of the town. The committee 
consisted of Thomas Gerry, Richard Harris and Joshua Orne. They were 
instructed to allow compensation as follows : 2 shillings a day to a private, 
3 shillings to sergeants, clerks, drummers and fifers, 4 shillings to second 
lieutenants, 4 shillings. 8 pence, to first lieutenants and six shillings a day to 
captains. Service of four hours a day was required, but compensation was 
allowed for only three days in each w r eek. 

In February, a vessel came to Marblehead with a chest of arms, which 
was boarded by young patriots and the arms removed. These were 

* "The History and Traditions of Marblehead," by Samuel Roads, Jr., p. 123. 



COLONEL JOHN GLOVER'S REGIMENT 15 

probably used later in equipping the regiment. On the 26th of this month, 
the British soldiers, under Col. Leslie, landed and marched to Salem. 
Major John Pedrick hastened ahead of them to Salem and gave the alarm 
at the door of the North Church, where services were being held. He was 
soon joined by a party of men- from Marblehead. When Leslie's regiment 
returned to Marblehead, they were met by the Marblehead Regiment and 
without doubt blood would have been shed if the Salem encounter had 
been less peaceful. 

The boldness of the people of Marblehead at this time is well shown 
by the following notes found in a list of early events: "May 22nd Drums 
and Fifes go about town ; fishermen enlisting for Continental Army." At 
the same time the British ship Lively, 20 guns, was at anchor in the har- 
bor. She was replaced a few days later by the sloop of war Merlin, and 
under date of June 6th we read: "Arrived a schooner from West Indie- ; 
Glover's; he went off to meet her; the Merlin sent his barge, to order her 
to the ship, Glover refused, and so run her into Gerry's wharf; much people 
collected to see the fray." 

The regiment under Colonel Glover turned out on the 30th. of May. 
1775, an alarm having been given that the British soldiers were landing at 
the ferry. It proved however to be a false report. On June 10th., 1775. 
Col. Glover received orders from the Provincial Committee of Safety "to 
continue the Regiment under his command at Marblehead, until further 
orders ; and to hold them in readiness to march at a moment's warning to 
any post where he may be directed." At the same time, a report was made 
to the Congress by the committee on military affairs, that "Colonel Glover 
had levied ten companies, making in the whole four hundred and five men, 
inclusive of officers ; and about three-quarters of said number are armed 
with effective fire-locks, who are willing and chosen to serve in the army 
under him, all now at Marblehead." 

The Committee recommended that four men be commissioned Chief 
Colonels in the army and "that their field-officers, captains and subalterns 
be also commissioned as soon as the list of them can be settled." Colonel 
Glover was the first of the four colonels so named. On the 16th of June, 
he came before the Congress and was commissioned as commander of the 
Twenty-first Regiment. The regiment was to remain at Marblehead "until 
further orders" and therefore missed being at the battle of Bunker Hill. 
On the 21st. of June, Colonel Glover received orders to march, and on the 
22nd. they went to Cambridge and joined the Provincial Army, under 
General .Ward. Lossing tells us that the uniform "consisted of a blue 



16 THE MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 

round jacket and trousers, trimmed with leather buttons; and Colonel 
Glover was the most finely dressed officer of the army at Cam bridge." 
The drumsticks used when the march was made to Cambridge are 
preserved in the Essex Institute at Salem. 

The following list shows the officers of the regiment upon its arrival at 
Cambridge, June 22, 1775 : 

COLONEL, John Glover. 

LIEUTENANT COLONEL, John Gerry. 

MAJOR, Gabriel Johonnot. 

ADJUTANT, William Gibbs. 

CAPTAINS, William R. Lee, William Courtis, William Bacon, Thomas 
Grant, Joel Smith, Nicholson Broughton,William Blackler, John Merritt, 
John Selman and Francis Symonds. 

LIEUTENANTS, John Glover, Jr., Robert Harris, William Mills, 
William Bubier, John Bray, John Stacey, Nathaniel Clark, Joshua Prentice, 
Isaac Collyer and William Russell. 

ENSIGNS, Edward .Archbold, Thomas Courtis, Seward Lee, Ebenezer 
Graves, Joshua Orne, John Devereaux, Jr., Nathaniel Pearce, Robert 
Nimblett, Edward Holman and George Ligngrass. 

The regiment did excellent service at Cambridge, and its officers were 
honored with many appointments by the general officers. 

The fact that the organization contained so many seafaring men made 
it unique as a military body, and at this period, as well as several times 
later in its career, this circumstance greatly increased its utility. Colonel 
Glover early foresaw what might be accomplished on the water and upon 
suggesting plans to General Washington was authorized by him to hire 
and fit out vessels for the purpose of capturing, if possible, some of the 
British supply ships constantly arriving in Boston harbor. They went about 
this work promptly, as the following note published in the Marblehead Reg- 
ister of April 17th, 1830, will prove. A list is given in this paper of the early 
events of the Revolution : "August 24th. Company of Volunteers arrive 
from Cambridge for privateering. They are to go on board Colonel Glover's 
schr." On the 4th of October, Colonel Glover and Stephen Moylan. 
one of General Washington's aids and Muster Master General, took charge 
of this work and the regiment was stationed at Beverly for this purpose 
during the latter part of 1775 and until July 20, 1776. 

The schooner Hannah was hired for two months and Captain Broughton 
placed in command. He manned her with soldiers from this regiment and 
sailed from Beverly, Sept. 5, 1775. Two days later, after several adventures 



X. 






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i 



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-ay i -r , iyw5^^«Fi^^v^^^ j T ( ^^^ j g., ^r. 



" 



COLONEL JOHN GLOVER'S REGIMENT 17 

with British ships of war, he captured the British ship, Unity, laden with 
provisions and munitions of war. Washington recommended a suitable 
compensation for the captors. In October, he commanded the Lynch, 6 
guns, and went on a cruise in company with the Franklin, 4 guns, under 
Captain Selman. Broughton was made Commodore of the expedition. 
They sailed to the mouth of the St. Lawrence to endeavor to capture a 
transport, but did not find her. They captured ten other prizes, however, 
and took the Governor of St. John's Island and Judge Colbeck, prisoners 
of war. On their return, they were reprimanded for exceeding their 
authority, and the prisoners and vesseis were sent back, as it was the 
desire of General Washington to conciliate the people of the northern 
provinces. 

Col. Glover was also the leading agent in fitting out Captain Manley's 
vessel, and the crew was obtained from his regiment. On the 29th of 
November, Captain Manley, in the schooner Lee. captured the brig Xancy 
and sent her in to Gloucester. She was a vessel of 250 tons, bound for 
Boston with military stores, including, among other things, 2,000 stand of 
arms, 100,000 flints, 32 tons of lead, a large quantity of ammunition, a 
thirteen inch mortar and tools, utensils and machines. The Lee flew the 
pine tree flag and this was the first naval victory in which the British flag 
was striv <c to American colors. On Dec. 8, he captured two other vessels 
and took his prizes into Plymouth harbor. After leaving the harbor, he 
was chased into Scituate river by the British sloop of war, Falcon, and 
forced to run his vessel ashore. A desperate fight ensued, in which the 
British commander is said to have lost half his men, and was obliged to 
retire. Captain Manley got his vessel off afterwards and she was refitted 
for sea. He received a naval commission, Oct. 1775, and later com- 
manded the frigates, Hancock and Hague. He died in Boston in 1793. and 
was buried with honors. 

On Jan. 1st, 1776, when the army was reorganized, nearly all of the 
men of the Twenty-first Regiment re-enlisted for the war and formed the 
Fourteenth Continental Regiment. The officers of the new regiment were 
as follows : 

COLONEL, John Glover. 

LIEUTENANT COLONEL, Gabriel Johonnot. 

MAJOR, William R. Lee. 

1st. Company. Capt. W'm Courtis, Esq.; First Lieut., Edward Arch- 
hold ; Second Lieut., Thos. Courtis : Ensign, James Foster. 

2nd. Company. Captain, Thos. Grant, Esq. ; First Lieut., William 



18 THE MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 

Bubier; Second Lieut., Eben'r Graves; Ensign, John Allen. 

3d. Company. Captain, John Glover, Esq.; First Lieut., Joshua Orne ; 
Second Lieut., Marston Watson ; Ensign, William Hawks. 

4th. Company. Captain, Nathaniel Bond, Esq. ; First Lieut., Theophilus 
Munson ; Second Lieut., Seward Lee ; Ensign, Jeremiah Reed. 

5th. Company. Captain, Joseph Swasey, Esq. ; First Lieut., Robert Wil- 
liams ; Second Lieut., Thomas Fosdick; Ensign, Robert Wormsted. 

6th. Company.' Captain, Joseph Lee, Esq.; First Lieut., Nath'l Clark; 
Second Lieut., Joseph Stacey ; Ensign, Samuel Gatchell. 

7th. Company. Captain, Moses Brown, Esq. ; First Lieut., William 
Graves; Second Lieut., John Wallis; Ensign, John Clarke. 

8th. Company. Captain, Gilbert .Warner Speakman, Esq. ; First Lieut., 
Robert Nimblitt ; Second Lieut., William Jones; Ensign, John Brown. 

July 20th, 1776, Col. Glover's Regiment left Beverly on the march to 
New York, and arrived there, August 9th. It was assigned to General 
Sullivan's Brigade. On the 16th. of August, Captains Fosdick and Thomas, 
in command of two fire boats, endeavored to fire the British ships of war, 
'Phoenix and Rose, which were anchored up the Hudson, near Tarrytown. 
While they were only partially successful (a tender of one ship being 
burned), the ships retired down the river to the main fleet. 

The regiment was not engaged in the Battle of Long Island, August 27, 
being stationed at that time on New York Island, but their skill in handling 
boats enabled its members to perform a service of inestimable value in 
saving the defeated American army. At 5 o'clock on the morning of the 
28th, Col. Glover crossed to Long Island with his regiment and took 
position on the extreme American left, near Wallabout Bay. Later in the 
day, when Washington decided to evacuate, the Marblehead Regiment 
was called upon to man the vessels and rafts, which had been brought down 
through the Harlem from the North river. During the first part of the 
night, owing to an ebb tide and a strong northeast wind, the men worked 
with great difficulty, but later, the wind changed to the southwest, 
enabling them to use the sail boats. Fortunately, about 2 A. M., a heavy 
fog hung over the Long Island side and they were enabled to transport 
the whole army with all the field pieces, the best of the heavy ordnance and 
all the ammunition, provisions, cattle, horses etc. During the whole 
thirteen hours, the British were so near that the patriots could hear the 
sounds of their shovels and picks. As the fog lifted in the morning, they 
could be seen in the abandoned American breastworks, but the last oi 
the patriots were on the river and only one boat, containing three men, was 



COLONEL JOHN GLOVER'S REGIMENT 19 

forced to return. The British gained New York, indeed, but through the 
efficiency of this "Marine" regiment, they lost the greater prize, the 
patriot army. 

On the 4th of September, Col. Glover was placed in command of Gen. 
Clinton's brigade, and Major William R. Lee, also of this regiment, was 
made Brigade Major. When it became evident that the Americans could 
not hold New York against the British army and fleet, preparations were 
made for evacuation. Col. Glover's brigade was assigned to the duty of 
removing the sick and wounded, the arms and military stores. Between 
9 o'clock on the night of the 13th. and sunrise on the next day, all the sick, 
numbering 500, were transferred to the Jersey shore, and on the following 
day, all the baggage, except that of two regiments, was removed above 
Kingsbridge. The greater part of the heavy baggage was brought down 
to the banks of the river and sent across in boats. About nine o'clock on 
the night of the 14th, while Col. Glover was still engaged with the baggage, 
an alarm was given and he was ordered to march to Harlem to join Gen. 
McDougal. They marched next morning to Kingsbridge, and upon their 
arrival, having been warned that the enemy were landing in force at Kip's 
Bay, they marched back again, without food, and joined five other 
brigades on Harlem Plain, making 7000 men in all. They had transported 
the sick and marched twenty-three miles. The British landed in two 
divisions at Kip's Bay and Turtle Bay, under the protection of the guns of 
the British fleet lying in the Hudson. The Americans fell back and were 
in retreat, when they were met by Col. Glover's, and five other brigades. 
The united American forces then took a position on the neighboring 
heights and remained there. A large body of British appeared on the 
adjacent height, and many of. the troops wished to charge, but Gen. Wash- 
ington refused, owing to the large number of untried troops in his com- 
mand. 

The lull which followed, gave Gen. Putnam, the commander at New 
York, a chance to draw 3,500 men away from the town, who had been 
left, when Col. Glover was ordered away. Mrs. Murray, an ardent patriot, 
did good service in entertaining the British officers with cakes and wine. 
to prolong the delay. 

The next engagement of the 14th Continental and the other regiments 
composing the Glover brigade, was on Oct. 18th. Plans had been made 
by the British general to land a large force, march through Westchester 
and cut off the retreat of the Americans by Kingsbridge. Gen. Lee ad- 
vised the removal of the troops from the island and had despatched Col. 



20 THE MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 

Glover and his brigade to watch the Eastchester road on the above date. 
As the British advanced, they received three volleys from Glover's men. 
who, being outnumbered, fell back to Gen. Lee's lines. The British loss 
was large, and the Americans lost a few killed and about sixty wounded. 
By this skirmish, time was gained for the removal of the stores and the 
evacuation of the island. Col. Glover and his men were publicly thanked 
by General Washington and General Lee. 

Glover's brigade was then stationed at North Castle until the last of 
November, when they retreated across New Jersey to join Washington. 
On the 8th of December, Washington had only 1700 men, but in a few 
days, Lee's division of 3000, under Gen. Sullivan, joined him. The com- 
mander-in-chief then decided to recross the Delaware and engage the 
enemy at Trenton. The attack was made on the 25th. It was intensely 
cold and the swift flowing river was full of floating ice. The hardy sailor- 
soldiers of the Marblehead regiment were the first to volunteer, and to their 
strength and skill was due the safe transportation of the army. Captain 
William Blackler of the 14th had command of the boat in which Gen. 
Washington was rowed across. The landing was made nine miles above 
Trenton and completed about daybreak. The advance was then made in 
two divisions, while the storm increased and the cold grew more bitter. 
The surprise of the British was complete and the capture of 918 prisoners, 
with stores of ammunition, brought cheer to the patriots. The evacuation 
of New Jersey by the British soon followed. Col. Glover returned to 
Massachusetts a short time after the battle of Trenton. 

Jan. 1st, 1777, Maj. William R. Lee of this regiment, who had been 
acting as brigade major, Was promoted Colonel. As soon as he received 
his commission he returned to Massachusetts to recruit and reorganize his 
command. The new officers chosen were: Joseph Swasey, Major ; Joseph 
Stacey, Quartermaster; Joshua Orne, Captain of one of the companies: 
and the following Lieutenants: William Hawkes, Samuel Gatchell, 
Jeremiah Reed, John Clark and John Barker. In March, Col. Lee was 
recommended to the office of Adjutant General, but he declined and 
recommended Gen. Pickering, who was appointed. 

Col. Glover was appointed a Brigadier General by Congress in February, 
1777. He declined the honor, prompted alike by his modesty and his 
desire to provide support for his family. He yielded, however, to the 
solicitation of Gen. Washington, and rejoined the army at Peekskill on 
June 14th, under Gen. Putnam. 

(To be continued). 



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THE JOHN ADAMS HOMESTEAD 

In old Quincy two little red farmhouses stand close together, known as 
the "John Adams house" and the "John Quincy Adams house." Regarding 
this distinction there is much confusion, which may be removed by a few- 
words of explanation. One of these houses was the home of John Adams' 
father and John Adams was born there. Hence it is named "the John 
Adams house." John Adams himself occupied the other house and John 
Quincy Adams was born in this. The second house is called therefore "the 
John Quincy Adams house." The latter house is the subject of this sketch. 
The original farm, Henry Adams, the founder of the family in Amer- 
ica, who came to Braintree (now Quincy), about 1632, was obtained by 
grant as one of the first settlers. This second house was built by one of his 
descendants in 1716, and President John Adams came into possession of it 
in 1761, upon the death of his father. 

Until very recent years the house had been let as a tenement. Then it 
was thoroughly repaired by the Adamses and put under charge of the 
Quincy Historical society, which has fitted it up with antique furnishings 
and opened it to the public. 

Elbert Hubbard visited this house in the course of his "Journeys to the 
homes of American Statesmen," and describes the interior as follows : 
"Over the big flat stone at the entry **** you may enter now, all sunken 
and worn by generations of men gone. Some whose feet have pressed 
that door step we count as the salt of the earth, for their names are written 
large on history's page. Washington rode out there on horse back, and 
while his aide held his horse, he visited and drank mulled cider and ate 
doughnuts within. Hancock came often, and Otis, Samuel Adams, and 
Loring used to enter without plying the knocker **** The house has been 
raised from the ground, new sills placed under it, and while every part — 
scantling, rafter, joist, cross-beam, lath, and weather-board — of the original 
house has been retained, it has been put in such order that it is no longer 
going to ruin **** With a ripe knowledge and rare good taste, and restrain- 
ing imagination, the cottage is now shown to us as a colonial farmhouse of 
the year 1750 *** As you step across the doorsill and pass from the entry 
into the "living room" you pause and murmur "Excuse me." For there is 
a fire on the hearth, the teapot sings softly, and on the back of a chair 
hangs a sun-bonnet. And over there on the table is an open Bible, and 



22 THE MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 

on the open page is a pair of spectacles, and a red crumpled handkerchief. 
Yes, the folks are at home — they have just stepped into the next room- 
perhaps are eating dinner. And so you sit down in an old hickory chair, 
or the high settee that stands against the wall by the fireplace, and wait, 
expecting every moment that the kitchen door will creak on its wooden 
hinges, and Abigail [wife of John Adams], smiling and gentle, will enter to 
greet you. 

"John and Abigail were lovers their lifetime through. Their published 
letters show a oneness of thought and sentiment that, viewed across the 
years, moves us to tears to think that such as they should at last feebly 
totter, and then turn to dust. But here they came in the joyous spring- 
time of their lives ; upon this floor you tread the ways their feet have trod ; 
these w-alls have echoed to their singing voices, listened to their counsels, 
and seen love's caress. 

"In the kitchen are washtubs and butter ladles and bowls, and the 
lantern hanging by the chimney, with a dipped candle inside, has a care- 
fully scraped horn face. It is a lanthorn. In the cupboard across the 
corner are blue china and pewter spoons and steel knives, with just a little 
polished brass stuff sent from England. Down in the cellar, with its 
dirt walls, are apples, yellow pumpkins and potatoes — each in its proper 
place, for Abigail was a rare good housekeeper. Then there is a barrel of 
cider, with a hickory spigot and inviting gourd. All tells of economy, 
thrift, industry, and the cunning of woman's hands. 

"In the kitchen is a funny cradle, hooded, and cut out of a great pine 
log. The little mattress and the coverlet seem disturbed and you would 
declare the baby had just been lifted out, and you listen for its cry. The 
rocker is worn by the feet of mothers whose hands were busy with needles. 
or wheel as they rocked and sang. 

"Overhead hung ears of corn, bunches of dried catnip, pennyroyal, and 
boneset, and festooned across the corner, are strings of dried apples. 

"Then you go upstairs, w r ith conscience pricking a bit for thus visiting 
the house of honest folks when they are away, for you know how all good 
housewives dislike to have people prying about, especially in the upper 
chambers. 

"The room to the right was Abigail's own. You would know it was a 
woman's room. There is a faint odor of Lavender and thyme about it. and 
the white and blue draperies around the little mirror, and the little feminine 
nothings on the dresser, reveal the lady who would appear well before the 
man she loves. 



v%" 






THE JOHN ADAMS HOMESTEAD 



23 



'The bed is a high, draped, four poster, plain and solid, evidently made 
by a ship carpenter who had ambitions. The coverlet is light blue, and 
matches the draperies of windows, dresser, and mirror. On the pillow is a 
nightcap, in which even a homely woman would be beautiful. 

"On the door is a slippery-elm button, and within, hanging on wooden 
pegs, are dainty dresses ; stiff, curiously embroidered gowns they are, that 
came from across the sea, sent, perhaps, by John Adams when he went to 
France, and left Abigail here to farm and sew and weave and teach the 
children. 

"By the front window is a little, low desk, with a leaf that opens out for 
a writing-shelf. And here you see .quill pens, fresh nibbed, and ink in a 
curious well rnade from horn. Here it was that Abigail wrote those letters 
to her lover-husband when he attended those first and second Congresses 
in Philadelphia; and then when he was in France and England — those 
letters in which we see affection, loyalty, tales of babies with colic, brave 
political good sense, and all those foolish trifles that go to fill up love- 
letters, and, at the last, are their divine essence and charm. 

"Here she wrote the letter telling of going with their seven-year-old 
boy, John Quincy, to the Penn's Hill to watch the burning of Charlestown : 
and saw the flashing of cannons and rising smoke that marked the battle 
of Bunker Hill. Here she wrote to her husband when he was minister to 
England. 'This little cottage has more comfort and satisfaction for you 
than the courts of royalty/ " 



A LETTER FROM ABIGAIL ADAMS TO HER HUSBAND 

Braintree, May 24th, 1775. 
My Dearest Friend: 

Our house has been, upon this alarm, in the same scene of confusion that it 
was upon the former. Soldiers coming in for a lodging, for breakfast, for supper, 
for drink, etc. Sometimes refugees from Boston, tired and fatigued, seek an asylum 
for a day, a night, a week. You can hardly imagine how we live ; yet — 

"To the houseless child of want, 

Our doors are open still; 
And though our portions are but scant. 

We give them with good will." 

My best wishes attend you, both for your health and happiness, and that you 
may be directed into the wisest and best measures for our safety and the security 
of our posterity. I wish you were nearer to us : we know not what a day will bring 
forth, nor what distress one hour may throw us into. Hitherto I have been able to 
maintain a calmness and presence of mind, and hope I shall, let the exigency of the 
time be what it will. Adieu, breakfast calls 

Your affectionate PORTIA. 



ERRORS I N GEN EALOGIES 

CHENEY GENEALOGY ERRATA ET ADDENDA 

By Charles Henry Pope 

Page 31, third line, read third instead of "second" wife. 

P. 32, i, omit "and grandson of Isaac". Add to the paragraph : Ellen 
d. at Hingham Sept. 28 ? 1678. 

P. 45, 5. Thomas, in second line, add daughter of Henry Woodhouse 
(Woods, Woodis) of Concord. [See John Leigh of Agawam.] 

P. 66. Insert: Joseph Cheney was credited with having served two 
years in Col. Greenleaf's regt. previous to March 20, 1756. [Mass. Arch. 
94,132.] 

P". 79, No. 36, Oliver Cheney m. Nov. 22, 1744, Hannah, dau. of Thomas 
and Bethiah Hayward. of Bridgewater. [Gen. Adv. II, 3; Mitchell's Hist. 
Bridgewater.] 

P. 145, vii, Laura, Children : add (2) Henrv Estes Conant. 

P. 184, 4th line, change "June 28, 1852," to' Nov. 9, 1827. 

P. 230. 10, second line, change 1793 to 1693. After second paragraph 
add : John Cheney was one of the men in Capt. Thomas Noyes' company 
of the North Regt. of Essex co. appointed to keep snow-shoes in readiness 
for defence against Indians, March 30, 1709. [Mass. Arch. 71.498.] 

P. 234, No. 13, John ; add name of wife, Joanna Pike. 

P. 254, after No. 74, vii, add viii. David Carter (Chenev) b. at G. April 
2, 1754. _ 

P. 257, No. 33, Daniel. Enlisted April 10, 1755. in Capt. Pike's com- 
pany; was paid to Nov. 20, 1755, £10-14-3; time 32 weeks, 1 day; allowed 
for travel home from Albany to Newbury, 225 miles. 15 miles a day. £1-2-6: 
also, in Capt. Emerv's co., Col. John Greenleaf's regt., March 20. 1756. 
[Mass. Arch. 94,132.'] 

P. 258, vii, change "Mary" to Jemima. 

P. 274, under 11, iv. change "(3) (4) (5) d. in infancy" to (3) Jame- C. 
Wilmarth d. in infancy; (4) Henry N. Wilmarth, b. Jan. 25, 1836: in. May 
21, 1861, Marv J. Hawes ; (5) d. in infancv : (6) Thomas W, Wilmarth. b. 
Sept. 3, 1843 :' m. June 23, 1870, Julia Baftlett. 

P. 307, No. 342, vii, James Deering (Cheney) m. and had ch. Clarence 
J. Cheney, who m. Oct. 26, 1871, Sarah Maria, dau. of Franklin and 
Eliza (Rogers) Danforth, b. Jan. 1, 1847. Ch. : Margaret, Myrtice and 
Arthur Cheney. 

P. 495, iv, Jane Eaton (Cheney) m. George Robert Leslie, of Louis- 
ville, Ky. Ch. : Mary Coleman Leslie, m. Julian d'Este, of Cambridge. 
Eng. and Salem, Mass. 

P. 543. Charles Paine Chenev died at Colorado Springs, Colo., Feb. 3. 
1897. 

[Nearly every author of a genealogy that has been in print for eight or ten years, has accumulated 
quite a number of errata to which hit? attention has been called by different individuals of the family. In 
the nature of the case it is impossible that genealogies should not contain errors. The author or" the work 
usaally keeps a record of the>e. probably correcting them with a pen in one or more copies. But the 
other members of the family, and the public in jreneral, have no access to or knowledge of them. Believ- 
ing it to be no retlexion on the author, and of great value to have these errata known, we shall publish in 
each issue corrections to one genealogy, so far a? known.— The /Publishers." 












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THE OLD FAIRBANKS HOUSE AT 
DEDHAM, MASS. 



By Mrs. Lillie B. Titus 



In 1633 Jonathan Fairbanks, wife and v five children arrived in Boston 
on the ship "Speedwell" from Yorkshire, England. The children .vere 
three boys and two girls, named John, George, Jonathan, Jr., Mary and 
Susan." An oak frame for a house, all mortised, with bricks for a chimney, 
came in the same vessel. It is said the timber and bricks for the house 
lay nearly three years upon the ground at Boston, before Mr. Fairbanks 
could, decide where to locate, but there seems little reason to doubt, that 
there being no roads at that time, that they sailed up the beautiful Charles 
River, and, attracted by the resemblance of the country to the English 
parks, chose the site of the house on which to build their home in the new 
world. The place was. named "Contentment," which name it bore for 
many years before being changed to Dedham. 

The original Jonathan Fairbanks lived to a good old age, and died in 
1668; John being left in possession of the house. From John it descended 
to John's son, Joseph, and it has always been in the possession of his 
descendants, one of whom, Ebenezer, Jr., was one of the Minute men of 
1776, and a man of considerable note. The house finally descended to Miss 
Rebecca Fairbanks, who was obliged to sell it in 1897. It is a remarkable 
fact that in all these years, no mortgage or incumbrance of any kind had 
ever rested upon it, and it had never passed out of the possession of the 
original family. The construction of the house is most interesting. Built 
in 1636, ninety-six years before Washington was born, and but sixteen 
years after the landing of the Pilgrims at Plymouth, its quaint gables 
and picturesque architecture, as well as the magnificent elms surrounding 
it, mark it as one of the most delightful of the old landmarks of Xew 
England. There is reason to believe that the great chimney was built first. 
and the great oak frame placed about it, so as to brace and be braced by it. 
The main house is 272 years old, the east wing about 250 years old, and 
the west wing 150 years old, the length of the three buildings being 76 
feet. It has an excellent gambrel roof, and the sides and roof are moss- 
grown, showing extreme age. The writer well remembers, when there 
was an arrow sticking in the roof, which tradition said, was shot there 



26 THE MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 

by an Indian, but this has never been authenticated ; on the contrary, there 
are many traditions handed down that the Fairbanks family were ever 
noted for honesty, frugality and hospitality. It is probably true that the 
family were always friendly with, and often entertained the Indians, so 
that during the Indian wars in Massachusetts, the house was saved from 
destruction. 

The house, inside as well as out, remains very much as when originally 
built. Inside, the ceilings are low, with great beams of solid oak, black 
with age, with the great open fireplace; the heavy shelves which used to 
hold pans of milk; the old cheese-press, and many other curious articles. 

The -windows are interesting as some of them have the old lozenge- 
shaped glasses which originally came from England. 

In one of the chambers is the little wooden cradle, made of white oak, 
which has rocked many generations of the Fairbanks family. In 1897 finan- 
cial reverses came upon Miss Rebecca Fairbanks, and she was obliged to 
part with the house, as the mortgage which she had placed on it was 
about to be foreclosed. She appealed to the writer to try to save the old 
homestead, as it was feared the house would be demolished and the land 
laid out into house lots. Through the courtesy of the Editor of the Boston 
Transcript, the writer inserted a "Last appeal for the Fairbanks House," 
asking for the sum of $4500 to save the ancient dwelling from destruction. 
The paper went to press Saturday noon, April 3, and it is an interesting 
fact, and worth preserving, to show the patriotism of Massachusetts men 
and women, that before Monday noon, the sum of $5600 was freely 
donated; the whole amount needed to save the house and pay off the 
mortgage ($4500) being donated by Miss Martha C. Codman and her 
mother, the late Mrs. J. Amory Codman ; the writer being obliged to re- 
turn with grateful thanks, the sum of $1100 to the donors. With 
great generosity Mrs. Codman then offered Miss Rebecca Fairbanks, the 
use, "free of charge, for her lifetime/' of the home of her ancestors. 

But failing health soon obliged Miss Fairbanks to leave the house, and 
it has now passed into the possession of the Fairbanks Family Association, 
who come from far and near each summer to hold a reunion in the ancient 
dwelling, and in whose hands, the preservation of this historic land-mark 
is forever assured. 

Quincy, Mass., Feb. 3, 1908. 



- 




[A tablet was an veiled at Gloucester, August 15, 1007, ou which reference was made to the Cape Ann 
planters as the founders of the Massachusetts Bay Coldnv. The following paper It a review 
of the royal grants and charters in Massachusetts Bay with the particular object 

of emphasizing the claims of the Cape Ann men.] 

THE FOUNDERS OF THE MASSA- 
CHUSETTS BAY COLONY 

By Frank A. Gardner, M. D.* 



In 1622, there was published in England, "A Brief Relation of the Dis- 
covery and Plantation of New England." This was dedicated to Prince 
Charles, and under the heading, "The platform of the government, and 
divisions of the territories in general" it was stated that — "As there is no 
commonwealth that can stand without government, so the best govern- 
ments have ever had their beginnings from one supreme head, who hath 
disposed of the administration of justice, and execution of public affairs, 
either according to laws established, or by the advice, or consent of the most 
eminent, discreetest, and best able in that kind. And upon this general 
ground, the kings of these realms did first lay the foundations of their mon- 
archies ; reserving unto themselves the sovereign power of all (as fit it was) 
and dividing their kingdoms into counties, baronies, hundreds and the like; 
instituted their lieutenants, or officers, meet to govern these subdivisions. 
This foundation being so certain, there is no reason for us to vary from it, 
and therefor we have resolved to build our edifices upon it. So as we pur- 
pose to commit the management of our whole affairs there in general, unto 
a governor, to be assisted by the advice and counsel of so many of the 
patentees as shall be there resident, together with the officers of state. By 
this head, and these members, united together, the great affairs of the whole 
state is to be managed, according to their several authorities, given them 
from their superiours, the president and council established as aforesaid." 

"And for that all men by nature are best pleased to be their own carvers, 
or orders whereof themselves are authors; it is therefor resolved, that the 
general laws whereby that state is to be governed, shall be first framed and 
agreed upon by the general assembly of the states of those parts, both spir- 
itual and temporal." This whole territory was to be divided into "coun- 
ties, baronies, hundreds and the like, from all which deputies from every 
county, and barony, are to be sent in name and behalf of the subjects, under 
them to consult and agree upon the laws so to be framed, as also to reform 
any notable abuses committed in former proceedings." Counties were to be 
governed by a chief head, deputy and other officers. Further subdivisions 
into lordships, with courts etc., were made. 

A further statement is made, that: "There is no less care to be taken for 
the trade and public commerce of merchants, whose governments ought to 
be within themselves, in respect of the several occasions arising between 
them, the tradesmen, and other the mechanicks, with whom they have most 

' This paper, in slightly amended form, was read at a meeting of The Old Planters 
Society. 



28 THE MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 

to do." "By this you see our main drift is but to take care for the well 
ordering of the business, seeking by all means to avoid (what we ma)-; the 
intermeddling with any man's monies or disposing of any men's fortunes, 
save only our own, leaving to every particular undertaker the employment 
of their profits, out of their proper limits, and possessions, as shall seem best 
to themselves, or their officers, or ministers, whom they employ, and whom 
they may be bold to question, or displace, as to themselves shall seem most 
fitting.'' This scheme -met with the king's approval, and Captain John 
Smith, in his "Generall History" published in 1624, shows a map with New 
England divided among '•twenty patentees, that divided my map into 
twenty parts and cast lots for their share."* 

Thornton writes: "The council's transaction being thus ratified bv the 
crown, the several patentees of the territory of New England, became' each 
a lord protector of his portion, with an absolute title thereto, clothed with 
all the powers of government, originally in the king, and by him vested in 
them. Thus was derived the title and authority of Lord Sheffield in the ex- 
ercise of which he issued the charter for Cape Anne, under which the colony 
was founded in 1624, which is now expanded into the Commonwealth of 
Massachusetts." ** 

In 1623, Edward Winslow was sent by the Pilgrims at Plymouth to 
England, to report about the colony and procure supplies. In London, he 
conferred with Mr. Robert Cushman, who had been at Plymouth, and 
whom Gov. Bradford called the "right hand with their friends, the ad- 
ventures, and for diverce years had done & agitated all their business 
with them to their great advantage." *** Interest in the affairs of Xew 
England was aroused by these men, and among those, who were particularly 
attracted, were the Rev. John White of Dorchester, England, father of the 
Cape Ann Colony, and Lord Sheffield, already mentioned, a prominent 
member of the Council for New England. 

The charter, which the latter granted, was made on the "First day of 
January, Anno Dui 1623," by indenture "Betweene the right honorable 
Edmond Lord Sheffield, Knight of the Most Xoble Order of the Garter on 
thone part, And Robert Cushman and Edward Winslowe for themselves, 
and their Associates and Planters at Plymouth in New England in America 
on thother part." 

"Wytnesseth that the said Lord Sheffield ***** Hath Gyven ***** for 
the said Robert and Edward and their associates ******* a certaine Tract of 
Ground in New England ***** in a knowne place there commonly called 
Cape Anne, Together with the free use" of "the Bay of Cape Anne'' *** 
"and free liberty to ffish, fowle, etc." and trade in the lands thereabout, and 
in all other places in New England aforesaid "whereof the said Lord Shef- 
field is or hath byn possessed." *** "Together also with ffive hundred 

* The Landing at Cape Ann, 1624, Thornton. 

** The Landing at Cape Ann, 1624, Thornton, p. 16. 

*** History of Plymouth Plantation, p. 249. 



FOUNDERS OF THE MASSACHUSETTS BAY COLONY 29 

Acres of free Land adioyning to the said Bay" ****** "for the building of a 

Towne, Scholes, Churches, Hospitalls" etc. also ,4 Thirtv acrtrs of Land and 
besides" ***** "To be allotted" ***** "for every particular person"' 
***** "that shall come and dwell at the aforesaid Cape Anne within Seaven 
years next after the Date hereof." After seven years they were to pay a 
rental of 12 pence for every "Thirty acres soe to be obteynyd."* Edward 
YVinslow in a pamphlet issued in 1624, asks: "What may the planters ex- 
pect when once they are seated, and make the most of their salt there, and 
employ themselves at least eight months in fishing"? 

This presentation of the advantages of such a settlement resulted in the 
forming of the Dorchester Company with a capital of 3000 pounds, largely 
through the efforts of Rev. John White. He did not find it a difficult 
matter to convince the merchants of that section of the value of such a set- 
tlement. They had felt the need of it sorely in their previous fishing 
ventures, as the slow-going vessels had been late in arriving on the grounds 
in the spring, and had reached the markets of England and Spain too late in 
the season on their return to sell their fish to advantage. Consequently 
the idea of a colonv, where the fisherman might winter and get the earlv 
spring catch, appealed to them. The company sent over a band of men in 
the winter of 1623-1624, or the early spring of the latter year, who estab- 
lished a settlement at Stage Point, in what is now Gloucester. Capt. John 
Smith in his "General Historye," written in 1624, states, "There hath beene 
afishing this yeere upon the Coast, about 50 English ships : and by Cape 
Anne, there is a Plantation by the Dorchester men, which they hold of 
those of New Plimouth, who also by themselves have set vp a fishing 
worke." 

We thus have undoubted evidence that the Cape Ann planters settled 
there by right of the charter granted by Lord Sheffield to Winslow and 
Cushman. They immediately organized with Mr. Thomas Gardner, over- 
seer of the plantation, who thus was the first man in authority on the ter- 
ritory, which later became the colony of Massachusetts Bay. Mr. John 
Tilley had charge of the fisheries. The lack of fertility of the soil made the 
plantation unsuccessful and the following year, Roger Conant, having been 
recommended, was invited to come from Xantasket "for the management 
and government of all their affairs at Cape Ann." He was engaged by the 
officers of the company and informed "that they had chosen him to be their 
governor in that place." The validity of this title need not be discussed. 
The fact that it was used by the officers of the company, proves how he 
was regarded by them. It will also be recalled, that in the "Platform of the 
government," approved by the king, which was quoted in full, which con- 
stituted the rules for government, the management of the whole affair on 
this side the water, was to be committed to a "governor." 

Roger Conant soon found out the cause of the failure of the first year's 
work. Hubbard states that he "disliked the place as much as the ad- 

* Fac-simile of Charter in the Landing at Cape Ann, 1624, Thornton. 



30 THE MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 

venturers disliked the business; and therefore in the meanwhile had made 
some inquiry into a more commodious place near adjoining, on the other 
side of a creek, called Naumkeag, a little to the westward, where was much 
better encouragement as to the design of a plantation, than that which thev 
had attempted upon before, at Cape Anne." Mr. White wrote to Conant 
that if he would induce John Woodbury, John Balch and Peter Palfrey to 
stay with him, that he would procure a charter for him and send whatever 
he needed, "either men or provisions or goods wherewith to trade with the 
Indians." 

The courageous little colony, with Conant at its head, went to work at 
Salem, erected houses and tilled the soil, using the fish for a fertilizer. 
Conant had made his position more secure by conferring with the Indians 
and receiving from them "free leave to build and plant, where we had taken 
up their lands," quoting the words of Humphrey Woodbury in a deposition. 
He showed equal caution in choosing a location on the southern side of the 
Naumkeag River to avoid any complications which might arise in regard to 
the Mason claims. 

While they were struggling here, greater plans were developing in 
England, and in March, 1627, the Council, established at Plymouth, 
(England,) "for the planting, ruling, ordering and governing of Xew 
England" ***** "sold unto some knights and gentlemen about Dorchester. 
viz., Sir Henry Roswell, Sir John Young, Knights, Thomas Southcoat, 
John Humphrey, John Endicott and Simon Whetcomb, Gent.," that part of 
New T England, three miles north of the Mefrimack and three miles south 
of the Charles River in "the bottom of Massachusetts Bay."* The Council 
that sold the land had been incorporated the 3d. of Nov., 1620. under patent 
of King James. This is called by Young, in his Chronicles, "the great basis 
of future patents and plantations that divide the country." 

The men above mentioned united to form the "Company of the Massa- 
chusetts Bay." They chose Mr. Craddock for Governor in England and 
sent John Endicott to this country. He sailed from .Weymouth. June 30. 
1628, in the Ship Abigail and arrived at Salem, Sept. 6, 1628. In his first 
letter to the home government of the Company, dated Sept. 13, he stated 
that uniting his own men with those formerly planted in the country, into 
one body, they made up in all not much over 50 or 60 persons. Concerning 
the relations of the Endicott men and the planters. Richard Brackenbury. 
who came with Endicott, deposed that: "Having waited upon Mr. Endicott. 
when he attended the company of the Massachusetts Patentees when they 
kept their court in Cornewall street in London, I understand this company 
of London having bought out the right of the Dorchester merchants in Xew 
England, that Mr. Endicott had power to take possession of theire right in 
New England." 

A letter written Apr. 17, 1629, dated at Gravesend, informed Mr. Endi- 
cott that a government called "the Council of the Massachusetts Bay'' had 



* Hubbard's History of New England, p. 108. 



FOUNDERS OF THE MASSACHUSETTS BAY COLONY 31 

been authorized and formed, and that, "in prosecution of that good opinion" 
they had always had of him, they had "confirmed" him "Governor of" the 
"Plantation. " They wrote that they had joined in commission with him 
the three ministers, Messrs Higginson, Skelton and Bright, Mr. Thomas 
Graves and Mr. Samuel Sharp. Continuing their instructions, they wrote : 
"We have ordered that the body of the government there shall consist of 
thirteen persons, we are content the old planters that are now there within 
our Plantation and limits thereof, shall choose two of the discreetest and 
judicial men from amongst themselves to be of the government, that they 
may see we are not wanting to give them fitting respect, in that we would 
have their, consent (if it may be) in making wholesome constitution for 
government" ******** " an( ] that it may appear, as well to all the world, as 
to the old planters themselves, that we seek not to make them slaves, fas 
it seems by your letter some of them think themselves to be become by 
means of our Patent) we are content they shall be partakers of such priv- 
ileges as we, from his Majesty's especial grace, with great cost, favor of 
personages of note, and much labor, have obtained ; and that they shall be 
incorporated into the Society, and enjoy not only these lands which formerly 
they have named, but such further proportion as by advise and judgment 
of yourself, and the rest of the Council, shall be thought fit for them, or any 
of them. And besides, it is still our purpose that they should have some 
benefit by the common stock, as was by your first commission directed and 
appointed." 

It is evident that the patentees who sent Endicott, fully recognized the 
claims of priority of the old planters, and that those claims were so mcon- 
testible that they were very anxious in every way to placate the planters. 
even to the point of granting them privileges that were withheld from their 
. own men, such as the raising of tobacco. Endicott was fully as anxious to 
please them, and in making these efforts, he demonstrated without a doubt 
that HE KNEW PERFECTLY WELL WHOM HE CAME TO SUP- 
PLANT IN HIS EFFORT TO SET UP A STRONG GOVERNMENT. 
The settlers at Plymouth had their own government, and we have no 
records to prove that settled, orderly government had been established any- 
where else along this Massachusetts coast, than at Plymouth and Naum- 
keag. . Small parties had landed at other places, some of which had re- 
ceived grants, but no one has yet proved that any of these parties had 
established decent and orderly government, or made the slightest claim 
that any member of these parties had co-operated with Endicott in estab- 
lishing government in the extensive territory over which he was placed in 
control. We know from the above, however, that the old planters were 
not only recognized, but requested to name two members of the Council 
from their own number. 

Concerning the governmental authority exercised by Endicott, there 
can be no doubt. Hubbard mentions his laying some "foundation of religion 
as well as civil government." He also tells us that the news of the doings 
of Morton and his men at Merry Mount having been "brought to Mr. 



32 THE MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 

Endicott, the deputy governour of the Massachusetts, soon after his arrival. 
in the year 1628, he went to visit it, and made such reformation as his 
wisdom and zeal led him unto." Later he writes : "Upon a general com- 
plaint of all the inhabitants on either side, he was seized bv force, and sent 
over to the general council of New England." By ''this means Mr. Wol- 
laston's plantation came much to the same conclusion as Mr. Weston's. 
(at Wessagusset or Weymouth) so as the place now wholly deserted, fell 
into the hands of persons of another temper, by whom it is since improved 
to become the seat of an honest, thriving and sober township." This 
journeying of Endicott across the bay to Mount Wollaston, in 1628, showed 
the extent of his authority, confirming what has been stated before, that 
the southern boundary of the patent was three miles south of the Charles 
river. 

In 1629, the colony was greatly augmented by the arrival under the 
leadership of the Reverends Higginson and Skelton, of what Captain John 
Smith, writing in the same year, calls "a great company of people of good 
ranke, zeale, meanes, and quality," ***** "with six good ships in the 
moneths of April and May." These ships made quite a formidable fleet 
of armed vessels. He gives the following list of names and armament : "The 
George Bonaventure, of twenty pieces of Ordnance, the Talbot nineteene. 
the Lions-whelpe eight, the Mayflower fourteene, the Foure Sisters four- 
teene, the Pilgrim foure, with three hundred and fifty men, women, and 
children ; aibO an hundred and fifteene head of Cattell, as horse, mares, and 
neat beast : one and forty goats, some Conies, with all provision for house- 
hold, and apparell ; six peices of great Ordnance for a Fort, with Muskets, 
Pikes, Corslets, Drums, Colours, with all provisions necessary for a plan- 
tation, for the good of man." While we have reason to believe that Smith 
rather over-estimated the number of persons in this migration, his account 
of the various implements of warfare shows that the authority of the 
resident governor was to be vigorously supported. 

Rev. Francis Higginson in his "New England Plantation," written in 
September, 1629, stated that: "We brought with us about two hundred 
passengers and planters more ; which by common consent of the old 
planters, were all combined together into one body politic, under the 
same Governor." ****** "There are in all of us, both old and new planters. 
about three hundred, whereof two hundred of them are settled at 
Nahumkek, now called Salem." 

William Hubbard, who was born in 1621 and graduated from Harvard in 
1642, in his "General History of New England," observes: "Witness the 
industry and solicitousness of Mr. .White of Dorchester in England, that 
first contrived the carrying on a plantation of sober and religious men." 
***** "In the beginning of that plantation at Cape Anne, they had the 
ministry on Mr. Lyford. ****** After he went to Virginia they were with- 
out, till Mr. Higginson and Mr. Skelton came over." Showing here, as he 
does in several instances, his belief in the continuity of logical 
sequence of the settlements, he writes again: "In this place, (soon after by 
a minister that came with a company of honest planters) called Salem, from 



i 




FOUNDERS OF THE MASSACHUSETTS BAY COLONY 33 

that in Psal. LXXYI. 2, was laid the first foundation on which the next 
colonies were built." After mentioning the efforts of Wollaston at Mount 
Wollaston. Morton at Merry Mount, Weston at Wessagusset or Wey- 
mouth, and Thomson at Thomson's Island, he writes: "But the vanishing 

of all the foregoing attempts did but make way for the settling of the 
colony of the Massachusetts, and this was the occasion thereof." He then 
narrates the early efforts of the fishermen on the coast, the formation of the 
Dorchester Company, with the resulting establishment of the settlement at 
Cape Anne under the supervision of Gardner and Tilly, and the successive 
stages following, which have been noted. He narrates this in a chapter 
which he calls "The discovery and first planting of the Massachusetts." 
and after carrying the story along through the coming of Higginson and 
Skelton, he writes: "Who were the principal actors in laying the founda- 
tion of the Massachusetts colony, hath been declared already." All of this 
we receive from a man who was a contemporary of the leaders whom we 
have named. Gardner, Conant, Endicott and Winthrop, and a personal 
friend of many of the great men of the first eighty years of the colony. 
The book which he wrote was considered so valuable by the colonial 
authorities that the General Court. 11 Oct., 1682. granted fifty pounds to the 
author "as a manifestation of thankfulness" for the history, "he transcribing 
it fairly, that it may be more easily perused." 

The colony grew rapidly during the year 1629. In accordance with the 
instructions given to Gov. Endicott by the leaders of the company, the 
following were sent to what is now Charlestown : Ralph, Richard and 
William Sprague, John Meech. Simon Hoyte, Abraham Palmer, Nicholas 
Stowers, John Stickline, Mr. Graves and the minister, Mr. Bright. The 
name of the new town and the plan of the streets were both approve*.!' "by 
Mr. John Endicott, Governor." 

On the 8th of May, 1632, the session of the General Court, which has 
since been referred to as the "embryo parliament" was held in Boston. 
This was a notable occasion, as then for the first time, in addition to the 
Governor, Deputy Governor and assistants, two representatives from every 
plantation were chosen. The plantations thus named were : Watertown. 
Roxbury, Boston, Saugus, Newton, Charlestown. Salem and Dorchester. It 
is a notable fact that the two chosen from Salem were both Cape Ann 
Planters, namely, Mr. Roger Conant and Peter Palfrey. 

So far as is known, the names and biographies of these planters are as 
follows : 

WILLIAM ALLEN was born .about 1602, and came to Cape Ann with 
the -Dorchester Company's men in 1623 or '4. He went to Xaumkeag in 
1626 and lived in Salem until about 1640 when he removed to Jeffrey's 
Creek (Manchester). He was a selectman in 1645 and 1668. His occupation 
was that of carpenter. In the Salem records, he is described as "an in- 
fluential and enterprising citizen." The same may be justly said of many 
of his descendants in Salem and Manchester. Some of our leading mer- 



34 THE MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 

chants and master mariners have borne the name. He died on May 10 

1678. ' 

JOHN BALCH came from Somerset Co., England. He was born about 
1579 and came to New England with the Robert Gorges Company in 1623. 
After Gorges left he went in 1624 to Cape Ann, removing to Naumkeag in 
1626. He was one of the five overseers in 1635, and on Nov. 25th of the 
same year was one of .the five old planters, who received a grant of 200 
acres each at the head of Bass river. He lived in Beverly near the present 
Kittredge Crossing, where the house built by him in 1638 is still standing. 
This is the only original house of an old planter now in existence. He died 
in May, 1648. His descendants have been numerous and many of them 
prominent. 

ROGER CONANT was born at Budleigh, England, and baptized 9 Apr., 
1592. He came to Plymouth about 1622, and when Oldham and Lyford 
were expelled, he voluntarily left the colony and went to Xantasket. In 
1625, he was invited as we have already said, to take charge of the entire 
enterprise at Cape Ann, and through his leadership the colony was removed 
to Salem in 1626. He displayed remarkable ability in keeping the little 
band together through the two hard years until Endicott came in 1628, and 
wonderful tact and good judgment in pacifying the strenuous planters 
until a peaceful agreement was reached with the new comers. As we have 
stated, he was one of the two men, who first represented Salem in the 
"embryo parliament" at Boston, May 8th, 1632. He was a deputy to the 
general court in 1634 and 1637. On May 17 of the latter year, he was ap- 
pointed one of the magistrates of the "particular courts at Salem." He was 
one of the old planters who received a two hundred-acre grant at the head of 
Bass River. His house stood a short distance from the one erected by 
John Balch. In 1659, he headed a list of 41 petitioners, who asked that 
a church might be established on the Beverly side. He held many other 
offices of honor and trust in both Beverly and Salem, and died Nov. 19. 

1679. Few cities can appropriately look upon one man as distinctively the 
"father" as can Salem upon Roger Conant, and Salem's twin sister across 
the river, Beverly, can claim the same right. Roger Conant's descendants 
are numerous and able, and it is to their credit that they are about to erect 
a magnificent monument to his worthy memory. 

THOMAS GARDNER, the first overseer of the plantation at Cape Ann. 
was born about 1592. After the two years at Cape Ann, he removed with 
Conant and the others to Naumkeag in 1626. At a meeting of the London 
Company, July 28, 1629, he was mentioned as "one Mr. Gardner, an able 
and expert man in divers faccultyes." In a deed recorded 11-11-1635. we 
find the following five names appended: John Endicott. Roger Conant, 
Thomas Gardner, Jeffrey Massey and Edmund Batter. He was one of the 
original members of the First Church in Salem, a deputy to the General 
Court in 1637 and one of the "twelve men" of the town in the same year. 



* 



V 638873 

FOUNDERS OF THE MASSACHUSETTS BAY COLONY 35 

He held also many other offices. He died on the 29th of the 10th month. 
1674. Mr. George D. Phippen, in his valuable work, "The Old Planters of 
Salem," makes the following allusion to the Gardners: "This surname has 
been known and respected throughout the entire history of Salem, and 
descendants are still numerous in this, the primitive abode of their ances- 
tors." The district, which Thomas Gardner did so much to found is at pres- 
ent ably represented in Congress by a descendant in the tenth generation. 

THOMAS GRAY, as Phippen tells us, was "a very early settler. 
He purchased Nantasket of the Indian Sachem, Chikataubut. as early 
as 1622, where he was living with John Gray and Walter Knight, and 
to his succor and hospitality the persecuted Episcopalians of Plymouth 
fled. He would very naturally therefore accompany "Conant to Cape- 
Anne and Naumkeag, when the prospects were so flattering of the perma- 
nent establishment of Episcopacy." The same writer tells us that a 
Thomas Gray w r as at Marblehead as early as 1631 (at that time a part of 
Salem) and that his name is met with as of that place, until 1660 or later. 

WILLIAM JEFFREY or Jeffries was born at Chuddington Manor. 
County Sussex, England. He took his B. A. at Cambridge. 1606, and his 
M. A. four years later. He probably came over with the Robert Gorges 
party in 1623, and w r ent to Cape Ann with John Balch, when the Gorges 
settlement was broken up. We know that he moved from Cape Ann to 
Salem in 1626, as a letter, dated Apr. 21, 1629, was sent to him at Salem. 
While in Salem he resided at what is now Manchester, which was called 
at that time Jeffrey's creek. He evidently went back to Weymouth when 
a stable government was established there. He was a resident of Newport. 
R. I. in 1654, but the exact date of his removal we do not know. He died 
Jan. 2, 1675. His tombstone is still standing in the Newport cemetery. 

WALTER KNIGHT was one of the Episcopalians at Nantasket in 
1622, and removed to Cape Ann with Roger Conant. He was a carpenter 
and was probably employed in erecting the buildings there. Brackenbury. 
in his deposition, stated "that when he reached Salem in 1628 he found 
Knight already there and that he had been employed by the Dorchester 
merchants. He was living in Boston as late as 1653. 

RICHARD NORMAN was living at Salem when Endicott came in 
1628, Brackenbury mentioning "old Goodman Norman and his^ sonn." He 
moved to Marblehead where both he and his younger son, Richard, were 
living in 1650 and .'53. John, the elder son, went to Manchester, having 
received a grant there in 1637, and died there in 1672, aged about 60. 

PETER PALFREY was one of the planters who removed to Salem in 
1626. He received a grant of 200 acres at the head of Bass river. He. with 
Roger Conant, represented Salem in the first representative General Court. 
the "Embryo Parliament," May 8, 1632. In the Salem settlement, he lived 
on what is now Essex street, on the north side of the street, west of St. 
Peter Street. In 1652 he removed to Wakefield and lived near the present 



36 THE MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 

station of the Salem Branch railroad. He died in 1663. He was mentioned 
as a man ''much betrusted." Owing to a missing link in the genealogical 
chain, the Palfreys now living are unable to prove their descent from this 
worthy man. 

CAPTAIN WILLIAM TRASK probably came from Somersetshire. 
England. He evidently went to Holland in 1623. and probably held some 
sort of military commission there. The exact date of his arrival is not 
known. He was one of the original members of the First Church in Salem. 
a deputy to the General Court in 1635, 1636, 1637 and 1639. ancl Captain of a 
military company in 1634. He was one of the five who received a two- 
hundred-acre grant. He was a valuable man in the town and built several 
mills on the stream called Gardner's brook. He served as Captain in the 
Pequot war. Phippen called him "an energetic man, a brave soldier and 
reliable in case of an emergency. He was one of the first, if not the first 
military commander in Massachusetts; we can safely say of him, as has 
been said of Capt. Mason, what Standish was to the Plymouth Colony, and 
Captain Mason to Connecticut, Captain Trask was to the Massachusetts." 
He died in May, 1666. His descendants are well known. The late 
lamented William B. Trask. beloved by all who were fortunate enough to 
know him, was in the direct line of descent from the brave Captain. 

JOHN WOODBURY came from Somersetshire. He was one of the 
leading men of the little settlement and was sent back to England to 
procure supplies, returning in 1628, bringing his son, Humphrey, with him. 
He was one of the deputies to the General Court in 1635 an d was one of 
the five who received a 200-acre grant. Phippen states that "after a life of 
energy, and faithfulness to the interests of the Colony, he died in 1641." 
Both he and his son. Humphrey, were members of the First Church at 
Salem. Humphrey was later a deacon in the Beverly Church. The family 
has been a prominent one and many descendants are now living in various 
parts of the country. 

The conclusions of our study of the beginnings of the Massachusetts 
Bay Colony may be summarized as follows : 

L That this colony in 1630 was made up of several sets of men who 
came at various times during the preceding decade. 

2. That some of these men of each of the separate parties 
which came, and some who came independently, lived many years in the 
colony and became powerful in making the laws of this commonwealth. 

3." That of all these men who shared in the glory of laying this 
foundation, the individuals who were first connected with any orderly gov- 
ernment in the district which later became Massachusetts Bay Colony, 
were the Cape Ann men of 1623-4, who had Thomas Gardner at their head 
as overseer of the plantation until 1625, with John Tilley in charge of the 
fisheries. 

4. That the first man in charge of the entire enterprise there, was 
Roger Conant, who was variously styled, Governor, and Superintendent at 
Cape Ann, in 1625-6, and at Salem, 1626-28. 



FOUNDERS OF THE MASSACHUSETTS BAY COLONY 37 

5. That in 1628, Roger Conant was supplanted by John Endicott, who 
had been chosen by the "Company of the Massachusetts Bay," to take 
charge of affairs on this side of the water, the company sending him 
having "bought out the rights of the Dorchester Company" in England. 

6. That in 1629, John Endicott was informed, in a letter from the home 
company, written Apr. 17, that a government called "The Council of the 
Massachusetts Bay" had been authorized and formed and that he bar] 
been confirmed "Governor of the Plantation/' 

7. That John Endicott held his office until John Winthrop came in 
1630. 

We may claim therefore that the title given the Cape Ann Planters on 
the tablet erected on the site of their first settlement, which was dedicated 
in August, 1907, is an eminently just and appropriate one, and that the 
men, whose memory it perpetuates, were the "Founders of the Massachu- 
setts Bay Colony." 



WAR in some form or other had been, from the first, one of the usages. 
one of the habits of Colonial life. . . The consequence was that the 
steady, composed, and reflecting courage which belongs to all the 
English race, grew into a leading characteristic of New England; and a public 
sentiment was formed, pervading young and old and both sexes, which de- 
clared it lawful, necessary, and honorable to risk life and to shed blood for a 
great cause — for our family, for our fires, for our God, for our country, for 
our religion. In such a cause it declared that God himself commanded to the 
field. The courage of New England was the "courage of conscience." It 
did not rise to that insane and awful passion, the love of war for itself. It 
would not have hurried her sons to the Nile, or the foot of the Pyramids, or 
across the great raging sea of snows which rolled from Smolensk to Mos- 
cow, to set the stars of glory upon the glowing brow of ambition. But it 
was a courage which at Lexington, at Bunker Hill, at Bennington, and at 
Saratoga, had power to brace the spirit for the patriot fight, and gloriously 
roll back the tide of menaced war from their homes, the soil of their birth. 
the graves of their fathers, and the everlasting bills of their freedom. 

RUFUS CHOATE. 



SOME MASSACHUSETTS 
HISTORICAL WRITERS 

[Under this heading in each issue we shall give concise biographical sketches of town historiana, family 
genealogists, and writers on other historical subjects pertaining to Massachusetts.] 



SHELDON, GEORGE, farmer and 
author; born Deerfield, Mass., Nov. 30, 
1818; son of Seth Sheldon and Caroline 
(Stebbins) Sheldon; graduate of Deer- 
field Academy. Married first June 11, 
1844, to Susan S. Stearns, at Dummers- 
ton, Vt., and second Nov. 4, 1897, to 
Jennie M. Arms, at Boston, Mass.; 
three children; one son living, 60 years 
old. A "broad free thinker" in re- 
ligion. An "original Republican" in 
politics. Member of the Massachusetts 
Senate 1872 and. House of Representa- 
tives 1867; notary public; justice of the 
peace; U. S. census marshal; enumer- 
ator Massachusetts census; President 
Pocumtuck Valley Memorial Associa- 
tion for past 38 years; member Massa- 
chusetts Historical Society; Vice-Pres- 
ident Trustees of Public Reservations, 
Boston; member New England Histor- 
ical and Genealogical Society; honorary 
member Buffalo Historical Society and 
others; member of American Civic As- 
sociation and other kindred bodies. 

Historical Works: The Traditionary 
Story of the Attack on Hadley, Mass., 
Sept. 1, 1675, and the Alleged Ap- 
pearance of Gen. GofTe, the Regicide, 
1874; History of the Town of North- 
field, Mass., with Genealogies, by J. H. 
Temple and George Sheldon, 1875; The 
St. Regis Bell, Proc, Mass. Historical 
Society; Something Concerning Ticon- 
deroga, 1884; Forty years of Frontier 
Life in the Pocumtuck Valley, New 
England Magazine, Mar. 1886; Nar- 
rative of the Captivity of Stephen Wil- 
liams who was taken by French and 
Indians at Deerfield, Feb. 29, 1704, 
written by himself with an appendix by 
George Sheldon, 1889; The Pocumtuck 
Confederacy, Address at Springfield, 



1890, in Proc. Conn. Valley Historical 
Society; Negro Slavery in Deerfield, 
1893; History of Deerfield, Mass., with 
Genealogies, 1S96; The Little Brown 
House on the Albany Road, 1898; 'Tis 
Sixty years since. The Passing of the 
Stall-fed Ox and the Farm Boy, 1898; 
New Tracks in an Old Trail, 1809; 
Flintlock or Matchlock in King Phil- 
ip's War? 1899; The Flintlock used 
in Philip's War, 1900, and Capt. 
Wheeler's Surprise-Cul-de-Sac. 1901, in 
Proc. Worcester Society Antiquity; 





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The Journal of Captain Nathaniel 
Dwight and its Leadings. 1903: John 
Edwards Russell, 1905: Capt. William 
Turner, 1905; Whalley and Goffe in New 
England, 1660-1680, (introduction to 
the new edition of Judd's History of 
Hadley), 1905: Lucius Manlius Bolt- 
wood, 1905; Half Century at the Bay. 
1636-1686. Heredity and Early En- 
vironment of John Williams, the "Re- 
deemed Captive." 1905: The Conference 
at Deerfield, Mass., Aug. 27-31, 1735. 



MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL .WRITERS 



39 



between Gov. Belcher and Several 
Tribes of Western Indians, in N. E. 
Historical and Gen. Register, 1906; 
editor of the Proceedings of the Pocum- 
tuck Valley Memorial Association, 
Vols. I-IV, 1870-1904. 

The History of Xorthfield is a book 
of 636 pages, with two full page steel 
engravings and eleven wood engravings. 
It covers the history of the town from 
about 1670 to 1873. 335 pages are de- 
voted to the following chapters: In- 
troduction; the river Indians; first visit 
of the English to Squakheag; re-set- 
tlement of Squakheag, 1085-90; perma- 
nent settlement of Xorthfield, 1714-23; 
Father Rasle's War, 1723-26; interval of 
peace, 1726-44; the old French and In- 
dian war, 1744-1748; the last French and 
Indian war, 1754-63; matters of interest, 
1763-73; war of the revolution. Pages 
336 to 369 contain "Abridged Annals" 
of the town, followed by 13 pages of 
"Doolittle's Narrative," the "Family 
Genealogies" of the town are given in 
the next 192 pages. On pages 575-92 
are printed a list of tombstone in- 
scriptions from the "old cemetery." 
There is an index of 34 pages, and a 
list of 361 subscribers to the work. 
Published in 1875. Now (1908) out of 
print, and selling at a premium of $20. 

The History of Deerfield is a two- 
volume work of 1401 pages. The title 
reads "1636-Pocumtuck-1886; a history 
of Deerfield Mass.; the times when and 
the people by whom it was settled, un- 
settled and resettled; with a special 
study of the Indian Wars in the Con- 
necticut Valley; with genealogies." 924 
pages are devoted to the historical 
chapters: Dedham grant and Indian 
deeds; topography, local names; grave- 
yards; first settlement: The Pocumtuck 
Indians; Pocumtucks as subjects of 
Massachusetts; Philip's war; attempted 
settlement of 1677; permanent settle- 
ment; King William's war; common 
held fences, stock, mills, roads, schools, 
rates, houses; Queen Anne's war, 1702- 
13; interval of unquiet peace; Father 
Rasle's war; Mr. Williams and the 
meeting house of 1729; the proprietors 
of Pocumtuck, grant of 1712, town lines, 
Conway and Shelburne laid out; land 
grants, Fort Dummer, Corse's journal, 
Indian conference, the last Indian; 
the old French war; Raimbault or 



Simblin — the plain facts of a romantic 
story. Hawks journal, Melvin scout, 
Hobb's fight, Taylor's surprise, Aaron 
Belden killed, list of soldiers; municipal 
and judicial affairs 1714-74; homesteads 
on the Old Street; the last French war; 
the revolutionary period; close of the 
war, hard times, Ely insurrection; 
Shay's rebellion, specie taxes, coun- 
terfeiting, small pox; ministerial and 
municipal; political, war of 1812, anti- 
Masonry, anti-slavery; libraries, liter- 
ature; schools, Deerfield Academy, 
Pocumtuck Valley memorial Associa- 
tion; civil list for 200 years 1686-1885; 
the great rebellion, soldiers monument; 
commissioned military officers 1686- 
1886, the Franklin cadets, old cannon, 
agricultural societies, fire engine, bury- 
ing yards; bells, charities, negro slavery, 
cheapside. 407 pages are devoted to 
the "Family Genealogies," 35 pages to 
an historical index, and 33 pages to a 
genealogical index. In the Table of 
Contents under chapter headings is 
given a synopsis of each chapter. Re- 
vised edition published in 1896. 

Other literary work: Newly Exposed 
Geologic Features within the old "S000 
Acre Grant," by George Sheldon and 
J. M. Arms Sheldon, 1903. 

Address, Deerfield, Mass. 



BALLARD, HARLAN HOGE, libra- 
rian; born Athens, O., May 26, 1853; 
son of Addison Ballard, D. D., and 
Julia Perkins (Pratt) Ballard; graduated 
at Williams with degree of A. B. in 
1874. Married Aug. 20, 1879, Lucy 
Bishop Pike, at Lenox, Mass., and has 
three children, the oldest 25. Inde- 
pendent in religion, though nominally 
Congregationalist. Republican in pol- 
itics. Librarian Berkshire Athenaeum 
since 1888. Principal of Lenox 
Academy 12 years. Inventor and man- 
ufacturer of the "Klip" binder. Founder 
of Agassiz Association, and its president 
from 1875 to 1907; Fellow of American 
Association Advancement of Science: 
Secretary and Treasurer of the Berk- 
shire Historical and Scientific Society: 
vice-president Massachusetts Library 



40 



THE MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 



Association; Past Master Crescent 
Lodge F. & A. M.; Past Master Onota 
Lodge of Perfection; Past Regent Royal 
Arcanum. Onota Council. 

Historical Works; History of Lenox, 
Mass., in Smith's History Berkshire Co.; 
Life of Amos Eaton in Collection of 
Berkshire Historical Society; Parson 
Allen's Shorthand; Greylock, in New 
England Magazine. 



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Harlan IT. Ballard 



Other literary works: Translation of 
Virgil's Aeneid; Three Kingdoms; 
World of Matter; Open Sesame; Re- 
open Sesame. Joint Author: American 
Plant Book: Barnes Readers; One 
Thousand Blunders in English. 

Other subjects interested in: Natural 
science, particularly botany; philosophy: 
lecturer on Socrates, etc. 

Address: 247 South St., Pittsrield, 
Mass. 



ABBOTT, CHARLOTTE HELEN, 
genealogist; born Andover. Mass., July 
13, 1844; daughter of Henry Russell Ab- 
bott and Lydia Liscombe. Educated in 
common schools. Religious affiliations. 
New Church Society, Boston. 

Historical Works: Miscellaneous 

contributions to local paper; constant 
contributor to answers and queries in 
Genealogical columns of Boston Tran- 
script; series of papers in Andover 
Townsman, entitled "Historical 



Sketches," from Oct. 1895 to 'late. 
Address: Andover, Mass. 

POPE, CHARLES HENRY, geneal- 
ogist and publisher; born Machias, Me., 
Oct. 18, 1841: son of Hon. James Pope 
and Eunice (Thaxter) Pope: gradu- 
ated at Bowdoin College. ISfi-j, and 
Bangor Theological Seminary, 1865 
Married first, July 31, 1s0.j. Elizabeth 
Leach Bates: second. May 7. 1903, Alice 
Elizabeth Pope, and has one son by 
first wife, Niran Bate^ Pope. Congre- 
gational in religion. Ordained as min- 
ister July 27, 1865, and tilled pulpits in 
California, Maine and Massachusetts, 
until resignation from First Church of 
Charlestown in 1901; volunteer 

Christian worker in army of the Cum- 
berland, 1803: trustee Pacific Theolog- 
ical Seminary, Oakland. Cal.. 18fo-7 7: 
principal Young Ladies' Seminary. 
Benicia, Cal.. 1871-74: member of New 
England Historic Genealogical Societv. 











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Rev. Charles H. Tope 







Historical works: Dorchester Pope 
family, 1888; Cheney genealogy. lS l .-7: 
Tobey genealogy. 1905; Mernam 
genealogy, 1000: Pioneers of Massachu- 
setts. 1900; editor of the Elwell family 
in America, and the Ware and Dan- 
forth genealogies: Hooper genealogy 
now in press. 



MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL WRITERS 



41 



Other literary works: Solar Heat, 
Its Practical Applications: The Gospels 
Combined, The Life of Jesus as told by 
the Evangelists in one continuous nar- 
rative. 

The Pioneers of Massachusetts is a 
descriptive index or directory to the 
settlers and their children in Massachu- 
setts who came between 1(>20 and 1(550. 
The preface defines its scope as fol- 
lows: "It narrows the held to the 
single state of Massachusetts as 
bounded today; restricts the genealogy 
to the first settlers and their children 
only, and confines the study still 
further to those persons who came 
early enough to be foundation layers, 
first fellers of the primeval forests, first 
ploughers of the virgin soil, first 
makers of homes in the new country, 
first worshippers in the log meeting 
houses, first freemen and officers in the 
plantations and colonies. All who 

came after the year 1650 found Massa- 
chusetts a reality, a single state, al- 
though under two fraternal colonial 
governments; all who came before that 
date helped essentially to make it.'' 

The list of names was obtained from 
original documents in colonial, town, 
church, count}- and court records, pas- 
senger lists, and other sources in both 
England and America. With each 

name is given a brief extract of what 
is shown by the records in regard to 
former home, kindred, social position, 
occupation, marriages, children, will, etc. 
The book is a large quarto volume of 
520 pages. It has become a standard 
work of reference in genealogical re- 
search work. 

Residence, 27 Highland Ave.. Cam- 
bridge; office, 221 Columbus Ave.. Bos- 
ton, Ma<;s. 



THOMPSON, FRANCIS McGEE, 
Judge of Probate since 1899; born in 
Colrain, Mass., Oct. 16, 1833; son of 
John and Elvira (Adams) Thompson; 
attended Science Hill Select School and 
Williston Seminary. Married Oct. 25. 
1865, Mary Xims, at Greenfield, Mass., 
•tnd has one son, Francis Xims, aged 35. 
Attends Congregational church. Re- 
publican in politics; formerly employed 



in banking in the west; in trade and 
mining in Montana in 1863-3-4-5; mem- 
ber of first legislature of Montana; re- 
turned to Greenfield in 1805; served the 
public in the various town offices four- 
teen years; register of probate 28 years 
prior to 1899; now interested in the 
work of the Greenfield Library Associa- 
tion and Franklin County Public Hos- 
pital, being vice president of each; 
member of American Historical Asso- 
ciation, Xew England Historical and 
Genealogical Society, Montana Histor- 
ical Society, Pocumtuck Valley 
Memorial Association, and Historical 
Society of Greenfield. 

Historical Works: History of Green- 
field, recollections as a pioneer in Mon- 
tana (now in manuscript), papers pub- 
lished in Proceedings of Pocumtuck 



^^"' : ~~~ 




Judge Francis M. Thompson 



Valley Memorial Association; "Green- 
field and its First Meeting House," 
"The Dorrellites," "Address at Dedica- 
tion of Eunice Williams Monument." 
"Response to address of Welcome at 
Gill centennial," "Presentation of Por- 
traits of James S. Grinnell. and of Col. 
Horatio Hawks," "Reply to address of 
Welcome, at Colrain, Sept. 8, 1893," 
"Messengers of War and Messengers of 



42 



THE MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 



Peace," "Sketch of Captain Agrippa 
Wells," "Speaking for the Ladies at Old 
Deerfield Home Week, 1901," "Peter 
and John Schuyler and Massachusetts 
Colony." Also Address at Colrain Old 
Home Week Meeting, in 1904, address 1 
"New Hampshire Grants and the Con- 
necticut Equivalent Land-s" before the 
Connecticut Valley Historical Society, 
at Springfield in 1907. 

The History of Greenfield is in two 
volumes of 1340 pages, and relates the 
history of the town from the first set- 
tlements, in 16S2, to the year 1900. The 
volumes are divided into 75 chapters, 
and in the "Table of Contents" is given 
a synopsis of the contents of each chap- 
ter. The following list of chapter head- 
ings give the arrangement of the nar- 
rative: Early settlements on the Con- 
necticut River; Dedham and the Pocum- 
tuck grant; the Pocumtuck and other 
valley Indians; the Pocumtucks; the 
alarm at Hadley; the fight at Pesk- 
eompscut; attack on Hatfield; Andros 
and the Colonies; town legislation; 
Queen Anne's War; destruction of 
Deerfield, and redemption of the cap- 
tives; mill and land grants; Father 
Rasle's War; Indian conference at 
Deerfield; the old French and Indian 
Wars; Greenfield set off from Deerfield; 
rivers and streams; town affairs; the 
last French war; town affairs; pre-rev- 
olutionary period; the revolutionary 
war; annexation of Cheapside; the 
Shay's rebellion; town legislation; items 
from town records and other sources; 
the war of 1312; town records and town 
gossip; the war of the rebellion; daily 
events; town records; the war with 
Spain; the early settlers of Greenfield; 
ecclesiastical affairs; Cheapside; boating 
on the Connecticut; Burnham's rock; 
the old meeting house; newspapers in 
Greenfield; roads and bridges; schools; 
private schools; Greenfield libraries, 
fires in Greenfield; old time mills and 
manufactories; where people lived; 
burying grounds and cemeteries; mar- 
riages; Rev. Roger Newton's diary; 
deaths in Greenfield recorded by Rev. 
Roger Newton; observance of Wash- 
ington's death; Greenfield taverns; 



physicians of Greenfield; the civil list; 
members of Franklin county bar; min- 
isters who were natives of Greenfield; 
sketches of former citizens; Greenfield 
military officers, since 1800; soldiers of 
the revolution; men of note; old homes 
and homesteads; fossil footprints in the 
new red sandstone; Greenfield village 
in 1801; curious and interesting everts; 
the Deerfield cannon; miscellaneous; 
the village street; old home week as- 
sociation; Major Alvord's address; rem- 
iniscences" by John E. Russell and Sam- 
uel O. Lamb; Sesquicentennial celebra- 
tion in 1903; Henry Cabot Lodge's 
address; sesquicentenial continued; let- 
ter from Judge Chas. Allen; letter from 
John E. Russell; recollections of Mary 
P. Wells Smith. There is an index oi 
103 pages at the end of the second vol- 
ume. Published by the town in 1903. 



KAYNES, GEORGE HENRY, pro- 
fessor of history. Sturbridge, Mass., 
March 20, 1866; son of Henry Dunton 
Haynes and Eliza Marshall (Carter) 
Haynes; educated in public schools, 
Hitchcock Free Academy, graduated 
Amherst College (A. B.) 1837, and Johns 
Hopkins University (Ph. D.) 1893; mar- 
ried Nov. 4, 1903, Annie Bliss Chapman, 
at Saybrook, Conn. Professor of His- 
tory at the Worcester Polytechnic In- 
stitute. 

Historical works: Representation 
and Suffrage in Massachusetts, 1620- 
1691; The Tale of Tantiusques; A Chap- 
ter from the Local History of Know- 
Nothingism; Causes of Know-Nothing 
Success in Massachusetts: The At- 
tempted Suicide of a Massachusetts 
Town; Massachusetts Public Opinion 
Bills. 

Other literary works: Representation 
in State' Legislatures^: Educational Qual- 
ifications for the Suffrage; Popular con- 
trol of Senatorial Elections; The Edu- 
cation of Voters; The Election of Sen- 
ators. A biography of Charles Sumner 
in preparation for the American Crisis 
series of biographies. ^ 

Address, 55 Wachusett St., Worcester, 
Mass. 



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THE MANNING HOMESTEAD 



By William H. Manning 



Among the older residences in Massachusetts, the Manning house, a 
short distance from North Billerica village, has a clear k and somewhat 
unique history. Erected in 1696 by Samuel Manning, ^representative in 
the third generation of an early family of Middlesex County, it has never 
been wholly alienated from his descendants. For one hundred and seventy- 
five years it was continuously occupied by successive generations :, then, by 
the will of a deceased owner, it was placed in the care of trustees who were 
to lease it and apply the revenue to "public worship and religious 
instruction" in the school district in which it was situated, but, a few years 
since, it was acquired through purchase by the Manning Association, a 
family fraternity, w r ho hold it, in part, as a place for reunions. 

Its history is interesting. In the days of Indian forays it was a "gar- 
rison" house, the appointed refuge for certain officially-selected families 
when danger impended. In 1752 its owner was licensed as an innholder, 
and, though not in a residential center and still retained as a home, being a 
typical "wayside inn," it was long known as "the Manning tavern." The 
account books of these days are still preserved. Near the house is a small 
excavation on which formerly stood a building in which, during the Rev- 
olutionary war, saltpeter was made for one of the component parts of 
gunpowder to be used by the patriot troops. The accompanying illus- 
tration is from a picture taken about 1895, at which time the house was in 
a dilapidated condition, but it has since been thoroughly repaired, though 
not modernized, and now, in its general plan, and especially with its great 
chimney and beams, it is a good example of well-preserved Colonial 
architecture. 



(Smtin^m $c CJommntt 



on %>m&$ Jn& ®tljec jSiibject^ 



The Printing of Records. 
To £/ie Massachusetts Magazine: 

Massachusetts, the chosen home of 
the Mayflower Pilgrims and of the 
quickly-following Puritans, is rich in its 
ancient records. They are the memo- 
rials of the Colony and the Common- 
wealth, the story of its celebrated men 
and of the common people, the source 
from whence the historian must draw 
his material facts. But they remain al- 
most wholly in manuscript, their classi- 
fication is unsatisfactory, and they are 
scattered in various places of deposit. 
An investigator can never be sure he 
has found all that relates to a given 
subject. The little that has been 
printed has been received with great 
satisfaction, and there is wide-spread 
desire for further publications that shall 
place the facts relating to the birth and 
growth of the Commonwealth in ac- 
cessible form. 

Naturally, the State Archives rank 
first in importance, but each of the older 
counties has its treasure-house. Ab- 
stracts of court records are urgently 
needed, for the expert knows that they 
are far more than relics of prosecution 
and litigation. It has been well said 
that almost anything and everything 
may be found there, including town and 
individual petitions that describe events 
of which there is no other mention, and 
all of which appeal keenly to the histor- 
ian. Suffolk County has set a com- 
mendible example by printing a few of 
the earlier volumes of its deeds, and 
each of the other counties may well un- 
dertake a-similar work. Abstracts of Pro- 



bate records would be received gratefully. 
All these materials are needed by the 
student of the early life of the Colony. 
Filed as they are, they are accessible 
only through wearisome labor, and 
when each investigator has completed 
his work the curtain of obscurity falls 
again, necessitating the same individual 
labor by the next investigator. General 
inaccessibility aside, the danger of lo^s 
through accident is always to be con- 
sidered, for the invulnerability .of "fire- 
proof" buildings is only comparative. 

Nearly all town records are highly 
important, and. if printed, would be 
widely used. As to these, if each town 
will have a copy made of its Vital 
Records before 1850, the recent "Eddy 
Fund" makes it possible to have the 
printing done without expense. Many 
towns are either indifferent or pro- 
crastinating. It has been suggested 
that a law should be passed making it 
compulsory for each town to furnish a 
copy and deposit the same with the 
Secretary of the Commonwealth. 

Records are needed by historians and 
others, not in semi-inaccessibility but in 
such form that they can be readily ex- 
amined; and the need is not confined to 
those now dwelling in the State. 
Massachusetts has been the generous 
mother of all the newer States, and its 
absent sons and the children of its sons 
wish to share in its chronicles. All 
records cannot be simultaneously pub- 
lished, but it is urged that printing^ be 
begun in all quarters and carried for- 
ward as rapidly as is feasible. 

W. H. M. 



Old New England Inns. 
One by one, the old New England 
institutions have disappeared. The 
Academy was the crowning glory of 
many a town and village, but the common 
school affords cheaper and better 



CRITICISM AND COMMENT 



45 



education, and the academy has ceased 
to be. The Lyceum was an admirable 
agency for the promotion of culture, 
and its annual course of lectures by 
men like Emerson, Wendell Phillips 
and Agassiz, was a great literary event 
in many a hill-town, but the cheapness 
and multiplicity of newspapers and 
magazines, and the facility of travel to 
large cities for recreation and amuse- 
ment, have proved its ruin. 

The stage-coach was the only means 
of travel, and it seems a romantic and 
delightful conveyance, to those who 
think only of the tally-ho, loaded with 
its laughing company, thundering along 
the summer roads. But the old stage- 
coach, as a necessary means of journey- 
ing, in winter, as well as summer, with 
its primitive appointments, was a grim 
and hard necessity. The advent of the 
railroad marked a new era of quick- 
ness and luxury in travel, and the coach, 
and with it, the wayside inn, the most 
romantic perhaps, of all the institutions 
of the poet, soon passed away. 

Only the oldest folk remember actual 
journeys by stage, stopping for meals 
and for bed at the country hostelries. 
So it becomes a most acceptable service, 
which Miss Crawford has done, in her 
bright and cheery story of the old 
houses. The photographs of the old 
inns are plentiful and pleasing, but the 
tale she tells of their furnishings, their 
oft-time simplicity, the contents of their 
larders, and the place they filled in the 
social life of the day, is graphic and en- 
tertaining. A vast amount of really 
valuable history has been cunningly 
woven together. These old taverns 
were resorted to by famous travellers, 
like Washington and Lafayette. They 
were the trysting place of Revolutionary 
patriots, and many schemes were 
hatched over their pipes and glasses. 
The comfortable tap-room was a 
necessary appendage of ancient ordina- 
tions, and the Sabbath day worship 
in tireless meeting houses. Miss Craw- 
ford has journeyed to every corner of 
the State, >and she has gathered a won- 



derful store of anecdotes and romantic 
traditions. 

Incidentally, the reality of stage-coach 
travel is well told. Josiah Quincy'-, 
tale of his journey from Boston to New 
York, which took a week, and cost 
great annoyance and fatigue, seems in- 
credible to this generation, but it is a 
true picture of the hardship of travel in 
the olden time. The descriptions of the 
various lines of coaches, their time- 
tables, and rates of fare are curious and 
valuable. 

Little Pilgrimages Among Old New England 
Inns, being- an account of little journeys to various 
quaint inns and hostelriesof Colonial New England, 
by Mary Caroline Crawford, Boston, L.C Page &: Co.. 
1907. 

A Suggestion. 

To the Massachusetts Magazine: 

I would suggest to the Quincy His- 
torical Society and Adams chapter D. of 
R. the erection of two tablets on the 
Adams houses in their charge, reading 
as follows: 



The Home of 
JOHN AND ABIGAIL ADAMS, 

from 1764 to ? 

His son, John Quincy Adams. 
was born here July 11, 1767. 

This house was built by ? 

Adams in ? 



The Adams Homestead. 

President John Adams was born here 
Oct. 19. 1735- 

This house was built by Henry Adams, 

the founder of the Adams family 

in America, about 1687. 



As now, it is very confusing to a 
stranger to understand which is which 
of the two houses, for John Adams' 
home is called the 'John Quincy Adams 
house" (has a sign on it reading so) and 



46 



THE MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 



the other house which was the home of 
neither of the presidents, is called the 
"John Adams house." 

On a recent visit to Quincy even the 
matron in charge could not tell me 
which was John and Abigail Adams' 
home. I rang the door bell of two 
residences next adjoining, but they had 
"forgotten," and directed me to two 
other houses, where I also failed to find 
out. 

Admirer of John Adams. 



Bibliography of Massachusetts Local 
History. 

The following review of the new 
bibliographic index to Massachusetts 
local history, appears in the Library 
Journal, New York City.: 

"In passing judgment upon any bibli- 
ography it is important to keep definite- 
ly in mind the limits within which the 
compiler has chosen to work; otherwise 
we shall soon be discovering supposed 
omissions and complaining that this item 
has been overlooked or that field neglect- 
ed. Occasional users of this Guide will 
doubtless declare it less complete than its 
title-page would indicate; for example, 
they will find few references to the 
history of local institutions, as in the 
case of Williams College in Williams- 
town, where town and academic life 
have ever been closely interwoven. But 
works of this class and of many others 
Mr. Flagg has purposely excluded. At 
the outset he found an enormous 
amount of material. Probably in no 
state has the interest in local history 
been so keen, or the preservation and 
restoration of local records so com- 
plete, as in ^Massachusetts. An ex- 
haustive bibliography of all this material 
would fill many octavo volumes. Hence 
for this work, intended to be a con- 
venient reference guide, "it was out of 
the question to make a complete bibli- 
ography of each locality." The purpose, 



therefore, was to include only books, 
pamphlets, articles in periodicals and 
newspapers, society publications, col- 
lected works, works in preparation, and 
manuscripts, falling within the classes 
Political, Military, General genealogical, 
General biographical, and Descriptive. 
An excellent indication of the scope of 
the work is negativelv afforded by a 
long list, in the preface, of classes ex- 
cluded, namely: natural history, edu- 
cation, religious history (except in the 
case of town-churches), history of 
institutions and societies, industries, 
town, city and state documents, 
directories, maps, manuscripts in official 
custody, non-historical addresses and 
sermons, individual biography, and 
genealogies of single families. Mr. 
Flagg "disclaims any purpose of de- 
fending the limitations set above; a 
decision was necessary and it was 
made" — a procedure that will be appre- 
ciated by all who have worked along 
similar lines. With a few exceptions 
the list does not extend beyond 1905. 

"The sources examined were mainly 
three: works in the Library of Congress, 
works in the New England Historic 
Genealogical Society, and existing 
bibliographies. In addition the cooper- 
ation of local librarians and historians 
was obtained in all except a few small 
localities where no interest could be 
aroused. 

"Within these limits of plan and of 
resource, Mr. Flagg has prepared a most 
valuable and presumably complete work. 
Less than a dozen towns in the Com- 
monwealth are so small or unenter- 
prising that no key to their published 
or manuscript history is to be found in 
the Guide. In the case of the larger 
or older communities, as Boston and 
Salem, the local list often covers several 
pages. The arrangement is excellent. 
An introductory section cites general 



CRITICISM AND COMMENT 



47 



works upon Massachusetts history 
specially of value to the student of local 
topics. The counties follow, alphabet- 
ically, as the main body of the work; 
under each county head is given first a 
list of works dealing with the county at 
large, then a list for each town in the 
county, in alphabetical order. A valu- 
able feature is the brief outline sketch 
of its political history which precedes 
each town or county list. No more 
convenient arrangement could be de- 
vised for a work dealing so particularly 
with local history, since contiguous or' 
related localities are thus brought near 
together and greater convenience 
afforded the user. Each county list is 
accompanied by a useful outline map. 
At the end of the book is an important 
Index of Local Names, which includes 
obsolete and popular terms as well as 
early Indian designations. 

"One or two points of criticism may 
be noted as worthy of debate. First, as 
regards works of this nature in general, 
is not subject entry of greater con- 
venience to the average layman than 
author entry? For instance, in the 
Boston list, which covers 20 pages, one 
must search from beginning to end in 
order to find the nine or more references 
to the great fire of 1872. This, how- 
ever, is more a matter of general bibli- 
ographical method than a criticism of 
this particular work. In one respect 
the value of the guide might have been 
enhanced. Mr. Flagg has cited local 
locations only in the cases of works not 
to be found in the Library of Congress 
or the New England Historic-Genea- 
logicaj Society. But a student of local 
history most often works "on the spot," 
and time and expense may both be saved 
if he knows in advance how much of 
his material may be found in the local 
libraries or at the county seat. Again, 
another edition of this work would be 



improved by some distinct typographical 
break between county lists; tor instance, 
the lack of such a break on p. 113 might 
easily lead a non-Massachusetts person 
to some confusion of Hampshire and 
Middlesex counties. Some improve- 
ment, also, should be made in the maps; 
for instance, Suffolk county is partic- 
ularly indistinct, and Norfolk is far 
from clear, while the compass points of 
Essex might well be indicated. The 
town of Gosnold, which by some mis- 
chance appears in Barnstable, should 
be re-located in Dukes, where it belongs. 
"These, however, are but slight crit- 
icisms' of an important work, well 
planned and carefully performed. They 
are indeed so few as to call attention 
by contrast to its general excellence. 
Outspoken gratitude is seldom the re- 
ward of the bibliographer, but Mr. 
Flagg may well feel repaid for his labor 
by the thought that the guide will 
inevitably be of use and value to all 
who hereafter have occasion to delve 
into the local records of the Common- 
wealth. W. N. S." 



Two Notable Undertakings in Ameri- 
can History. 

The past two months have marked 
the completion of two notable under- 
takings in the field of American history: 
"The history of North America,'' in 20 
volumes, edited successively by G. C. 
Lee & F. N. Thorpe, and "The Ameri- 
can nation: a history from original 
sources by associated scholars." in 27 
volumes, edited by A. B. Hart. 

The scope of these two works is 
much the same, the latter justifying its 
somewhat broader title by the inclusion 
of two volumes (Nos. 9 & 11) on Cen- 
tral America and Mexico, and British 
North America. Each series is 
provided with an exceptionally good 
general index. It is, perhaps, need- 
less to mention the inherent strength 



48 



THE MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 



and weakness of all co-operative work 
of this nature. 

As between the two works, "The 
American nation" has generally seemed 
to have the best of it with the critics, 
as was to be expected from its formal 
endprsement by various State Histori- 
cal societies, the editorship of the well 
known student. Prof. Hart of Harvard, 
and its corps of writers largely drawn 
from the leading members of the Amer- 
ican Historical association. "The His- 
tory of North America, 1 ' owing less to 
the prestige of mighty names in the 
historical world, has enlisted a group 
*of younger or lesser known writers, in 
no way lacking in scholarship or liter- 
ary ability, but whose reputations are 
more largely staked on the work in 
hand. Either collection is creditable to 
our American scholarship/ 

In each series, after the period of the 
adoption of the Federal Constitution, 
the main narrative follows national 
rather than state lines. For colonial 
and revolutionary times, however, 
Massachusetts secures adequate treat- 
ment in vols. 4 to 10 of the "American 
nation" and 5 and 6 of the "History of 
North America." 

On the side of authorship, the 
"American nation." edited as a whole 
by Prof. Hart of Harvard, contains the 
following volumes by Massachusetts 
men: v. 12 (The Jeffersonian system) by 
Prof. Channing of Harvard, v. 16 
(Slavery and abolition) by Prof. Hart, 
v. 18 (Parties and slavery) by Prof. T. 
C. Smith of Williams, v. 24 (National 
problems) by Prof. D. R. Dewey of 
Mass. Inst, of Technology, and v. 26 
(National ideals 1607-1907) by Prof. 
Hart. In addition v. 7 (France in 
America 1497-1763) and v. 20-21 (on the 



Civil war) are the work of R. G. 
Thwaites and J. K. Hosmcr, natives 
of the Old Bay State, though no longer 
residents, while E. B. Green, author of 
v. 6 (Provincial America) though born 
abroad, was largely educated in the 
state. 

Among the writers of the other 
series are several name- not mentioned 
in the common books of reference, but 
in general a larger proportion of South- 
ern writers is noticed. Prof. F. N. 
Thorpe, general editor of the latter part 
of the series and writer of v. 15 (The 
Civil war: the national view) is a nati 
of Mass. and v. 11 (Canada and British. 
"North America) is by VV. B. Munro of 
Harvard Universitv. 



Battleflag of the Chesapeake, Captured 
in 1813, Recovered at Auction Sale. 

London, Jan. 31. — The flag of the 
American frigate Chesapeake, one oi 
the relics of a collection of antiquities 
which belonged to the late T. G. Mid- 
dlebrook, was secured yesterday at the 
auction sale of the collection for Amer- 
ican buyers. 

The Chesapeake flag was captured in 
the fight with the British ship Shannon 
in 1813. It was on the Chesapeake that 
Lawrence, her dying commander, plead- 
ed: "Don't give up the ship." 

There was good bidding for the faded, 
torn piece of bunting, the authenticity 
of which is vouched for in a written 
history of its ownership since Midship- 
man Grundy of the royal navy came 
into possession of the trophy nearly a 
century ago. 

The flag was sold for $4250 to a Lon- 
don art dealer. The dealer admitted 
that it had been purchased by him for 
an American, but more than this he 
would not say. There were rumors that 
he was acting for Cornelius Vanderbilt 
or J. Pierpont Morgan, but London 
does not yet know into whose hands 
the flag has fallen. 




*"* 16 2 0-1630 aT^-« 

Lucie M. Gardner. A. O.. Editor. 



5 



A-WVO UXCEMENT 

There is a general tendency today 
toward specialization in all branches of 
historical as well as scientific research. 
Thorough and exhaustive study requires 
concentration of thought and work upon 
definite periods. The years before 
1630 in New England while few in num- 
ber, were of vital importance. Had not 
the courageous few made their tenacious 
struggle, the larger migrations of 1630 
would not have been made. 

But for the earlier Pilgrims at 
Plymouth, the Planters at Cape Ann 
and Salem, the settlers at Nantasket and 
along the Mystic River, Weymouth and 
other places along the coast, the 
larger companies under Winthrop and 
others might not have come. at all, or in 
much smaller numbers. Every man 
who came in those early days, and be- 
haved himself, did his part toward 
founding the settlement, which became 
the old Bay State. To these heroes a 
special credit is due, which has not been 
awarded to them as they deserve. Too 
many historians have ignored these 
men and have endeavored to begin the 
history of Massachusetts with the com- 
ing of Winthrop in 1630. 

This department of the magazine will 
he devoted to a study of these early 
settlers, and the part which they played 
in founding the colony. It was to their 
credit indeed, that they came so early 
and remained, but their greater glory 
lies in the part which they played in the 
civil, religious and military activities of 
the colony in the half-century which 
followed their arrival. They were able. 
active and strong men and in force of 
character and intellect compared favor- 
ably with any who came after them. 

Biographical sketches of these men 
will appear from time to time, narrating 
the offices held by them in town and 
colony, their land holdings and migra- 
tions to new settlements. The descend- 
ants of many of them, including the 
Conants, Balches, Woodburys, Gardners 
and Aliens have formed family organ- 



izations and a directory of the officers 
of these associations, with reports of 
meetings and announcements will be 
given in each number. 

Important papers read before the 
Old Planters Society and kindred or- 
ganizations will be published. The 
department will also contain a section 
of Notes and Queries and efforts will 
be made to assist correspondents in es- 
tablishing their claims to membership 
in the distinctive societies of the period. 
Many interesting documents relating to 
these men, which are contained in the 
court files and town records, and have 
never been published, will be repro- 
duced with accompaning notes. 

Societies 

MAYFLOWER SOCIETY. 

Membership, Confined to Descendants of the May- 
floiver Passengers. 
Governor — Asa P. French. 
Deputy Governor — John Mason Little. 
Captain — Edwin S. Crandon. 
Elder — Rev. George Hodges, D. D. 
Secretary — George Ernest Bowman. 
Treasurer — Arthur I. Nash. 
Historian— Stanley W. Smith. 
Surgeon — William H. Prescott, M. D. 
Assistants — Edward H. Whore. 

Mrs. Leslie C. Wead. 

Henry D. Forties. 

Mrs. Annie Quincy Emery. 

Lorenzo D. Baker. Jr. 

Miss Mary E. Wood. 

Miss Mary F. Edson. 



THE OLD PLANTERS SOCIETY. 
Incorporated. 

Membership Confined to Descendant* of Sfttlers 

in New England prior to the Transfer of the 

Charter to Xeic England in 1630. 

President — Col. Thomas Wentworth Higginson. 

Cambridge. 
Vice Pres. — Frank A. Gardner, M. D.. Salem. 
Secretary — Lucie M. Gardner. Salem. 
Treasurer — Frank V. Wright. Salem. 
Registrar— Mrs. Lora A. W. Cnderhill. 

Brighton. 
Councillors — \Vm. Prescott Greenlaw. Bo*ton. 
R. W. Spraoue, M. D.. Boston. 
Hon. A. P. Gardner, Hamilton. 



50 



THE MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 



Nathaniel Conant, Brookline. 
Francis H. Lev', Svlem. 
Col. J. Ciranvii.lk Leach, Phila. 
Francis N. Balch, Jamaica Plain*. 
Joseph A. Torrey, Manchester. 
Edward O. Skelton. Roxbcrv. 

The mid-winter meeting of the society 
was held in Ellis Hall, Massachusetts 
Historical Society building on Thurs- 
day, Jan. 23. The hall was well filled 
and many representatives of other His- 
torical Societies were present. The 
address of the afternoon was given by 
the Vice-President of the society, upon 
"The Old Planters of Cape Ann, 1623 
and Salem, 1626. A Study of Their 
Position as Founders of the Colony of 
Massachusetts Bay." The address will 
be found on other pages of this number 
of the Massachusetts Magazine. Several 
applications for membership were re- 
ceived. An account of the Dodge 
reunion which the society plans to hold 
in June will be found in another column. 



3famtl£ Bssociatlcns 



ALLEN FAMILY ASSOCIATION. 

Descendants of William Allen, Cape Ann, 1624; 
Salem, 1626; Manchester. 1636. 
President — Raymond C. Allex, Manchester. 
Secretary — Etta Rabardy, Manchester. 
Treasurer — Samuel Knight, Maxchester. 



BALCH FAMILY ASSOCIATION. 

Descendants of John Balch, Wessagusset 1623; 
Cape Ann, 1624; Salem, 1626; Beverly, 163S. 
President — Galcsha B. Balch, M. P., 

Yonkers, N. Y. 
Vice Pres. — George W. Balch, Detroit. 

Joseph B. Balch, Df.dhav. 

Francis N. Balch, Jamaica Plain. 

Gardner P. Balch, West Uoxecry. 

Harry H. Coffin, Brooklixe. 

Maj. H. H. Clay. Galesrurg, III. 

John Balch, Milton. 

William H, Balch, Stoxeham. 

Alfred C. Balch, Phila. 

E. T. Stone, Somermlle. 
Secretary — William Lixcolx Balch, Bostox. 

The fourth reunion of the family will 
be held in June 1003, details of which 
will be given in the April number of the 
magazine. 

ROGER CONANT FAMILY ASSOCIATION. 

Descendants of Roaer Conant, Plymouth, 1622; 

Nantaskct, 1624-5; ('ape Ann. 1625; 

Salem, 1626; Beverly, 1638. 

President — Samuel Morris Conant, Pawtucket. 

Sec't & Treas. — Charles Milton Conant, Boston. 



Chaplin — Rev. C. A. Conant, \V. Alrvny, N. V. 
Executive Committer 

Hamilton S. Conant, Boston. Chairman. 

W. E. Conant. I.nn kton. 

Nathaniel Conant, Brookline. 

Dr. Wm. M. Coxant, Ko»tox. 

Charles A. Conant. New VoRK. 

Edward I). Conant, Newton. 

Frederick Odell Conant, Portland, Me. 

Francis Ouek Conant. Brook haven, M:--,. 

Henry E. Conant, Concord, N. H. 

Clarissa Conant, Danvers. 

John A. Cgnant, Willimantic, Conn. 

Charlotte H. Conant, Natick. 

Chas. Bancroft Conant, Newark, N. J. 



THE GARDNER FAMILY ASSOCIATION. 

Descendants of Thomas Gardner, (ape Ann, 1624; 
Salem, 1626. 

President — Frank A. Gardner, M. D., Salem. 
V. Pres. — Hon. Augustus P. Gardner. Hamilton. 
Sec'y <S: Treas. — Lucie M. Gardner, Salem. 

Councillors — Rev. Chas. H. Pope, Cambridge. 

Hon. Geo. R. Gardnfr, Calais, Me. 
Robert W. Gardner, N. V. City. 
George Peabody Gardner, Boston 
Arthur H. Gardner, Nant^ ket. 
Joseph A. Torrey, Manchester. 

The second reunion of the association 
will be held in Salem, in June. Many 
who wished to be present at the first 
gathering last year regretted that it was 
held in mid-summer, but the dedication 
of the tablet at Gloucester on the fol- 
lowing day especially commended that 
date last year. Details of the coming 
reunion will be given in the April num- 
ber of this magazine. 

Many descendants have already joined 
the association and it is hoped to in- 
crease the number very largely during 
the next few months, as the money thus 
received will be used by the officers in 
making the June meeting a success. 
The annual fee has been fixed at the 
nominal amount of fifty cents in order 
to secure as large a representation as 
possible. 

THE WOODBURY GENEALOGICAL SOCIETY. 

Descendants of John Wor^Umru, Cape Ann, 1624: 
Salem, 1626; Beverly, about 1638. 
President — Edwin S. Woodbury, Boston. 
Treasurer — Merton G. Woodbury. Melrose. 
Clerk — Mrs. Lora A. (Woodbury) Underhill, 

Brighton. 
Trustees President and Treasurer. 
John P. Woodbury, Boston. 
Is\ac F. Woodbury, Allston. 
Melville Woodbury, Beverly. 
C. J. H- Woodbury. Lynn. 
Frank T. Woodbury, M. D., Wakfield. 
Louis A. Woodbury, M. D.. C.rovei and. 
William R. Woodbury, M. D., Boston. 



ipprtotnt offh^mEriraniltDolution 

J * r77 5-1782 



Frank A-Gar.dner.>1. IXEditor. 



Announcement. 

The editor of this department in pre- 
senting his plans, wishes to state that 
its columns will be devoted to a careful 
and accurate narration of the deeds of 
Massachusetts men on land and sea in 
the struggle for American Independ- 
ence. The standard histories of the 
Revolutionary period praise the skill 
and bravery of the men of the Bay 
State, but fail to note many phases of 
that war. These neglected lines of 
research will especially engage his at- 
tention. The State has published an 
excellent list of the Massachusetts Sol- 
diers and Sailors of the Revolutionary 
War, but the study of Massachusetts 
organizations by companies, regiments 
or brigades, has never received the 
amount of study which it merits. Many 
histories of Massachusetts regiments 
in the Great Rebellion have been pub- 
lished and the lack of similar works re- 
lating to the Revolution has been re- 
gretted by hundreds of descendants of 
the patriots. Each copy of the maga- 
zine will contain a sketch of the forma- 
tion and record of one of these regi- 
ments, with a roster of its officers and 
biographical sketches of many of them. 

To Massachusetts was due in large 
degree, the credit of overthrowing the 
power of the mother country upon the 
sea. Without this service the struggle 
might have been a vain one. The pri- 
vateers will share attention, therefore 
with the regiments and one of these 
vessels with an account of its officers, 
owners and exploits, will also be con- 
sidered in each number. 



Those who have not made a study 
of the history of the colony, cannot 
realize how early the spirit of freedom 
asserted itself. Many towns passed 
resolutions and appointed committees 
to work for liberty, years before the 
struggle really began. Verbatim copies 
of these resolves will be published with 
the names of their courageous framers. 
The newspapers of the period abound 
in accounts of deeds of daring of indi- 
viduals and small groups of men in both 
branches of the service, and such nar- 
ratives will find a place in these pages. 

A section of notes and queries will 
be established and the department edi- 
tor and his co-workers will endeavor to 
assist in establishing the claims of 
descendants to membership in the 
patriotic orders. Any additional light 
that can be thrown upon the subjects 
treated will be welcomed, and if mis- 
takes are made, corrections will be glad- 
ly received and printed. 

Many private papers of value are 
owned and treasured by descendants 
of the patriots, and the loan of such is 
earnestly desired for publication. Such 
documents will be protected in fire- 
proof safes and returned promptly. A 
section of "Notes of the Patriotic 
Orders," will be maintained and briet 
accounts of meetings of the local and 
state chapters, and announcements of 
functions to be held, will be gladly re- 
ceived and printed. It is the ambition 
of the editor to make this department 
of real and increasing value to the stu- 
dent of history. 



John Hancock. 

We are very grateful to the artists 
who have preserved for us the facial 
lines of some of our Revolutionary 
leaders, but we are none the less thank- 
ful to those who have given to us some 
viyid "word paintings" of these men. 



52 



THE MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 



The following description by a Ger- 
man officer in the British Army, who 
was captured with Burgoyne and car- 
ried prisoner to Boston, is particularly 
good. In a letter written home, 
December 10th., 1777, he wrote: — 

"President Hancock has now been 
several weeks in Boston. His arrival 
was welcomed by the ringing of bells 
and the firing of cannon. This man 
whom the most zealous republicans call 
the 'American King,' in order to pro- 
voke us, looks, to all appearance, 
worthy of the position he holds as the 
first man in America. Moreover, he is 
so frank and condescending to the low- 
est, that one would think he was talk- 
ing to a brother or relative. He visits 
the coffee-houses of Boston, where are 
congregated the poorest of the inhabi- 
tants — men who get their living by 
bringing wood and vegetables to the 
city. Indeed, he who desires to advance 
in popularity must understand the art 
of making himself popular. In no 
country does wealth and birth count 
for so little as in this; and yet one can 
maintain the position given him by fate 
without being in the least familiar with 
the lowest." ["Revolutionary Letters," 
by William L. Stone.] 



Ship Hendrick. 
Privateer. 



The following petition was presented 
in August, 1781: 

"To his Excellency the Governor & 
Hon'ble Council of the Commonwealth 
of Massachusetts. 

The Petition of John Fisk & others 
of Salem Humbly sheweth, 

That your Petitioners have fitted 
out the Ship called the Hendrick bur- 



thened two hundred Tons mounting 
Eighteen Six pounders and navigated 
by Ninety men, having a Board as Pro- 
visions Sixty Bbls.. of Beef & Pork and 
Six Thousand lb. of Bread — as ammu- 
nition Eighteen hundred \V of Powder 
and Shot in Proportion. 

Said Ship is intended to Cruise 
against the Enemies of these United 
States. Your Petitioners therefore 

humbly request your Excellency &: 
Honors to Commission Thomas Ben- 
son as Commander of said Ship for the 
purpose above mentioned and as in 
Duty bound will ever pray &c. 

Henry Rust. 

Boston, Aug. 16, 1781. 

In Council Aug. 20, 1781. Advised 
that Thos. Benson be Commissioned 
Commander of said Ship he complying 
with the Resolves of Congress. 

John Avery, Sr." 

In a list of Salem privateers of that 
period she is described as carrying 13 
6-pound guns and 100 men. 

The Salem Gazette of Nov. 22, con- 
tained a notice of the sale at auction of 
the "Bermudian built Sloop Barbary, 
burthen 80 tons. Prize to the Ship 
Hendrick, Thomas Benson. Master." 
"Also 1 pair of four-pound cannon, 
powder, shot, small arms, etc." 

In the issue of Dec. 27, of the same 
paper, the following appeared: "A -ship 
with a most valuable cargo of English 
goods, bound from London to the West 
Indies, was, a few days since sent into 
port by the Hendrick, privateer of this 
place. The ship, though furnished with 
Danish papers, and manned by a Dan- 
ish crew, is together with the cargo, 
supposed to be British property." The 
paper of Feb. 28, 17S2, stated that the 
Hendrick was reported to have "made 
several prizes in the West Indies." She 



DEPARTMENT OF THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION 



53 



arrived home from the cruise, on 
the 4th of March. 

June 24th , she sent into port a prize 
schooner loaded with salt. This vessel, 
the Rosa, and a "Bermudian built brig- 
antine," the Enterprise, were advertised 
to be sold, July 9. Another prize, the 
brigantine "Indian," "pierced to. carry 
14 guns," was sold at auction Sept. 10th 

The Gazette of October 24, 1782, an- 
nounced that "the privateer ship Hen- 
drick, Captain Benson," had been "cap- 
tured by the enemy, and carried into 
New York." It was reported that the 
crew with men from other ships, had 
been "forcibly dispersed on board the 
British men of war." Captain Benson 
was later (Mar. 4, 17S3) granted a com- 
mission as commander of the "Julius 
Caesar." This ship was captured the 
following month by three British ships, 
but as it was after the cessation of hos- 
tilities she could not be retained. 
Earlier in the war he had commanded 
the privateer "Lively" and had been 
First Lieutenant of the privateer ship 
"Two Brothers." A Thomas Benson, 
Lieut., was brought to Marblehead 
(date not given) in the cartel "Pacific," 
to be exchanged for British prisoners. 
He had been taken from the schooner 
"General Gates" by the British brig 
"Hope." 

Spirit of 1768. 

A SOXG 

Addrefs'd to the SONS of LIBERTY on the Con- 
tinent of AMERICA ; particularly to the Iiluftrious, 
Glorious and Never-to-be-forgotten NINETY-TWO 
of BOSTON. 

"The Americans are the Sons, not the Baftards 
of England; the Commons of America, reprefented 
in the feveral affemblies, have ever been in Pot'fef- 
fion of the Exercife of this their Conftitutional 
Right, of GIVING and GRANTING their OWN 
MONEY; they would have been SLAVES if they 
had not enjoyed it." 

Mr. Pitt's Speech. 

Tune " Come jolly Bacchus" &c or " Glorious 
First of August." 

Come jolly SONS of LIBERTY 

Come ALL with Hearts UNITED, 
Our Motto is "WE DARE BE FREE 

Not easily affrighted! 
Oppreffion's Band we muft fubdue, 

Now ie the Time or never, 
Let each Man PROVE this Motto true, 

And SLAVERY from him fever. 



Pale vlfaged Fear, let none poffef-. 

Or Terrors e'er perplex him, 
POSTERITY will everblefa, 

And nought hereafter vex him ; 
To Freedom' .s Manner, let's repair 

When-e'r we fee Occafion — 
Nor Wives nor Children tlio' 1110ft dear, 

E'er stop to look or gaze on. 

In Freedom's Caufe the flavish Knave, 

'Twere better his Condition, 
(That might his Country's Ruin fave!) 

To fink into Perdition ; 
Chain'd to a GALLEY, groan his Days, 

And never be forgotten, 
While Furies croak hie Bondage Lays, 

After he's Dead and Rotten. 

Once, fhould this PRECEDENT take Place! 

Tell, what you call your OWN Sir! 
MAGNA CHART A in Difgrace! 

Your Subftance now all flown, Sir! 
No more fhall Peers now try your Caufe'. 

That Time is now a I over 
What need have we pray now of Laics* 

Now Right is Wrong in Trover! 

See Liberty, high poiz'd in air, 

Her FREE-BORN SONS commanding; 
"Come on, my Sons, without all Fear. 

" Y'our NAT'RAL RIGHTS demanding. 
"Your CAUSE, the Gods proclaim, is Just, 

"Can tamely, you, be fetter' d? 
"In which, disturb Your Father's Dust. 

" With S. be ever letter'd. 

Obey, my Brothers, Nature's Call, 

Your Country too, demands it. 
Let LIBERTY ne'er have a Fall. 

'Tis Freedom that commands it. 
The Ax now to the Root is laid, 

Will you be, a BOND or FREE? 
No Time to paufe — then WHO'S AFRAID? 

Live or die in Liberty. 

■ Essex Gazette, Aug. 9, 176S. 
(From the Pennsylvania Journal of Aug. 4, 1768.) 



The Field Equipment of the Revolu- 
tionary Soldier. 

The uniform, arms and accoutre- 
ments of the soldier are all matters of 
interest to students of military history. 
The value and elaborateness, as well as 
the uniformity of these essentials of 
active warfare, all depend upon the 



54 



THE MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 



financial ability of the individual or the 
nation, in whose cause he is fighting. 
As the rank and file of the patriot army 
consisted of men who were struggling 
for existence, they were obliged to 
content themselves in most instances 
with such arms as they possessed or 
could borrow from their neighbors. 
Many of them were forced to start for 
the front in their farm clothes and 
make the best of such as they had, un- 
til the authorities could provide some- 
thing better. A few organizations like 
the Glover regiment of Marblehead, 
were fortunate enough to be provided 
with a uniform when they first left 
home for the army headquarters, but 
even in these cases, the outfits were in- 
expensive, with buttons of leather or 
other cheap material. Any kind of a 
firearm obtainable was utilized, in- 
cluding the blunderbuss, matchlock, 
firelock, flintlock, musket and rifle. 
One of the earliest lists of equipments 
is the following from a committee re- 
port Dec. 10, 1774: "Firearm, Bayonet, 
Pouch, Knapsack, Thirty rounds of 
Cartridges and Ball." 

Trevelyan, in his valuable history, 
describes the American army at the 
siege of Boston in the summer of 1775 
and states that: "The men provided 
their own raiment and they were per- 
petually trading and swapping their 
habiliments, and their accoutrements, 
or they would not have been New 
Englanders. Those who possessed a 
uniform had not learned to take a pride 
in it, as was shown on the seventeenth 
of June by some Connecticut troops 
who behaved very creditably in the 
battle. 'We marched' their commander 
wrote 'with our frocks and trousers on 
over our other clothes, (for our com- 
pany is in blue, turned up with red) for 
we were loath to expose ourselves by 
our dress.' Washington reported to 



Congress that the provision of some 
sort of regulation costume was an 
urgent necessity. 'A number of hunt- 
ing shirts, not less than ten thousand, 
would remove this difficulty in the 
cheapest and quickest manner. I know 
nothing in a speculative view more 
trivial, yet which if put in practice 
would have a happier tendency to unite 
the men, and abolish those provincial 
distinctions which lead to jealousy and 
dissatisfaction.' Meanwhile he did 

his best with the store of finery which 
was at his disposal. ******** Sergeants 
were to wear a stripe of red cloth on 
the right shoulder, and Corporals, one 
of green. A field officer mounted a 
red cockade and a Captain, a yellow one. 
Generals were desired to wear a pink 
riband and Aides-de-camp a green 
riband; while the person of the Com- 
mander-in-Chief was marked by a 
light blue sash worn across his breast 
between the coat and waistcoat." 

Abundant evidence can be found to 
prove that from this time on through 
the entire war the patriots were con- 
stantly hampered by lack of sufficient 
clothing. Col. Glover in a letter to his 
mother dated Oct. 7, 1776, from Fort 
Constitution (later called Fort Lee) 
stated that the soldiers were to have 
twenty dollars bounty and a suit of 
clothes. He added: — "Had this been 
done 12 months ago we should now 
have had an army who would have been a 
match for the enemy in the open field." 
After Glover rejoined the army as 
Brigadier General, he wrote from Peek- 
skill June 15, 1777, to Gen. Washington; 
— "Upon enquiring into the state of 
the troops, found them in a most shock- 
ing condition , without coats, breeches, 
stockings or shoes; many of them 
having nothing but a frock and blanket 
to cover their nakedness." 

The dress of the soldiers in October, 



DEPARTMENT OF THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION 



55 



after the great victory at Saratoga, is 
described very graphically by a German 
officer in a letter, as follows: ''Few of 
the officers in General Gates army wore 
uniforms , and those that were worn, 
were evidently of home manufacture 
and of all colors. For example, brown 
coats with seagreen facings, white 
linings^ and silver dragons,' and gray 
coats with yellow buttons and straw 
facings, were to be seen in plenty. The 
brigadiers and generals had, however, 
uniforms to distinguish them from the 
rest of the officers, and wore a band 
around the waist to designate their 
respective rank. On the other hand 
most of the colonels, and other officers 
wore their every-day clothes. They 
carried their muskets (to which a bay- 
onette was attached) in their hands; 
their pouches or powder horns were 
slung over their backs, and their left 
hand hung down by their side, while 
the right foot was slightly put f6rward." 
******* "We passed the enemy's en- 
campment in front of which all the 
regiments, as well as the artillery, were 
standing under arms. Not a man of 
them was regularly equipped. Each one 
had on the clothes which he was accus- 
tomed to wear in the field, the tavern, 
the church, and in every day life. No 
fault however could be found with 
their military appearance, for. they 
stood in an erect and a soldierly atti- 
tude. All their muskets had bayonettes 
attached to them and the riflemen had 
rifles. They remained so perfectly 
still that we were utterly astounded. 
Not one of them made any attempt to 



speak to the man at his side; and all 
the men who stood in array before us 
were so slender, fine-looking, and 
sinewy that it was a pleasure to look 
at them." 

It is not necessary for us to dwell 
upon the unfortunate condition of Gen. 
Washington's army at Valley Forye 
during the winter of 1777-8. The har- 
rowing tales of this barefooted band of 
heroes foraging for food has been often 
repeated. The military authorities in 
Massachusetts during this Fall and 
Winter, were raising and equipping or- 
ganizations to combat the British in 
Rhode Island. Each town was to 
furnish soldiers, who were unable to 
provide themselves, with **a good fire- 
arm, bayonet, cartridgebox, knapsack 
and blanket." 

The story of the efforts of the au- 
thorities to equip the men during the 
remaining years of the war would be 
but a repetition of the above. The 
town, state and national legislators were 
all active in their endeavors to raise 
money and obtain supplies but the fear- 
ful drain for so many years had made 
the already poor people, poor indeed. 
A considerable percentage of the money 
raised was obtained from taxes, levied 
upon the merchants and mariners who 
owned or sailed the privateers, and 
often secured large and valuable car- 
goes. By their courage and enterprise, 
they not only rendered financial assist- 
ance, but inflicted a severe blow upon 
British shipping, which went far 
toward convincing the mother country 
that the war should cease. 



0urlO*Uonar ^ajjtjsT 



Rev. Thomas Frajsklin Waters. 



IT IS AN encouraging sign of the 
times that at last, there is a growing 
veneration for the old house or 
building that in its day, has served the 
public well. The commercial spirit has 
been almost omnipotent. The so called 
"march of improvement" has trodden 
the ancient landmark ruthlessly in the 
dust. The sightly corner lot has been 
bought, the venerable mansion, still 
sound and serviceable, and rich in its 
associations, has been torn down, and 
some modern architectural monstrosity 
reared up in its place, to the lasting 
regret of a whole community. The old 
meeting-house has been sacrificed, or 
remodelled, and transformed into an up- 
to-date sanctuary. 

But a better spirit has been manifest 
for some years past. Smarting under 
the sense of loss, which Boston and the 
whole State suffered, when the John 
Hancock mansion was demolished, the 
Commonwealth sought to make amends 
by erecting a fac-simile at the Philadel- 
phia centennial, and a new era was 
begun. 

When the Old South Society, with ex- 
traordinary hardness of heart, doomed 
the ancient meeting-house to destruction, 
a great wave of protest against its dese- 
cration arose, and the precious relic was 
saved. Park Street Church has been 
rescued almost as by miracle, and the 
fine old Bulfinch front of the State 
House found friends in the hour of its 
peril, who made stalwart demands for its 
preservation. Now the great public 
has grown to be very sympathetic with 
any attempt to rescue any old and 
worthy building from destruction. 



The Paul Revere house has been 
saved by a mighty struggle, and now 
by popular subscription is being restored 
to its old lines and homely graces. 
The Deane YVinthrop house is safe in 
the hands of its friends, and the Adams 
houses in Quincy. With fine devotion 
and unfaltering patience, those who 
reckon the Royal House in Medford at 
its true value, are appealing confidently 
for the funds, which cannot fail, now 
that so much has been secured. The 
Rebecca Nourse house still stands, and 
its preservation is guaranteed. John 
Whipple's house in Ipswich, low-roofed, 
with its cavernous fireplaces and huge 
beams of primeval oak, opens its doors 
daily to all who come. It is just an- 
nounced that the old house of John and 
Priscilla Alden has been bought by a 
loyal descendant and is to be restored. 

THIS RENAISSANCE of 
ancient architecture is not a pass- 
ing fad. The olden craftsmen 
builded better than they knew. They 
worked with taste and a great love for 
massive strength. With infinite toil 
they cut down huge oaks and glorious 
great white pines, and shaped and 
fashioned them with surprising skill. 
The great summers were ornamented 
with chamfers and more elaborate 
mouldings, and fine decorative touches 
were put upon the finish of many an 
humble room. Doors and wainscot 
with fine panels still remain. The old 
Rogers manse in Ipswich, built in 1727, 
contains a stairway which rouses the 
notice of the most careless and the en- 
thusiastic admiration of all lovers of 
fine architecture. 



OUR EDITORIAL PAGES 



57 



But apart from their intrinsic value, 
a great sentimental interest attaches to 
the homes of the Past. The simplest 
buildings, the plainest rooms, are 
dignified by the solemnity of human 
life. How many generations have 
dwelt beneath the roof! Births, wed- 
dings, * funerals, joyous Thanksgiving 
gatherings, hilarious home comings and 
tearful farewells, have imparted a rich 
grace. Though no great names have 
ever been associated with it, the ancient 
dwelling has had a great part in the life 
history of many men and women, and 
claims our veneration. Whole streets 
and avenues of spick, span newness are 
dignified by a single old mansion. The 
chance visitor is attracted by it. A fine 
air is imparted to the whole town. 
Particularly if any appearance of decay 
and neglect has been removed and a 
thoughtful restoration made by an His- 
torical Society, or other interested and 
competent party, a great public service 
has been accomplished. 

MRS. ALICE MORSE EARLE 
has told her pathetic experiences 
in her search for old China. 
Her persuasiveness and enthusiasm 
gained access for her into many attics, 
only to suffer defeat, to the point of ex- 
asperation, when the cover of the old 
chest was slammed down on its precious 
contents by the impatient woman, who 
neither knew nor cared about their 
value, and was determined that nobody 
else should have^ so much as a broken 
plate or a damaged pitcher. Within a 
few months, a valuable original record 
book of a body of Commoners in Ips- 
wich, two centuries old, was found by 
chance in a cellar. Its owner was com- 
pletely ignorant of any value. 

The painstaking biographer of a 
famous engineer officer of the Revolu- 
tion sought the privilege of an examina- 



tion of the attic, from a lineal descend- 
ant of the old soldier. He was assured 
that it contained absolutely nothing of 
interest, but was allowed to make his 
own search, which resulted in the dis- 
covery of a chest filled with the draw- 
ings and plans and professional doc- 
uments of the famous ancestor. 

The time for spring cleaning is near 
at hand, and many a neat housekeeper 
will do a deal of sweeping and dusting, 
and moving about of the varied con- 
tents of her attic. Much of the clutter is 
probably worthless and were well con- 
signed to the fire; much is of no par- 
ticular value to the owner, but might be 
welcomed by some needy friend or 
neighbor. Why not make some dis- 
posal of these superfluities? Why not 
examine and find out just what is hid- 
den away in box and chest and barrel? 
A pedler, hunting for old pewter, during 
the Civil War, asked a village house- 
keeper to sell her fine ancestral col- 
lection of plates and platters. She de- 
murred, but acknowledged finally that 
she only took it from the closet once a 
year, cleaned it, and gave it a fresh 
polish, and then put it back again for 
another twelve-month. Moved by his 
wily suggestion that old pewter was 
valuable for solder, the good woman 
handled it for the last time, and it was 
soon consigned to the melting pot. 
Spasmodic assaults like this have often 
been made on the long accumulations 
of family attics, where the thrifty 
savings of generations past, have rested 
scores of years, and none may know the 
wreck and ruin of rare and valuable 
treasures that resulted. 

IF THE MISTRESS of the attic 
acknowledges to herself that she 
knows nothing of the possible value 
of its varied contents, why not allow 
some competent judge to examine? An 



58 



THE MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 



old engraving by Paul Revere of Har- 
vard College, brought some seven hun- 
dred dollars at a recent auction sale. 
An occasional New England primer 
brings a princely sum. A discriminating 
eye detects an incredible value in certain 
issues of postage stamps. Who knows 
wha"t the attic of any old New England 
home may hold? 

To be sure, these rarities are seldom 
found, but many things, too valuable by 
far, to rot and rust, may be there. 
Ancient household implements, of un- 
known use to the owner, would be 
esteemed treasure-trove by the col- 
lector of antiques. Bits of old furniture, 
broken and useless, are susceptible of 
restoration and a new era of honor and 
usefulness. Old books, bundles of old 
deeds, packages of old letters, may have 
great worth to the antiquarian, looking 
for autographs or missing links in 
genealogical lines. The quaint little 
books of a century ago sometimes bear 
surprising values. Old newspapers, and 
pamphlets, old account books, written 
and printed matter of a hundred sorts, 
await the touch of a competent ex- 
aminer. The most valuable finds are 
proverbially made in the most unprom- 
ising quarters. 

In every community, there is some 
antiquarian student, who would love to 
dig and delve, and his or her researches, 
would result at least, in the assurance 
that there is or is not anything of value, 
in the forgotten accumulations, under 
the eaves. Even if the owner were 
unwilling to give the resurrected trophy 
to the finder, or to the collection of an 
Historical Society, it might be saved 
from the bon-fire or the paper mill. 

INCIDENT to the celebration of 
Old Home week in Boston in mid- 
summer, 1907, temporary tablets were 
placed on many buildings, and in various 



localities throughout the city. They 
marked the sites of the dwellings of the 
famous pioneer settlers, the original 
meeting-houses and other public build- 
ings, and told the story of many build- 
ings still standing. The American 
public is too busy with the affairs of to- 
day to search for itself into the annals 
of the past, but it is very glad to be told 
these things. Great popular interest 
was aroused by these placards, and the 
query was raised, Why cannot these 
temporary markers be made permanent? 
As yet, no movement to this end has 
been made, but it is greatly to be desired 
that a comprehensive and intelligent 
scheme of this sort should be put in 
operation at an early day. A rich store 
of historic association attaches to many 
buildings and localities, in the very heart 
of the city, which is known only to the 
antiquary. A series of well placed, and 
sufficiently conspicuous, tablets would 
impart finer interest to the ancient 
thoroughfares, than the most elaborate 
and massive modern edifices. 

The tone and flavor that are imparted 
to localities of living interest, by the 
free and judicious use of markers of 
various sorts, are felt and appreciated 
by the most hasty observers. The Col- 
lege yard at Cambridge affords a noble 
illustration of this fact. Each of the 
ancient dormitories bears a simple 
bronze tablet, which records the date 
and circumstances of the erection, and 
in the entry, on each floor is a perfect 
list of the students, who have occupied 
these rooms. The number of great and 
venerable names, which are recorded 
here, is a rich heritage. On the walls 
of more modern buildings, the record of 
the original owner and occupant of the 
location is given. On the great gate- 
way, that opens from the Square, are 
affixed the tablets which quote the 
earnest and prophetic words of the 



OUR EDITORIAL PAGES 



59 



founders of the College. Before Uni- 
versity Hall, a plan of the original allot- 
ments of the land, now occupied by the 
College yard, is constantly studied by 
the endless stream of visitors to the 
famous shrine, who are enabled by these 
simple and adequate helps, to gain a 
luminous and impressive idea of these 
precious historical associations. The 
Washington Elm, with its granite slab, 
is only a few rods away, and other in- 
expensive memorials complete the work 
of happy and valuable reminiscence. 

The march of the British regulars to 
Lexington and Concord has been 
marked by a succession of stone tablets 
in Arlington, the ancient Menotomy, 
which record stirring incidents of that 
eventful day, and in Lexington, by the 
simple stone that marks the firing line, 
and other interesting tablets, as well as 
by the beautiful and costly modern 
statues of the historic minuteman, that 
adorn the ancient battlefields. Indeed, 
the modest memorial accomplishes its 
purpose as effectively as the stately 
monument. The lustre of the brave 
deeds, which the simplest stone records, 
is sufficient and glorious. 

SO THAT MARCH of Arnold's 
expedition to Quebec, from Cam- 
bridge, through the Essex County 
towns to Xewburyport, where the 
soldiers took shipping for the coast of 
Maine, has been commemorated on an 
Ipswich bronze, and by the great 
boulder in old Newbury Common, which 
marks the camp of Morgan's riflemen, 
and tells the stirring tale of the desper- 
ate adventure. Benedict Arnold and 
Aaron Burr were devoted patriots in 
those early days of the Revolution, and 
the singular fact that they both had 
brave parts in this expedition deserves 
remembrance. 
The bronze tablets in Salem, unfor- 



tunate in their location, rehearse thrill- 
ing records of the witchcraft days and 
of the Revolution. 

BUT THESE WAYSIDE memo- 
rials are not the exclusive privilege 
of the cities and towns of Eastern 
Massachusetts. That quiet West 
Brookheld road suddenly becomes of 
momentous interest, when the traveller 
chances upon the stone, which marks 
the place where that Indian assault, of 
which every school boy has read with 
bated breath, was made upon that 
block-house which was delivered almost 
as bv miracle from the torch and toma- 
hawk of the cruel assailants. 

Old Deerfield and the villages of the 
Pocumtuck valley were scourged with 
fire and sword in the Indian wars, and 
the visitor today, wandering under the 
majestic elms of the beautiful Deerfield 
Street, and seeing the series of memo- 
rials that have been erected, finds him- 
self transported to those days of peril, 
when the solitary farmer at work in the 
field, was shot down, when the pride of 
Essex met its dreadful end at Bloody 
Brook, when Major Appleton fought off 
the Indians and saved the town, and 
when the final murderous assault was 
made in the dead of night, in midwinter 
of 1704. by a band of French and Indian 
marauders. More pathetic record was 
never written than the story of that mid- 
night slaughter, the blotting out of 
those happy homes, the dreadful march 
of the captives, men, women and chil- 
dren, through the woods to Canada, and 
the splendid endeavors to redeem the 
captives, which were crowned with final 
success. The memorials by the way- 
side, the simple mound in the old cem- 
etery, where the dead lie in one common 
grave, and the sorrowful record of the 
slain and of the lost ones, who never 
returned, on the marble slabs in the 



60 



THE MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 



Memorial Hall, are a thrilling reminder 
of the perils, the heroism, the tender 
devotion of those dark times. 

THERE IS NOT A TOWN or vil- 
lage within the borders of our 
Commonwealth, where this work 
of remembrance could not' be done, and 
done with great effect. The site of the 
ancient meeting-house, with its stone 
fort built around it, where the early- 
settlers gathered for their worship, fully 
armed, and sentinels paced their beat 
during the service, watching against 
surprise by the wily Indian foe, may 
be forgotten, save by some lover of the 
past. The site of the Parsonage of the 
early minister, whose name can never 
be forgotten, or of the block-house, or 
the spot where the first schoolhouse 
was built, is of enduring interest. How 
many good and great men and women 
have been born and reared in the quiet 
Massachusetts villages! The birthplace 
of Mary Lyon, the pioneer in the pro- 
motion of higher education for women, 
or of Elias Howe, the inventor of the 
sewing machine, or of Prof. Morse, the 
inventor of the electric telegraph, is a 
way-mark in the march of human 
progress. Fragrant memories abide, 
which ought to be cut in stone, for the 
inspiration of the generations which are 
to come. 

Appropriations for these memorials 
may be made by the Town itself, and in 
many cases, a ready response would be 



made to an earnest and intelligent ap- 
peal. In one case, at least, the descend- 
ants of an ancient Puritan have united 
in erecting a bronze slab in his memory. 
A woman of old Newbury, my im- 
pression is, was the principal agent in 
collecting the funds, by wide and pro- 
longed correspondence, and securing 
the erection of the singularly chaste 
and beautiful memorial of the early 
settlers of the town. Any enthusiastic 
person or group of persons, may ac- 
complish a very valuable work by 
gradual growth. 

The one essential to be observed in 
all this is perfect accuracy. Vague 
traditions, and floating tales of unknown 
origin, the hear-say of grandmothers, 
and the talk of village wiseacres, are 
not the stuff from which permanent 
memorials can be constructed. The 
record must be documentary and con- 
temporaneous. The pedigrees of loca- 
tions must be traced slowly and surely 
in Town books and County Registries 
of land. Truth must be sought at any 
sacrifice of time-honored but mistaken 
belief. But the result of painstaking 
work is worth all it costs. 

Discovery will be made at last of au- 
thentic record of locations, of events, of 
individuals, which is of thrilling interest, 
which enriches the mind, kindles the 
imagination, and inspires to noble living. 
The educational and sentimental value 
of a series of memorials, begotten in 
this spirit, cannot be estimated too 
highly. 






THE 




SSACHVSETTS 
MAGAZINE 



II 



I 

ll 






I 




I 



^e uofeD-fo.(na5sact|U5cft5*Historij'QocQlcQi}-13toc)rfip()ij 
Published by the Salem Press Co. Salem, Ma.ss.U5A 

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vXIju jHassatljmtiiUt IHaiiaunc. 

A Quarterly cMagazine Devoted to History, Genealogy and Biography 
Thomas Franklin Waters, Editor, ipswich, mas.-*. 
ASSOCIATE AXD ADVISORY EDITORS 

Frank A. Gardner, M.D. Charles A. Flagg John X. McClintock Alj.ert W. Dknnis 

SALEM, MASS. WASHINGTON, D. C. DORCHKSTER, M\SS. SAI.EVJ, MA-S. 

Issued in January, April, July and October. Subscription, $2.50 per year, Single copies 75c. 



VOL. I 



APRIL, 1908 



NO. 2 



Contents of fins Jssttc- 

How the Ladies of Boston Finished Bunker 

Hill Monument Lillie B. Titus . . 63 

Massachusetts Pioneers in Michigan . . . Charles A. Flagg . 73 

Pilgrims and Planters Lucie M. Gardner . 82 

The Whipple House at Ipswich 83 

Col. John Glover's Marblehead Regiment F. A. Gardner, M. D. 85 

Department of the American Revolution F. A.Gardner, M. D. 103 

Criticism and Comment . HO 

Some Massachusetts Historical Writers .113 

Our Editorial Pages Thomas F. Waters . 117 



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Entered as second-class matter March 13. 1908, at the po*t office at Salem, Mass., under the act of Congress 
'March 3, 1879. Office of publication, 4 Central' Street, Salem, Mass. 




HOW THE LADIES OF BOSTON FINISHED 
BUNKER HILL MONUMENT. 



By Mrs. Lillie B. Titus. 




O KING Solomon's Lodge of Free Masons of Massa- 
chusetts belongs the honor of building the first monu- 
ment on Bunker Hill. It was erected to commemo- 
rate the death of General Joseph Warren, who was a 
prominent Free Mason during a large portion of his 
life and at the time of his death was the Most Wor- 
shipful Master of the Massachusetts Grand Lodge. 

This Lodge was instituted on Sept. 5, 1783. Towards 
the close of the year 1794 it was determined to erect a 
Monument on Bunker Hill and on Nov. 11 of that year it was voted 
"That Brother Josiah Bartlett, John Soley, Eliphlet Newell, William 
Calder and Daniel Stearns be a committee to erect a monument in 
Mr. Russell's pasture, provided the land can be procured, such as, 
in their opinion, will do honor to the Lodge, in memory of our late 
Brother, the Most Worshipful Joseph Warren: that they may be 
authorized to draw upon the Treasurer to defray the expenses of the 
same, and that when the Monument is finished, they report their 
doings to the Lodge." 
Under these instructions, the Committee waited upon Hon. James Russell 
and were offered by him a deed of as much land as might be needed for their 
purpose. 

At a special meeting of the Lodge, held Dec. 2, 1794 the Committee re- 
ported that the Monument had been erected in accordance with the vote 
passed. The Monument was a plain Tuscan pillar of wood eighteen feet in 



64 THE MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 

height, mounted upon a platform two feet high (this was by vote of the Lodge 
on March 16, 1795 raised to eight feet in height) and made eight feet square, 
fenced about to protect it from injury. 

On top of the Pillar was placed an Urn, bearing on the front the initials and 
age of Dr. Warren. The cost of the whole being five hundred dollars. On the 
southwest side of the pedestal was the following inscription, engraved on a 
slate stone: 

''Erected A. D. 1794 by King Solomon's Lodge of Free Masons, 
constituted at Charlestown, 1783. In memory of Major General 
Joseph Warren and his associates, who were slain on this memorable 
spot, June 17, 1775." 
Later, after the pedestal was raised to the height of eight feet, the following 
inscription was added: 

"None but those w T ho set a just value upon the blessings of Liberty 
are worthy to enjoy her." "In vain we fought, in vain we toiled, 
we bled in vain, if our offspring want valor to repel the assaults of 
her invaders." 

Charlestown settled 1628. Burnt 1775. 
Rebuilt 1776. 
The enclosed land given by Hon. James Russell. 



Both the above quotations were taken from Warren's address in the Old 
South Meeting House, March 5, 1772. The Monument was dedicated the 2nd 
of December, 1794. At two o'clock in the afternoon, a procession was formed 
at Warren Hall by Brother William Calder, consisting of the members of the 
Lodge and such other Masonic brethren as were in the town, the magistrates, 
selectmen, ministers and deacons, the town treasurer and clerk, the parish 
officers, the officers of the Artillery Company, the militia officers, the citizens, 
who had borne military commissions, and the trustees and scholars of the 
public schools. 

The procession, preceded by a band of music walked in silence to the hill, 
where a circle was formed around the pillar, and a dedicatory address was de- 
livered by the Worshipful Master of the Lodge, John Soley, Jr., afterwards 
Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of Massachusetts, from which address the 
following extract is given as illustrative of the style of those times : 

"Fellow Citizens and Brethren: We have now assembled around the graves 
of our departed countrymen to pay that tribute which is due to the brave 
defenders of our liberties. Nations in all ages have endeavored to perpetuate 
the brilliant actions of their heroes, thereby to inspire the living with a spirit 



BUNKER HILL MONUMENT 65 

of emulation and to discharge the obligations they owe to those deeds of valor 
by which their rights are secured. We, Citizens of Columbia, not content 
with having raised a monument of gratitude in our hearts, would present one 
to the eye of future generations. 

Directed by these laudable motives, King Solomon's Lodge of Free and 
Accepted Masons have erected on Mount Warren the pillar you behold, and. 
in their behalf, I now dedicate it to the memory of our late beloved and Most 
Worshipful Brother, the Honorable Joseph Warren and his associates, who 
nobly fell on this memorable spot, in the cause of their country." 

After the address, nine minute-guns were fired by Capt. Smith's Artillery 
Company with the flag displayed half-mast high. 

The procession then returned to Warren Hall, where a solemn dirge was 
played, after which an eloquent eulogy on Gen. Warren was delivered by 
Right Worshipful Brother Josiah Bartlett and the ceremonies were concluded 
with the following sentiment: "May the fragrance of a good report, like a sprig 
of Cassia, bloom over the grave of every departed Brother." 

On March 8, 1S25, a Committee was appointed to make a present of both 
this land and the Monument to the Bunker Hill Monument Association, but 
some time between that date and May 10th of the same year, the pillar was 
"demolished by some person to the Lodge unknown." 

A committee was appointed by the Lodge to inquire into the matter, but 
nothing was ever known about it, until in 1885 the original slate stone bearing 
the first inscription upon the pillar, was discovered at Arlington, Mass., in the 
old cemetery, where it had been used as a tablet for the Tomb of James Russell, 
erected in 1811. 

It was discovered by the merest accident and through the efforts of Hiram 
Lodge Free and Accepted Masons it was returned in 1886 with appropriate 
ceremonies to King Solomon's Lodge. It now bears the following inscription: 
"Presented to King Solomon's Lodge Charlestown, in behalf of the heirs of 
Bro. James Russell by William H. Poole, W. M. of Hiram Lodge Arlington, 
Feb. 23, 1886." 

William Tudor is said to have first advanced the plan for the purchase of 
the battle-ground and the erection of the present monument. In 1823. he 
with Jour other gentlemen, finally decided to act together in the premises, and 
the "Russell Pasture," consisting of two and three-quarter acres, was bought 
for $1250, and on the 27th of June of the same year, twenty-four gentlemen 
were incorporated as the Bunker Hill Monument Association, and later twenty- 
five others were elected members. It was promised, when the land, on which 
had stood the original monument, was presented to the Bunker Hill Monu- 



66 THE MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 

ment Association, that in the new structure some recognition should be made 
of the existence and history of the Monument erected by King Solomon's Lodge 
and at first it was intended to carry that promise into effect by placing in the 
interior of the present monument, a marble tablet suitably inscribed. But 
at a later date it was decided to substitute in the place of the tablet that had 
been proposed, a perfect model of the original monument, and an exact model 
was made from the finest Italian marble, about nine feet in height, including 
the pedestal, which model was placed on the floor of the inner chamber of the 
well-room of the present monument directly opposite the entrance. In addi- 
tion to the original inscriptions upon it, there have been added the following 
words : 

"This is an exact model of the first monument erected on Bunker 
Hill, which, with the land on which it stood, was given A. D. 1825 
by King Solomon's Lodge of this town to the Bunker Hill Monument 
Association that they might erect upon its site a more imposing 
structure. The Association, in fulfilment of a pledge at that time 
F given have allowed in their imperishable obelisk, this model to be 
inserted, with appropriate ceremonies, by King Solomon's Lodge, 
June 24, A. D. 1845." 
This model was dedicated on Saint John's Day, 1845 ; the exercises being 
carried out mostly under the direction of the Grand Lodge ; the Grand Marshall 
being Winslow Lewis, Jr. These exercises were attended by the Grand Lodge 
of Maine, New Hampshire, Connecticut, and Rhode Island, the address being 
given by the venerable John Soley, Past Master of King Solomon's Lodge and 
Past Grand Master. 

In order to solicit funds for the new monument, a prospectus was distrib- 
uted through the country, followed on the 20th of September, 1S24, by a cir- 
cular from the directors, and on the 1st of October by an earnest printed appeal 
which was sent to the selectmen of every town in Massachusetts. 

In 1825 an Act of the Massachusetts Legislature was passed to aid the work, 
stone was hammered at the Prison, more land secured, in all some fifteen acres 
costing S23,232.43, and a subscription was headed in Boston by the Hon. Wil- 
liam Phillips with S1000. David Sears and Peter C. Brooks also contributed 
$500 each. By Sept. 1, 1825, the amount raised was 854,433. G7. On June 
17, 1825, the corner stone of the present monument to commemorate the great 
Battle for Independence was laid with much enthusiasm by the Masonic Grand 
Lodge of Massachusetts, and King Solomon's Lodge, having been invited to 
assist, voted to accept the invitation and to present, on that important occa- 
sion, to their illustrious Brother, General Lafayette, a gold mounted cane 



BUNKER HILL MONUMENT 67 

made from a piece of one of the cedar posts of the original monument. Daniel 
Webster was the orator of the dav. The cost of this celebration according 
to the report made in 1S30 was S4720.85. 

On July 1, 1S25, estimates were obtained by the Bunker Hill Monument 
Association for an obelisk to be two hundred and twenty feet high, on a square 
base of thirty feet to be built of Chelmsford granite, to cost one hundred 
thousand dollars. 

Solomon Willard was chosen to be superintendent of the work, and to it 
he gave much time and attention. He early recognized the superiority of the 
granite from the quarries at Quincy, and insisted that granite from that place 
should be used in preference to any other. At that time, however, much fear 
was expressed that there would not be stone enough left in the quarries to 
complete the Monument. 

It is an interesting fact to note here, that the first railroad track built in 
Massachusetts was laid to transport this granite from the quarries to the sea. 
A piece of this track is still preserved in Quincy, suitably marked by a tablet. 
The ties are granite blocks upon which the rails were laid and it was built from 
the granite quarries to the banks of the Neponset River, where the stone was 
loaded upon barges and taken across the Bay to Charlestown. Work upon 
the Monument was immediately begun, but the necessary expenses for the 
land and base of the Monument made sad inroads upon the funds, and it was 
soon seen that the sum was totally inadequate to complete the work. After 
an auspicious beginning the enterprise began to lag, and as too often happens 
in such affairs, not enough money was raised at the start to complete the un- 
dertaking, public interest waned, and subscriptions wholly ceased. In Feb- 
ruary, 1829, the order was given to suspend work on the Monument for lack 
of funds, and at that time only fourteen courses of stone had been laid ; the 
Monument having risen only to the height of thirty-seven feet, four inches. 
The expenditures to this date amounted to S56525.19. 

Eight years now elapsed and the uncompleted Monument stood like a 
spectre on the summit of Bunker Hill, a reproach to all. An effort was then 
made to enlist the aid of the Massachusetts Charitable Mechanic Association 
in the enterprise, and an agreement was entered into with them that they 
should take charge of the work, subject only to a general supervision by the 
Bunker Hill Monument Association. Work was therefore resumed under 
their direction on June 17, 1834, and continued until Nov., 1S35. During this 
period eighteen courses of stone were laid making the total height eighty-five 
feet, at a cost of $20,421.17, of which about sixteen thousand dollars was 
raised by this organization. 



68 THE MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 

The Massachusetts Charitable Mechanic Association finally became dis- 
couraged in their efforts to complete their stupendus task and failing of success 
they called a public meeting in Faneuil Hall to try to arouse public interest 
and sympathy in the work. Daniel Webster presided and in eloquent tones 
appealed to the patriotism and generousity of the city, urging the duty of the 
citizens to raise the funds needed to complete the work, but all in vain. 

In 1834 the Massachusetts Charitable Mechanic Association reported "that 
the general depression arising from the state of the country had been unfavor- 
able to their exertion." Unfortunately too, business affairs progressed from 
bad to worse, and the panic of 1837 discouraged every one. 

In 1836 an attempt was made to interest the state in the completion of 
the Monument, but without avail. The Committee presented a report that 
"the Massachusetts Charitable Mechanic Association after two years' labor 
and an expenditure of more than twenty thousand dollars, finds the Monu- 
ment not much more than half finished, and it cannot, in the estimation of 
the Committee, be raised to a height of one hundred and sixty feet for less than 
twenty-five thousand dollars" — which report was "Referred to the next General 
Court" and there the matter rested. From 1836 to 1840 the outlook was very 
gloomy. The financial condition of the country was bad ; the panic causing 
many failures, which brought distress to all classes, especially in New England. 
The country was poor to a degree that now seems almost incredible. 

In spite, however, of the depression in business, which might well have 
deterred them, the ladies of Boston rose to the occasion. 

Some years before in 1833 through the untiring energy of Mrs. Henry Smith, 
one of the most active and benevolent women in Boston, who was one of the 
most energetic workers in the Hollis St. Church Society, and a great friend 
and helper of the blind in Boston, a great Fair was held in Boston at Faneuil 
Hall by which the ladies raised the sum of SI 1,600 in order to secure the gift 
of Mr. Thomas H. Perkins, whose offer of ten thousand dollars was made on 
condition that a like sum should be raised to erect the building for the blind, 
now known as the Perkins Institution for the Blind. 

Mrs. Henry Smith was the treasurer of the Fair and through her efforts 
it was such a great success financially, that, encouraged by her advice and 
example, the ladies of Boston once more, in 1840, started to raise the twenty- 
five thousand dollars needed to complete the Monument on Bunker Hill. 

jOn July 15, 1S40 the ladies of the Bunker Hill Monument Association sent 
an*appeal to the ladies of Boston and through them to the ladies of New Eng- 
land, to unite in the exertions about to be made to raise funds sufficient "to 
finish the obelisk on Charlestown Heights." The invitation was cordially 



BUNKER HILL MONUMEMT 



69 



welcomed by the ladies not only of Boston and vicinity but all over New Eng- 
land. 

The fair opened Tuesday morning in Quincy Hall, Sept. S, 1840, and con- 
tinued seven days. There were thirty-seven tables of articles mostly the 

Ten M©HUMMMT. 



mi 



Bfrettxn, inesban. September ISliL, 1840. 



■Xo. Vlt. 



S. i. HALS. ! 



It. v. ;:.iiMaoi>. 




THE BU.OES OF BCVKEE HILL. 



The heroes of Bunker Hill ! Is 
there an American will Deed he told 
the names of ice trio-~W arrets, 
Preecoa, Putnam ! — oaraes chat will 
never die while a free heart beats 

Gen. Jose ra Wat* is*, the first 
in command on the memorable 17th 
of June, at Banker Hiil, was bora 
Id Roxbury, Mass. in 1741— just 
ornery-cine years ago. His father 
died when be was quite young: but 
bja eaorileot mother well perform- 
ed ber double task, and trained ber 
■no to love truth, justice and r. ght- 

prrcerples, from the proper applica- 
tioo of which civil and religious 
liberry are dedused, and social and 
moral improvement owe all their 
pr o gr es s, it was, that he became a 
patriot aod a warrior. 

At the retreat of the British troops 
from Lexington, General Warren 
siaai very Dear being killed. A 
musket ball took off a lock of his 
hair, which wa.-* cu rle>l cloae to h is 
bead, a< was the fashion of the 
times. His n -other was so arTected 
by tbe incident, that ahe entreated 
bun not to nsk again a life so dear 
to ber and so necessary tohiscouo- 
try. 

His reply waa, ^Wherever dan- 
ger is, dear motber,there mustyour 
son be; w» is no dine for one of 
America'* children to shrink from 
tbe osost hazardoua duty. I will 
cither see my couotry /rte, or shed 
my last drop of blood to make her 
•n* 

And he did shed bis t>W. to tbe 
last drop. It wan poured out a sac- 
rifice to freedom on Bunker Hill. 
Shall ve c ot k y of that mount, 



Colonel WuxiiK Peiscott — 
another of lbs heroes of Bunker 
Bill, was bora at Groton, Masaa- 
ehosetra, but settled at Peppereli, 
before tbe war of our Revolution 
commenced. It may be truly w..i 
of this great and good man, as of 



How strong and holy must tbe 
love of freedom, of<ountry bare 
been in the hearts of those who first 
stood forth to breast the storm, 
which" the haughty and vindictive 
government of Great Britain bad 
determined should bow tbe Colo- 
nies to ber will, or crush them in 
ruins at her feet! And among tbe 
first and foremost came the brave 
Colonel PrescorL Few risked 
more, for be bad Urge posse-awe* 
and was. living in the enjoyment of 
every comfort at his pleasant resi- 
dence in Peppereli. But tbe foes 
of bis country were encamped in 
Boston — they threatened to ravage 
and lay waste tbe peaceful boines 
of his* counrryraen. He thought 
not of his own safety, made no 
self interested calculations for his 
own benefit ; the sacred call cfdu- 
ty, that voice of. God in the heart, 
to defend those iaar,euable rights 
which He has bestowed on every 
reasonable beine, was unhesitating- 
ly obeyed. The services wh.cn 
Colonel Ptescott recdered to his 
country on Bunker Hill have never 
been sufficiently understood or ap- 
preciated. After the lamented fell 
of General Warren, he bail the en- 
tire command of the American 
troop.-, and by bis own eiamjiie 
incited ibem to their unparaiied ef- 
forts. Tbe ver-erab>e and esteem- 
ed Dr. James Thacber thus notices 
him m ha Journal. 

•The incomparable Colonel Pres- 
eoa marched at the head of the de- 
tachment (to take possession of 
Bunker Hill) aod though several 
general officers were .present, be 
retained tbe command during the 
action. He displayed* a native 
bravery altogether ur.rivai.ed, and 
icfused tbe cocquenng spirit of a 
solder into the hesra of all who 
were under his commend, and 
crowned himaeuf with immortal 



General IsaaxL Prr.«AM.— The 
rery name caila up the form of trie 
old iroo-hearted soldier, who ha. I 
endured the hardships of mar>% 
campaigns in the French warswitn 
the American colonists, and all the- 
horrors of Indian captivity and 
tortures. Thus trained in tbe 
school of dariog and enduring, be 
was 6tted to be, what be proreil 
himself— use champion of Free- 
dom! 

General Putnam was born in 
Salem, Massachusetts, but bad, for 
many years, been a eitizeu of Pom- 
fret, Coooectx-m. There be ww 
peaceably employed, tilling bia 
farm, when tbe report of the bat- 
tle at Leicgtoo eaine like a thoiv- 
der-bott, to rouse him from tbe 
dream of conciliation with tbo 
mother country, which be, as well 
ss most of the colonists had, till 
that time, cherished. 

But, soldier as he bad been, a: 1 
therefore better able to estimate 
tbe tremendous military power o( 
Great Britain, wben compared wuh 
that of his own country, be did 
not, for a moment, hesitate or fal- 
ter. The next day, after be beard 
of tbe batrieofLeXiCgtcn, be reach- 
ed Can- bridge, riding tbe whole dis- 
tance, one hundred miles, in that 

General Putnam was with the 
first detatchment that marched to 
take possession of tbe heights of 
Chariestown. He was tie princi- 
pal engineer, traced the lines of 
the redoubt, and continued ail night 
with the workmen. Of bis deeds 
on Bucker Hildas wed as through- 
out the war, the history of his coun- 
try preserves the record. It is a 
glory »be will never let fade, H« 
wes, in L-uth, tbe type and embodi- 
ment cf the heruie and self-aacri- 
ficiog spirit of that war for humaji 
risbts, 'or ervi! *nd moral freedom ; 
of those strong-banded and bigb- 
sculed roeo, of whom it may truly 



A copy of the daily newspaper published during the week of the fair, 
author has a complete file of these papers, possibly 
the only one in existence. 



The 



work'of the ladies. Besides these there was a postoffice, public refreshment 
room, confectionary table and a printing office where a daily paper called 
"The Monument" was printed, which was edited by Mrs. Sarah J. Hale. All 



70 THE MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 

these were under the immediate management of the ladies at the fair. The 
first day the number of tickets sold exceeded all expectations, the receipts 
being two thousand dollars. The second day twelve thousand persons bought 
tickets. The third day over eight thousand tickets were sold. The fourth 
day eight thousand tickets were again sold, making the fair then an assured 
success, the receipts from the door alone in only four days having been nearly 
ten thousand dollars. 

When Saturday night came, to quote from Mrs. Sarah J. Hale, the editor 
of "The Monument" "The ladies, who keep tables have generally speaking 
borne the fatigue and care with admirable patience and self-possession ; still 
we cannot but rejoice that tomorrow will be a day of rest. . . .If any bitter or 
unkind feeling has been suffered to intrude into a single mind or any wrong 
purpose has been pursued; if any selfish motive has mingled in the work of 
disinterested patriotism we have ostensibly been pursuing, let us pray for 
grace to overcome all these temptations, and when we meet here on Monday 
refreshed in mind as well as corporal strength, will it not be with the devoted 
purpose of continuing our exertions until our object is accomplished?" After 
the rest of the Sabbath the ladies met in Quincy Hall on Monday morning to 
continue their good work, with confidence that their labors were to be crowned 
with success. 

To quote from Mrs. Hale at the close of the Fair, on Sept. 15, 1840, "We 
can say safely that a sufficient sum has been received to warrant us in saying 
that the Monument will be completed. It is a source of much gratification 
that so many of our own sex have participated in this patriotic effort. It has 
shown what our sex can do." 

There were many rare and curious articles offered for sale at this fair such 
as never before or since have been seen at any fair in Boston. Many relics of 
General Washington and other Revolutionary heroes commanded high prices. 
The postoffice with letters advertised "For every inhabitant of Boston" was 
an original idea of this fair, and brought a large revenue. A beautiful piano, 
presented to the fair by Mr. Chickering attracted great attention, pianos in 
those days being a luxury unknown to many. "Velvet opera caps" for gentle- 
men, unknown today, were offered at several tables. Models of Bunker Hill 
Monument sold readily. To show the interest of young and old in the fair, 
an aged lady of Boston, Mrs. Thankful Gore, seventy-four years of age, the 
mother of Mrs. Henry Smith, and the great-grandmother of the writer, in- 
sisted upon dressing with her own hands, a miniature four poster bedstead, 
hemming and marking the dainty linen sheets and pillowslips, embroidering 
the blankets and white dimity spread, marking each piece "Mrs. Thankful 



BUNKER HILL MONUMENT 71 

Gore, aged 74, for the Bunker Hill Monument Fair." It was sold for one 
hundred dollars and presented to Mrs. Smith, who with true patriotic spirit 
offered it again for sale. It w r as bought again by a gentleman, who said that 
"none but such a devoted daughter should have her mother's handiwork," so 
he again presented it to Mrs. Smith, in whose family it has been handed down 
as an interesting souvenir. 

The great fair closed on the evening of Sept. 15, 1840. and a few days after, 
to the delight of the ladies, it was announced that by their skill and industry 
they had raised the sum of 830,035.53 and the completion of the Monument 
was assured. Several other donations were handed in, one of five hundred 
and sixty-nine dollars being the gift of Fannie Ellsler, the famous danseuse. 



QUI fllemnmcnt <£el e , 

-AsP- 17th JUSTE, 1843. l Uft' 

** A ID ElE 2 A ILADir °«- 

Within the Square, to Hie Latltes' Seats. 

Mar*k*!s will be in attendance to receive the I.adi'-i, irom 10 :u 11 
u'clock, at the Steps on the south side o! the monument. 



Facsimile of one of the tickets issued for the fair. The original is oH pink 

glazed card-board neatly embossed with miniature monuments in the 

corners which do not show clearly in the plate. 

The work then went steadily on and the Monument approached completion. 
On Saturday, July 23, 1842, pursuant to public notice, at six o'clock in the 
morning, the directors and several hundred citizens assembled upon Bunker 
Hill to witness the laying of the capstone upon the Monument. As the clock 
struck six, a signal gun was fired by members of the Charlestown Artillery 
and the capstone, which had been previously adjusted with a hoisting appara- 
tus connected with a steam engine immediately began to ascend. Just as 
it was leaving the ground, a great sensation was given to the spectators when 
a reckless man named Edward Carnes, holding a small American flag in his 



72 THE MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 

hand, sprang upon the stone, and holding on by the ropes was carried on the 
stone up to the top of the monument. 

In sixteen minutes the capstone reached its destination. At half past six 
it was embedded in the cement, and a national salute, fired by the Charleston n 
Artillery, announced to the world, the completion of Bunker Hill Monument. 
The formal ceremonies of dedication were held Saturday, June 17, 184:J. 
President Tyler and his Cabinet were among the invited guests, Daniel Web- 
ster being the orator upon the completion as he had been at the beginning of 
the great work. 

All honor to the women of Boston! The busy hands that wrought so well 
have crumbled into dust, but the Monument stands, not alone to commemo- 
rate our glorious Independence, but to show to the world, the courage, energy 
and patriotism of the women of Boston, whose earnest work should never be 
forgotten, and whose hands alone brought forth to completion, the noble 
monument on Bunker Hill. 

Quincy, Mass., April, 1908. 



[This is the first instalment of a series of articles on Massachusetts Pioneers to other states, to be 
published by The Massachusetts Magazine.] 

MASSACHUSETTS PIONEERS. 
MICHIGAN SERIES. 



By C. A. Flagg 



It may fairly be said that American genealogists are fortunate in the matter 
of publications prepared for their especial use. From the first appearance of 
"Durrie" down to the recent completion of the splendid "Index to. persons" 
for the first fifty volumes of the "New England historical and genealogical 
register" there has been no lack of handbooks, indexes, guides, bibliographies 
and reference lists making available the wealth of material in print. 

Yet much remains to be done. Where is the family historian who has not 
worried over and vainly sought for the sons and daughters of our old New Eng- 
land families who left the homes between 1780 and 1850, leaving no trace be- 
yond the tradition that they went "West"? Prior to the discovery of gold in 
California and the later development of the Mountain and Pacific states follow, 
ing the completion of the transcontinental railroad, the term "West" to be sure 
was comparatively restricted in meaning, though from a New England stand- 
point it might signify anything from Central New York to the Mississippi 
Valley. 

The emigrant pioneers were too busily engaged in establishing themselves 
and building new communities to maintain long their relations with the old 
homes or to preserve the raw materials of history. The New England element, 
however mindful at home of the value of local records, formed but a fraction 
of the new commonwealths ; vital statistics were not matter of public care. 
and even under the enactments of later times, scarcely anything has been 
transmitted to print. 

To be sure pioneer societies sprang up everywhere during the later years of 
the first generation, but they have published or preserved very little for us. 
Historical societies, such as the "Michigan pioneer and historical society" have 
done much to perpetuate the memory of the pioneers, as have also a few nota- 
ble periodicals, but the field is far too broad for such agencies. It seems clear 
that he who would investigate the lives of the pioneers must find the most of 
his material between the covers of the quarto and folio county histories and 
nowhere else. 



74 THE MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 

This class of books, bulky, expensive and much maligned, first began to ap- 
pear in the late "seventies" principally the production of a few men who went 
into the publishing business in Chicago, Philadelphia and elsewhere seeing a 
chance to reap a golden harvest from the country folk by publishing sketches 
and portraits of such as would subscribe at exorbitant figures. The works 
were of slight value historically; in fact it was almost impossible to get a writer 
of any repute to lend his name to such an undertaking. About a decade later 
(1885-95) came another like movement, only the output now bore some such 
title as "Portrait and biographical album" and omitted the historical part 
altogether. And since 1900 there have been a number published, but more 
diversified in form and character and of a considerable higher degree of ex- 
cellence. Certain common points are noted: publication by subscription, 
quarto or folio size, heavy paper, numerous portraits usually of poor quality, 
leather binding, the earlier ones almost invariably beginning with extended 
lives of the presidents and governors of the state; and indexes, when found at 
all, most pitifully insufficient. 

Let it be understood that the foregoing characterization does not apply to 
all county histories of this period : some works of this class have been produced 
by real historians and issued by ordinary publishers, while there is another 
group of modest little works by local writers, usually printed at home and con- 
taining little or no biographical material. These last are useless for our present 
purpose however. 

But after making all due allowance for the unsatisfactory character of these 
histories ; nearly every sketch in them contains genealogical material and often- 
times an extended family record in several ancestral lines. Inadequate as 
may be the sketch of an emigrant ancestor, the descendants of the present 
generation are almost invariably located, thus furnishing clues for further 
investigation. 

The present is the first serious attempt, as far as known, to make available 
for genealogists a portion of this material — Massachusetts emigrants as found 
in the county histories of Michigan. It would have been easy to enlarge the 
list by including such works as the various general biographical histories of 
the state, the collections of the "Michigan pioneer and historical society," etc., 
but it seems best to restrict our researches to the fairly homogeneous class of 
county histories and a few other works of similar character. 

In explanation of the sub-title, let it be understood that the following is not 
merely a list of Massachusetts pioneers in Michigan. In fact a large number 
of the persons named never saw Michigan, the intention being to index the 
name of every native of the Bay State who emigrated, whether the subject of 
the biographic sketch or one of his near or remote ancestors. 



MICHIGAN PIONEERS 75 

Very few of the volumes listed are available in the great libraries of Massa- 
chusetts. The Berkshire Athenaeum of Pittsfield, the Essex Institute of Salem 
and the Public Library of Worcester have none at all ; the State Library at 
Boston one volume only and the Public Library and the New England 
Historic-Genealogical Society of Boston, two each. There may be a few more 
in other collections in the state but probably no considerable number. Among 
other libraries comparatively near are the New York State Library at Albany 
with 17 volumes and the Lenox branch of the Public Library of Xew York 
City with 18. Of the total of 68 works listed, the Library of Congress has 49. 

In a way, the very inaccessibility of the material is an added reason for in- 
dexing it, as it certainly exists in print and if the index reveals nothing for our 
use, it can simply be eliminated from consideration, while with an exact refer- 
ence given one knows just what he wants to consult and where it can be seen. 

The purpose has been to give name, date and town of birth, and date of re- 
moval and state in which pioneer settled. When dates are not found, they are 
often supplied with a ?, which means "approximately" or as near as can be 
ascertained from the context. It has seemed better to do this even with a 
possibility of 15 or 20 years miscalculation in extreme cases, rather than leave 
names entirely indeterminate with respect to time. 

No notice has been taken of the considerable number of pioneers who were 
simply "from New England" though a part of them must belong to us. 

The work has been hastily done and it is too much to hope that it will be 
found free from errors and omissions. We trust it may be useful to inquirers 
and result in the restoration of many a lost branch to its proper place in the 
ancestral tree. 



76 



THE MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 



WORKS INDEXED 



List of Michigan county histories, giving the abbreviations used in this work and libraries reporting the 
books in their collections. B = Boston Public Library; D = Detroit Public Library; L = New York P 
Library (Lenox branch); L. C. = Library of Congress; Mass. = Mass. State Library, Boston; Mich. = Mich- 
igan State Library, Lansing; X. Y. S. = New York State Library, Albany; New Eng. = New England His- 
toric Genealogical Society, Boston; 'Univ. M. ss University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. 

Of the 85 counties in the state no less than G6 are represented in the list, several of them two or more 
times. 

Alger County, see Northern M. ; North- 
ern P.; Upper P. 
A llegan Hist. History of Allegan and Barry 
counties. Philadelphia, D. W. Ensign 
& co., 1880. 521 p. (L. C, Mich., 
N.Y.S.) 

Allegan Twent. A twentieth century his- 
tory of Allegan County. By H. F. 
Thomas. Chicago, Lewis pub. co., 
1907. 
Allegan Countv, see also Kalamazoo 

Port. 
Antrim County, see Traverse. 
Baraga County, see Houghton; North- 
ern M.; Northern P.; Upper P. 
Barry County, see Allegan Hist. 

Bay Gansser History of Bay County, Michi- 
gan and representative citizens . . . By 
A. H. Gansser. Chicago, Richmond 
& Arnold, 1905. 726 p. (L. t L. C, 
Mich.) 

Bay Hist. History of Bay County, Mich- 
igan, with illustrations and biograph- 
ical sketches of some of its prominent 
men and pioneers. Chicago, H. R. 
Page & co., 1883. 281 p. (D.) 
Benzie County, see Traverse. 

Berrien Hist. History of Berrien and 
Van Buren counties. Philadelphia, 
D. W. Ensign & co., 1880. 548 p. 
(L.C.;Mich.; X. Y. S.) 

Berrien Port. Portrait and biographical 
record of Berrien and Cass counties. 
Chicago, Biographical pub. co., 
1893. 922 p. (L. C.) 

Berrien Twent. A twentieth century 
history of Berrien County. O. W. 
Coolidge, author. Chicago, Lewis 
pub. co., 1906. 1007 p. (D.) 

Branch Hist. Historv of Branch County. 
Philadelphia, Everts & Abbot, 1879. 
347 p. (L. C, Mich.) 

Branch Port. Portrait and biographical 
album of Branch County. Chicago, 
Chapman bros., 1888. 648 p. (L. C.) 



Branch Twent. A twentieth century his- 
tory and biographical record of 
Branch County, Michigan. Rev. 
Henry P. Collin, M. A., author and 
editor. New York, Lewis pub. co., 
1906. 879 p. (L. C.) 

Calhoun History of Calhoun County. 
Philadelphia, L. H. Everts & co., 
1877. 212 p. (D., L. C, Mich., 
N. Y. S.) 

Cass Hist. History of Cass County. Chi- 
cago, Waterman, Watkins & co., 
1882. 432 p. (L. C.) 

Cass Twent. A twentieth century history 
of Cass County, Michigan. L. H. 
Glover . . . editor. Chicago. Lewis 
pub. co., 1906. 782 p. (L. C.) 

Cass County, see also Berrien Port. 

Charlevoix County, see Traverse. 

Cheboygan County, see Traverse. 

Chippewa County, see Northern M.; 
Northern P.; Upper P. 

Clinton Past The past and present of 
Clinton County. By S. B. Daboll. 
Chicago, S. J. Clarke pub. co., 1906. 

Clinton Port. Portrait and biographical 
album of Clinton and Shiawassee 
counties. Chicago, Chapman, 1891. 
1001 p. (L., Mich.) 
Clinton County, see also Shiawassee. 
Delta County, see Northern M.; 
Northern P.; Upper P. 

Detroit History of Detroit and Wayne 
County. By Silas Farmer. 3d. or 
Township and biographical edition. 
Detroit, S. Farmer & co., 1S90. 
2 volumes (D., L. C.) 

The 2d or Biographical edition 1889 cntains 
nearly the same material, but pa^e references 
do not apply exactly; the 1st edition. 1SS4 
is in one volume; general history without 
biographies. 

Dickinson Countv, see Northern M.; 

Northern P.; Upper P. 
Eaton County, see Ingham Hist. 
Emmet County, see Traverse. 






,. ,., -1.v:<' 



MICHIGAN PIONEERS 



77 



Genesee Hist. History of Genesee County. 
With illustrations and biographical 
sketches. [By Franklin Ellis.] Phil- 
adelphia, Everts and Abbott, 1S79. 
446 p. (B., L., L. C, X. Y. S.) 

Genesee Part. Portrait and biographical 
record of Genesee, Lapeer and Tus- 
cola counties. Chicago. Chapman 
bros., 1892. 1056 p. (L. C.) 
Gogebic County, see Northern M.; 
Northern P.; Upper P. 

Grand Rapids City The city of Grand 
Rapids and Kent County, Mich., 
up to date, containing biographical 
sketches of prominent and repre- 
sentative citizens. [Logansport, 
Ind.] A. W. Bowen & co., 1900. 
1105 p. (L.) 

Grand Rapids Hist. History of Grand 
Rapids and its industries. By 
Dwight Goss. Chicago, C. F. Cooper 
& co., 1906. 2 vols. (Mich.) 

Grand Rapids Lowell History of the 
city of Grand Rapids, Michigan. 
(With an appendix — History of 
Lowell, Michigan), by Albert Baxter. 
New York, Munsell & co., 1891. 
854 p. (L. C, Mich.) 

Grand River Memorials of the Grand 
River Valley. By F. Everett. Chi- 
cago, 1878. (Univ. M.) 
Grand Traverse County, see Traverse. 

Gratiot Portrait and biographical album 
of Gratiot County. Chicago, Chap- 
man, bros., 1884. 820 p. (L. C, 
Mich.) 

Hillsdale Hist. History of Hillsdale 
County, Michigan, with illustrations 
and biographical sketches. Phila- 
delphia, Everts & Abbott, 1879. 
334 p. (L. C, X. Y. S.) 

Hillsdale Port. Portrait and biographi- 
cal album of Hillsdale Countv. 
Chicago, Chapman bros., 1888. 1004 
p. (L., L. C.) 

Houghton Biographical record; this vol- 
ume contains biographical sketches 
of leading citizens of Houghton, 
Baraga and Marquette counties. 
Chicago, Biographical pub. co., 
1903. 410 p. (D., L., L. C.) 
Houghton County, see also Northern 
M.; Northern P., Upper P. 

Huron Portrait and biographical album 
of Huron County. Chicago, Chap- 
man bros., 1884. 500 p. (L. C.) 



Ingham Hist. History of Ingham and 
Eaton counties. Michigan, with illus- 
trations and _ biographical sketches 
of their prominent men and pioneers. 
By S. W. Durant. Philadelphia. 
D. W. Ensign & co., 1880. 580 p 
(B., D., L. C, X. Y. S.) 

Ingham Port. Portrait and biographical 
album of Ingham and Livingston 
counties. Chicago, Chapman bros., 
1891. 871 p. (L. C. Mich.; 
Ingham County, see also Lansing. 

Ionia Hist. History of Ionia and Mont- 
calm counties, Michigan, with illus- 
trations and biographical sketches. 
By J. S. Schenck. Philadelphia, 
D. W. Ensign & co., 1881. 502 p. 
(N. Y. S.) 

Ionia Port. Portrait and biographical 
album of Ionia and Montcalm 
counties. Chicago, Chapman bros., 
1891. 846 p. (D., Mich.) 

Isabella Portrait and biographical album 
of Isabella County. Chicago, Chap- 
man bros., 1884. 589 p. (L. C.) 
Isle Royale County, see Northern M.; 
Northern P.; Upper P. 

Jackson Hist. History of Jackson County, 
Michigan, together with . . . port- 
traits of prominent persons and 
biographies of representative citizens. 
Chicago, Inter-state pub. co., 1881. 
1156p. (D., L., L. C, Mich., X.Y.S.) 

Jackson Port. Portrait and biographical 
album of Jackson County. Contain- 
ing . . . biographical sketches of 
prominent and representative citi- 
zens . . . Chicago, Chapman bros., 
1890. 8S1 p. (Mich.) 

Kalamazoo Hist. History of Kalamazoo 
County, Michigan. With illustra- 
tions and biographical sketches of 
its prominent men and pioneers. 
[By S. W. Durant.] Philadelphia, 
Everts & Abbott, 1880. 552 p. (D. f 
L. C, X. Y. S.) 

Kalamar.oq Port. Portrait and biograph- 
ical record of Kalamazoo, Allegan 
and Van Buren counties. Chicago. 
Chapman bros., 1S92. 9S6 p. (L.C.) 
Kalkaska County, see Traverse. 
Keweenaw Countv, see Northern M.; 
Northern P.; Upper P. 

Kent History of Kent County. Michigan; 
together with . . . portraits of prcrr.i- 
nent persons, and biographies of 



<;-, 



78 



THE MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 



representative citizens. Chicago, 
C. C. Chapman & co., 1881. 1426 p. 
(D., L., L. C, N. Y. S.) 
Kent County, see also Grand Rapids. 

Lake Huron History of the Lake Huron 
shore. With illustrations and bio- 
graphical sketches of some of its 
prominent men and pioneers. Chi- 
cago, H. R. Page & co., 1883. 2S0 p. 
(D.) 

Lansing Past and present of the city of 
Lansing and Ingham County. By 
Albert Cowles. Lansing, Michigan 
historical pub. co., 1904. (Mich.) 
Lapeer County, see Genesee Port. 
Leelanaw County, see Traverse. 

Lenawee Hist. History and biographical 
record of Lenawe"e Countv . . . Vol. I. 
By W. A. Whitney and'R. I. Bon- 
ner. Adrian, Mich., 1879. 536 p. 
(L. C, New Eng.) 

Vol. II was published but no copy has been 
located. 
Lenawee Illus. Illustrated history and 
biographical record of Lenawee 
County . . . By J. I. Knapp and R. I. 
Bonner. Adrian, Mich., 1903. 511 
p. (D., L., L. C.) 
Lenawee Port. Portrait and biographical 
album of Lenawee County. Chi- 
cago, Chapman bros., 1888. * 1217 p. 
(L.) 

Livingston County, see Ingham Port. 

Luce County, see Northern M.; North- 
ern P.; Upper P. 

Mackinac County, see Northern M.; 
Northern P.; Upper P. 
Macomb Hist. History of Macomb County 
Michigan, containing . . . biograph- 
ical sketches, portraits of promi- 
nent men and early settlers. Chi- 
cago, M. A. Leeson & co., 1882. 
924 p. (D., L., L. C, Mass., Mich., 
N. Y. S.) 
Macomb Past. Past and present of Ma- 
comb County, Michigan . . . To- 
gether with biographical sketches 
of many of its leading and promi- 
nent citizens. By R. F. Eldredge. 
Chicago, The S. J. Clarke pub. co., 
1905. 712 p. (L.) 

Marquette Countv, see Houghton; 
Northern M.; Northern P.; Upper 

P.) 

Mecosta Portrait and biographical album 
of Mecosta County. Chicago, Chap- 
man bros., 1883. 654 p. (D., L., 
L. C.) 



Menominee Countv, see Northern M.; 
Northern P.; Upper P. 

Midland Portrait and biographical album 
of Midland Countv. Chicago, Chap- 
man bros., 1884.' 433 p. (D., L., 
L. C.) 

Monroe History of Monroe County. T. E. 

Wing, editor. New York, Munsell 

& co., 1890. 6064-53 p. (D., L. C.) 

Montcalm County, see Ionia Hist.; 

Ionia Port. 

Muskegon Hist. History of Muskegon 
County, Michigan, with illustrations 
and biographical sketches of some 
of its prominent men and pioneers. 
Chicago, H. R. Page & co., 1882. 
151 p. (L. C, Mich.) 

Appended is History of Ottawa County. 1882. 
133 p. 

Muskegon Port. Portrait and biographi- 
cal record of Muskegon and Ottawa 
counties. Chicago, Biographical pub. 
co., 1893. 577 p. (D., L., L. C.) 

Newaygo Portrait and biographical al- 
bum of Xewayco[ !] County. Chi- 
cago, Chapman bros., 1884. 572 p. 
(L. C.) 

Northern M. Portrait and biographical 
record of Northern Michigan. Chi- 
cago, Record pub. co., 1895. 551 p. 
(D., L. C.) 

Northern P. Memorial record of the 
Northern Peninsula of Michigan. 
Chicago, The Lewis pub. co., 1895. 
642 p. (D., L. C, Mich.) 
Northern Peninsula, see also ' Norther >i 
A/., Upper P. 

Oakland Biog. Biographical record; this vol- 
ume contains biographical sketches 
of leading citizens of Oakland 
County. Chicago, Biographical pub. 
co., 1903. 681 p. (D.. L., L. C.) 

Oakland Hist. Historvof Oakland Countv 

[By S. W. Dur'ant.] Philadelphia'. 

L. H. Everts & co., 1S77. . 334 p. 

(D., L. C, Mich., X. Y. S.) 
Oakland Port. Portrait and biographical 

album of Oakland Countv. Chicago. 

Chapman bros., 1S91. 959 p. (D., 

L. C.) 
Oceana Oceana County pioneers and 

business men of today. By L. M. 

Hart wick. Pentwater,' Mich., 1890. 

432 p. (L. C.) 
Ontonagon County, see Northern M.; 

Nortiiern P.; Upper P. 



MICHIGAN PIONEERS 



79 



Osceola Portrait and biographical album 
of Osceola County. Chicago, Chap- 
man bros., 1884. 422 p. (L., L. C, 
Mich.) 
Ottawa County, see Muskegon Hist.; 
Muskegon Port. 

Saginaw Hist. History of Saginaw 
County, Michigan; together with 
. . . portraits of prominent persons 
and biographies of representative 
citizens. [By M. A. Leeson and D. 
Clarke]. Chicago, C. C. Chapman 
& co., 1881. 960 p. (L. C, X.Y.S.) 

Saginaw Port. Portrait and biographical 
record of Saginaw and Bay counties. 
Chicago, Biographical pub.co., 1892. 
1044 p. (L. C.) 

St. Clair History of St. Clair County, 
Michigan, containing . . . biograph- 
ical sketches. Chicago, A. T. 
Andreas & co., 1883. 790 p. (D., L., 
L. C, N. Y. S.) 

St. Joseph Historv of St. Joseph County. 
Philadelphia, L. H. Everts & co., 
1877. 232 p. (D., L. C, N. Y. S.) 

Sanilac Portrait and biographical album 
of Sanilac County. Chicago, Chap- 
man bros., 18S4. 546 p. (L. C.) 
Schoolcraft County, see Northern M.; 
Northern P.; Upper P. 

Shiawassee History of Shiawassee and 
Clinton counties, Michigan with 
illustrations and biographical 
sketches of their prominent men and 
pioneers. Philadelphia, D. W. En- 
sign & co., 1880. 541 p. (D., L. C, 
Mich.) 
Shiawassee County, see also Clinton 
Port. 



Traverse The Traverse region, historical 
and descriptive with . . . portrait, 
and biographical sketches. Chicago, 
H. R. Page & co., 1884. 369 p. 
(Mich.) 
Tuscola County, see Genesee Port. 

Upper P. History of the Upper Penin- 
sula of Michigan. Chicago, The 
Western historical co., 1883. 549 p. 

(D., Mich., X. Y. S.) 
Upper Peninsula, see also Northern 

M.; Northern P. 
Van Buren County, see Berrien Hist.; 

Kalamazoo Port. 
Washtenaw Hist. History of Washtenaw 

County, Michigan; together with . . . 

portraits of prominent persons 

and biographies of representative 

citizens. Chicago, C. C. Chapman 

& co., 1881. 1452 p. (D., L., L. C, 

Mich., X. Y. S.) 
Washtenazt' Past Past and present of 

Washtenaw County. By S. W. 

Beeks. Chicago, S. W. Clarke pub. 

co., 1906. (Univ. M.) 

Wayne Chron. Wayne County historical 
and pioneer society. Chronographyof 
notable events in the history of the 
Xorthwest Territory and Wayne 
County . . . Compiled by Fred Car- 
lisle. Detroit, 1890. 484 p. (D.. 
L. C.) 

Wayne Land. Landmarks of Wavne 
Countv and Detroit bv R. B. Ross 
and G' B. Catlin. Revised bv C. W. 
Burton. Detroit, 1898. 872+320 p. 
(D., L., X. Y. S., Mich., New Eng.) 
Wayne County, see also Detroit. 
Wexford County, see Traverse. 



80 



THE MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 



PIONEERS 



Besides the foregoing abbreviations of book titles, the following are used: b. for born; d. for died; m. for 
married; set. for settled in. 



Abbe, Theodore C, set. Mich., 1832. Ber- 
rien Hist., 306. 

Abbey, Shubal, b. Granby, 1793; set. O., 
1815. Midland, 333. 

Abbott, Maria, b. 1797; m. 1814 Daniel 
Walker of Vt., Pa. and Mich. Jackson 
Port., 787; Jackson Hist., 873. 

Naomi, m. 1S15? Samuel French of 

N. Y. Northern P., 456. 

Adams, Charles, set. Vt., 1834? Wash- 
tenaw Hist., 959. 

Charles P., b. Salisbury, 1827, set. 

Canada, 1829, 111., 1859, Mich., 1863. 
Lake Huron, 150. 



— Daniel, b. Cambridge, 1768; set. N. H. 
Berrien Port., 915. 

— Ebenezer, b. Quincy, 1760? set. N. Y. 
Macomb Hist., 787. 

George W., b. Lenox, 1832; set. Mich., 



1874. Jackson Hist., 787. 

— Isaac, set. N. Y., 1810? Macomb 
Hist., 489. 

Isaac O., b. Newburyport; set. Mich., 



1836. Berrien Hist., 272, 275. 



John, set. N. H., 1805? Macomb 



Hist., 687. 



Margaret, m. 1800? Anson Waring of 



N. Y. Detroit, 1233. 



Mary, b. Shutesbury, 1805? m. 1824. 

Joseph Davis of N. Y. Branch Twent., 
830. 

Prudence, m. 1810? Eliab Ellison of 



N. Y. Ionia Port., 263. 

Rev. S. C, set. N. Y., 1835? Mich. 



Cass Twent., 441. 

— Sylvia, b. Barre, 1812; m. Henry 
Foster of Vt., N. Y. and Mich. Jackson 
Hist., 628. 

Wales, b. Medway, 1804; set. Mich. 



Branch Hist., 221, 228; Branch Twent., 
240. 

Aiken, Hannah, m. 1822 Amasa D. Chap- 
man of N. Y. Oakland Biog., 433. 

Alden, Elisha, set. N. Y., 1810? Kent, 
647. 

Hiram, b. Ashfield, 1792; set. N. Y. 

Mich., 1824. Branch Port., 596, 618. 



Alden, Pliny, b. Ashfield, 1787; set. N. Y. 

Branch Port., 600. 
Aldrich, Abram, Sr., b. Upton, 1775; set. 

N. Y., Mich., 1832. Branch Port., 360; 

Branch Twent., 674. 
Daniel, set. Mich., 1833. Calhoun, 

163. 
Deborah, b. 1775; m. Arthur Power 

of N. Y. Oakland Port., 891. 
Hosea, of Uxbridge; set. X. Y., 1800? 

Hillsdale Hist., 238. 
Leonard, set. X. Y., 1800? Genesee 

Port., 714. 

Mercy A., b. Cheshire, 1808; m. 1831 



William Dunbar of Mich. Monroe, 355. 
Seth.b. Berkshire Co., 1804;.set. Mich., 



1833. Macomb Hist., 688. 
Aldridge, Eunice, m. 1810? John Morton 

of N. Y. and Mich. Hillsdale Port., t^oo. 
Alger, Benajah, set. X. Y., Mich., 1842. 

Genesee Port., 282. 

Josiah,b. 1782; set. X. Y., 1793, Mich. 



1823. Genesee Hist., facing 282. 

Allard, John P., set. Mich., 1836. Kala- 
mazoo Hist., 960. 

Allen, Artemus, b. 1800; set. X. Y., 1813, 
Mich., 1836: Branch Port., 289. 

Damarius, set. Mich., 1835 Cass 

Twent., 364. 

David P., b. 1810; set. X. Y., 1835. 



Mich., 1867. Isabella, 188; Saginaw 
Hist., 916 and Saginaw Port., 6S4. 
— E. W., b. Salem, 1S53; set. Mich., 
1880. Upper P., 427. 

William S., b. 1856; set. Mich., 187S. 



Upper P., 375. 

Allis, Lucius, b. 1817; set. O., Mich., 1865. 
Hillsdale Port, 552. 

Almy, Peleg, b. Westport, 1781 ; set. X. Y., 
Kent, 1391. 

Alvord, Josiah, set. X. Y., 1815, Mich., 
1834. Ionia Port., 457. 

Justus, set. X. Y., O.; d. 1S68. Isa- 
bella, 382. 

N. C, set. Mich., 1S35. Wayne 



Chron., 75. 
Ames, Jotham, b. Framingham, 1756; set. 
N. H. Lenawee Hist., 450. 



MICHIGAN PIONEERS 



81 



Ames, Louisa, b. Petersham, 1796; m. IS 19, 
Alpheus Pratt of N. Y. and Mich. Lena- 
wee Hist., 406. 

Mason, set. O., 1850? Kent, 1304. 

Philena, m. 1825? Otis Mallory of 

N. Y. Genesee Port., 441. 
William B., b. Petersha'm, 1S0S; set. 

N. H., 1816, X. Y., 1831, Mich., 1833. 

Lenawee Hist., 449. 
Amsden, Anna, b. 1784; m. Ami Whitney 

of N. Y. Hillsdale Port., 193. 
Philena, m. 1820? Loren Moore of 

N. Y. and Mich. Washtenaw Hist., 1021. 
Polly, b. Conway, 1792; m. George 

Brockway of N. Y. 'Hillsdale Port., 858. 
Timothy, b. Dover, 1808; set. Mich., 

1837. Washtenaw Hist., 493. 
Anderson, Anna, m. 1825? John Webb, 

Jr. of N. Y. Genesee Port., 899. 
Elizabeth, of Deerfield; m. 1813 Den- 
nis Cooley of Mich. Macomb Hist., 8 17. 
James, b. Blandford, 1790; set. N. Y., 

Mich. Hillsdale Port., 295, 548. 
Rachel, m. 1810? Jacob Pratt of X. Y. 

O. and Mich. Ionia Port., 547. 
Andress, Betsey, b. Essex Co.; m. William 

Knowlton of Vt. and O. Branch Port., 

470. 
Andrews, Ebenezer, set. X. Y., 1820? 

Ionia Port, 718. 
Andrus, Sally, m. 1791 James Hazzard of 

Mass. and X. Y. St. Joseph, 107. 
Angell, Crawford, b. 1827; set. Mich., 

1845. Kent, 94. 
Horace, b. Xew Ashford, 1815; set. 

Mich., 1835. St. Clair, 119. 
Apthorp, Alden, set. 0. r 1840. Mecosta, 

349. 
Archer, Betsey, b. Springfield, 1780; m. 

Henry Beebe of X. Y. Macomb Hist., 

787. 
Armes, Lydia, m. 1800? John Bush of Vt. 

Newaygo, 285. 
Arms, Clarissa, (Mrs. James B) b. Palmer, 

1802. Washtenaw Hist., 689. 

Eliza, b. Conway, m. 1st, 1830? 

Ichabod S. Xelson; m. 2d, Rulef D. 

Cregs. Cass Twent., 609. 
James B., b. S. Deerfield, 1801; set. 

Mich., 1834. Washtenaw Hist., 493, 689, 

1451. 



Arms, Christopher, set. N. Y., 1810? Mich., 

1823. Oakland Port., 671. 
Armstrong, Xathaniel A., set. Mich., 

1841. Cass Twent., 454. 
Arnold, George, b. 1812; set. Mich., 1835. 

Berrien Port., 531. 

Henry.b. Sheffield, 1807; set. O., 1828, 

Mich., 1835. Cass Twent., 54. 614. 

Phebe, b. Norton, 1796; m. 1812 

Turner Crane of X. Y. and Mich. Hills- 
dale Port., 845 and Lenawee Illus., 87. 

Ashley, Anson, set. O., 1830? Upper P., 
444. 

Patience, b. Taunton; d. 1873; m. 

Benjamin McLouth of X. Y. and Mich. 
Branch Port., 273. 

Robert, of Fowlerville, set. X. Y., 

1804. Genesee Port., 787. 

Atherton, Adonijah, b. Hampshire Co., 
1750; set. X. Y. Genesee Hist., 348. 

Adonijah, Jr., b. 1783; set. X. Y. and 

Mich. Genesee Hist., 348. 
Perus, b. 1795? set. X. Y. and Mich. 

Genesee Hist., 348. 
Shubael, of Shelburne; b. 1* 



set. 
X. Y.. 1808, Mich., 1825. Genesee Hist., 
349; Genesee Port., 815. 

Atwater, Sarah, b. 1785?; m. Stephen S. 
Virgil of X. Y. Genesee Port., 703. 

Atwood, Alvina, m. 1815? Doctor Millard 
of Mass., X. Y., and Mich. Ionia Port., 
660, 670. 

Charles H. T., b. Boston, 1853; set. 

Me., Mich. Upper P., 340. 

Eliza, b. Xew Bedford, 1808; m. Joel 



Monroe of X. Y., O., and Mich. Kala- 
mazoo Hist., 220. 

Zenas, b. Franklin Co., 1791; set. 



X. Y., 1815, Mich., 1836. Ingham Port., 

371. 
Austin, Sylvester, b. 1785; set. X. Y., 1816. 

Clinton Port., 397. 
William S., b. 1793; set. X. Y. 

Branch Port., 542. 
Averill, Samuel, set. Mich., 1818, Kansas. 

Oakland Port., 935., 
Ayles worth, Henry, set. X. Y., 1S20? 

Jackson Hist., 993. 
Ayres, Joseph, b. 1S04; set. X. Y., 1820? 

O., 1826, X. Y., 1S30. Jackson Hist., 

993; Jackson Port., 327. 



(To be continued.) 




^> 



rims ana I2la titers 



1620-1630 

Lucie M Gardner. A. 3.. Editc 



Societies 

MAYFLOWER SOCIETY. 

Membership, Confined to Descendants of the May* 
flower Passengers. 
Governor — Asa P. French. 
Deputy Governor — John Mason Little. 
Captain — Edwin S. Crandon. 
Elder — Rev. George Hodges, D. D. 
Secretary — George Ernest Bowman. 
Treasurer — Arthur I. Nash. 
Historian — Stanley W. Smith. 
Surgeon — William H. Prescott, M. D. 
Assistants — Edward H. Whorf. 

Mrs. Leslik C. Wead. 

Henry D. Forkes. 

Mrs. Annie Quincy Emery. 

Lorenzo D. Raker, Jr. 

Miss Mary E. Wood. 

Miss Mary F. Edson. 



THE OLD PLANTERS SOCIETY, 
Incorporated. 

Membership Confined to Descendants of Settlers 

in New England prior to the Transfer of the 

Charter to New England in 1630. 

President — Col. Thomas Wentworth Higginson, 

Cambridge. 
Vice Pres. — Frank A. Gardner, M. D., Salem. 
Secretary — Lucie M. Gardner, Salem. 
Treasurer — Frank V. Wright, Salem. 
Registrar — Mrs. Lora A. W. Underhill, 

Brighton. 
Councillors — Wm. Prfscott Greenlaw, Boston. 
R. W. Sprague, M. D., Boston. 
Hon. A. P. Gardner, Hamilton. 
Nathaniel Conant, Brookline. 
Francis H. Lee, Salem. 
Col. J. Granville Leach, Phil*.. 
Francis N. Balch, Jamaica Plain. 
Joseph A. Torrey, Manchester. 
Edward O. Skelton, Roxbury. 

The summer meeting of the Old Planters 
Society will be held in Beverly, Friday, 
June 26th. Following its annual custom 
this meeting will take the form of a family 
reunion. A committee is already at work 
rallying the descendants of William Dodge 
and it is confidently hoped that many who 
trace their descent to that worthy man will 
assemble to arouse and increase their in- 
terest in the settlement in which he took 
such an active part. A circular will soon 
be issued giving details ot the plans for the 



day and announcing speakers. At a re- 
cent meeting of the Council, The Massa- 
chusetts Magazine was adopted as the offi- 
cial organ of the Old Planters Society and 
the following hymn "The Pilgrim and the 
Puritan," written by Hon. John J. Loudjof 
Weymouth was adopted as the society's 
anthem. The music, "The Common- 
wealth of Massachusetts," will be found on 
another page. 



ffamilp Bssociattons 



THE GARDNER FAMILY ASSOCIATION. 

Descendants of Thomas Gardner, Cape. Ann, 1624; 
Salem, 1626. 
President — Frank A. Gardner, M. D., Salem. 
V. Pres. — Hon. Augustus P. Gardner, Hamilton 
Sec'y & Treas. — Lucie M. Gardner, Salem. 

Councillors — Rev. Chas. H. Pope, Cambridge. 

Hon. Geo. R. Gardner, Calais. Ml. 
Robert W. Gardner, N. Y. City. 
George Peabody Gardner, Boston- 
Arthur H. Gardner, Nantucket. 
Joseph A. Torrey, Manchester. 

The Gardner Family Association is mak- 
ing plans for its annual reunion which will 
take place in Salem, Wednesday, June 24th. 
The morning will be devoted to a pilgrim- 
age to the various points of historical inter- 
est about the city. In the afternoon, the 
business meeting will be held, followed by 
literary exercises. The speakers cannot 
be announced at present, but prominent 
members of the family have signified their 
intention of being present and it is expected 
by the committee that the reunion of 19c»S 
will surpass that of 1907 both in interest 
and in point of numbers. A harbor trip or 
similar outing will be arranged if the re- 
sponse warrants it. 



ALLEN FAMILY ASSOCIATION. 

Descendants of William Allen, Cape Ann. 1624; 
Salem, 1626; Manchester, 1636. 
President — Raymond C. Allen, Manchk.-tf r. 
Secretary — Etta Rabardv, Manchester. 
Treasurer— Samuel Knight, Manchester. 



THE WHIPPLE HOUSE 

AT IPSWICH. 

The Oldest Part Built Before 1638. 



The old Whipple house at Ipswich was purchased a few years ago by the 
Ipswich Historical Society, and restored to its original condition as far as 
possible. When the process of removing plastering, lathing, and other 
modern "improvements" had been completed, the Historical Society found 
itself in possession of one of the finest examples of the seventeenth century 
architecture in New England. 

The exterior of the house has nothing in its aspect that would 
serve to draw especial attention to it ; but the interior possesses these two 
distinct points of architectural merit, remarkable massiveness of construction, 
and fine, dignified proportions. The two main rooms on the ground floor 
are superb for their simplicity, size and solidity. The beautiful rich brown 
tone of the old oak posts, girders and joists gives the key of color. There is 
a white plastered ceiling between the joists, the plaster being put directly on 
the floor-boards of the second story. 

There are three or four successive parts or chapters in the serial story of 
the old house. The west end of the main structure was built first. Of this 
there is evidence in the material, the workmanship, the age of the woodwork 
and in indirect, but convincing contemporaneous record. The main beams of 
the frame — the posts, sills, girders, joists, rafters, etc. — in this wing are of 
oak, but the main beams or summers are of American larch or tamarack, a 
soft wood, which, however, has shown astonishing durability in every part 
except where it has been exposed to moisture. The east part of the main 
structure, the second chapter, was possibly added in the time of the affluent 
and pious Captain John Whipple, the second of that name, who, in 16S3 was 
estimated to be "worth" £3314. In this part of the house the main beams 
are of oak, and the posts and girders are carved with some attempt at ele- 
gance of finish. Later a lean-to was added, the rafters on the north (rear) 
side of the roof being supplemented by a new set of rafters at an easier angle 
carrying the roof atone point 'almost to the ground. This is a relatively 
modern part, and the original profile of the exterior must have been very 
angular and highshouldered in proportion to its ground area. 



84 THE MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 

The following technical description of the architectural dimensions, of the 
house have been made by W. H. Downes, the experienced antiquarian: 

"Length, on the ground, fifty feet; width, thirty-six feet. Great east 
room, ground floor, twenty-four by seventeen and one-half feet ; height seven 
feet. Fireplace in this room, seven feet and three inches wide; two feet, 
nine inches deep. Dimensions of oak girders, fourteen by fourteen inches. 
Windows, diamond panes, and hung on hinges, five feet, three inches wide, 
and two feet, six inches high; three sashes each. East chamber, same 
measurements as east room below. Fireplace in this room, six feet two 
inches wide, and two feet two inches deep." 

Since rehabilitating the old house the society has acquired a veritable 
museum of old colonial furniture and relics. The rooms are furnished very 
attractively in the colonial style, especially the bed-room, with its canopied 
bed and old time chests, and the kitchen, equipped with all manner of cook- 
ing utensils, and pewter ware. 

When The Wisconsin State Historical Society was planning to reproduce 
an old New England kitchen in its new building at Madison, Wisconsin, it 
searched the five New England States and finally decided on this one as the 
best example to be found. They have since reproduced it in exact facsimile. 



[This Is the second half of the first of a series of articles, giving: the organization and history of all the 
Massachusetts regiments which took part in the war of the Revolution.] 

COLONEL JOHN GLOVER'S 
MARBLEHEAD REGIMENT 



By Frank A. Gardner, M. D. 



(Concluded.) 



The Continental Army at the close of 1776 was entirely reorganized and 
many of the commanders of the numbered Continental Regiments of 177G were 
commissioned commanders of the fifteen regiments of the Massachusetts Line. 
December 27th, 1776, the Continental Congress authorized "sixteen additional 
Continental regiments." They were not numbered like the regiments of the 
"Line" of the various states but were designated by the names of the com- 
manders. Of these sixteen "additional" regiments, three were from Massa- 
chusetts, namely, Henley's, Jackson's and Lee's. In July, 1780, a regiment 
made up of officers and men of these three regiments was formed under com- 
mand of Colonel Henry Jackson and designated the 16th. Regiment of the 
Massachusetts Line. 

The military record and exploits of "Lee's Regiment" will be given in a 
later chapter in this series. It is true that nine of the commissioned officers 
of the new regiment had seen service in the 14th Continental under Colonel 
Glover, but at least twenty three other officers went to other regiments, entered 
the navy or left the service entirely. The names of the organizations in which 
they served will be found in the following biographical sketches of the men who 
held commissions under Colonel John Glover in the 21st Regiment of the Army 
of the United Colonies in 1775 or in 1776 in the 14th Continental Regiment. 

COLONEL JOHN GLOVER was born in Salem, Massachusetts, November 
5th, 1732 and baptized at the First Church in Salem, November 26th of the 
same year. He was the son of Jonathan Jun. and Tabitha (Bacon) Glover. 
The family removed to Marblehead when the children were quite young. The 
military instinct was strong in the family. John's older brother, Samuel, 
served as a captain through the French and Indian war and Samuel's twin 
brother, Jonathan, was the able and efficient colonel of the 5th Essex County 
Regiment from February 1776 to February 1779. 

John Glover's occupation was that of shoemaker and fisherman, a combina- 
tion frequently found in colonial days. He was prominent in the affairs of the 



86 THE MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 

thriving town and held many offices of trust. In 1773, during the smallpox 
epidemic, he and his brother, Jonathan, were prime movers in the erection of a 
hospital for the treatment of the dread disease on Cat Island (Lowell Island) 
at the mouth of Marblehead harbor. His first commission in a military com- 
pany was that of "Ensign in the third military foot Company in the Town of 
Marblehead, under Command of Richard Reed, Esq." This was in February, 
1759 and in 1773 he became captain of a company in Col. John Gallison's 
Regiment. 

The exposed position of the town, the menace to her fishing industry, the 
principal occupation of the people, and the proverbial patriotism of the inhabi- 
tants, all combined to arouse an intense interest in the approaching contest. 
John Glover was one of the leaders in the movement and when he was chosen 
colonel of the new regiment in the early part of 1775, gladly gave up his busi- 
ness as a fisherman (which had now grown to goodly proportions) and gave 
his time and money to the cause. The value of his services to the cause of 
freedom has been amply shown in the foregoing narrative of the achievements 
of the gallant regiment under his command, and we will now continue the 
story of his military career after his promotion to brigadier general. 

When he rejoined the army at Peekskill, June 14th, 1777, he found the men 
in his brigade in a wretched condition. In a letter written to General Wash- 
ington the day following his arrival, he stated they were "without coats, 
breeches, stockings or shoes ; many of them having nothing but a frock and 
blanket to cover their nakedness." Continuing, he wrote: "Col. Wiggles- 
worth's and Swift's Regiments are without tents, nor are there any to be had 
here. I have ordered the troops to be ready to march upon the shortest notice. 
and had the men tents to cover them and clothes, I should cross the North 
River tomorrow." 

Two days later he wrote to his brother, Colonel Jonathan, informing him 
that Howe with his army had quit New York and were marching across New 
Jersey in pursuit of General Washington, who realizing the weakness of the 
force under him was endeavoring to avoid a general battle. The extremity 
of his commander, together with the condition of his own men, prompted him 
to write: " Had people of' interest and influence attended to the public interest. 
we might have had an army now in the field that would bid defiance to Howe 
and his whole force. But Privateering and Stockjobbing (I am sorry to say it) 
has been the sole object of their attention. Is it not a shame that America, 
who boasted of her three millions, should be ravaged and subjugated by IS or 
20,000 poltroons? Rouse, my fellow Countrymen, from your sleepy lethargy. 
and come forth into the field and assist your brethren, who are jeoparding 



COLONEL JOHN GLOVER'S REGIMENT 87 

their lives for you, your wives and children, as well as for themselves! We 
must and shall all share the same fate, either freemen or slaves ; if there be any 
among you who plead inability, that ought not to be an excuse ; here is a good 
school ; if there be any that are timid and dare not come forth, (which I cannot 
suppose to be the character of any) let them exert themselves by hiring a good 
able bodied man, and see him well clothed and equipped, then hand him over 
to some officer in the Continental service. This plan adopted and strictly ad- 
hered to, I am persuaded would soon fill the army. How is it possible for a 
few recruiting officers to raise such an army as was ordered by Congress, and 
which was absolutely necessary to defend and secure the liberties of America ? 
Every man, who has the good of his country and posterity at heart, ought to 
put his shoulders to the burthen, and bear part of the weight ; he that does not 
ought to be discarded and not suffered to breath American air. There's no 
man, let his abilities and circumstances be what they will, but is able to do 
something (in this day of difficulty and distress) for the good of his Country. 
I have always been a lover of the civil Law, and ever wished to see America 
governed by it, but I am fuily of the opinion that it would be the salvation of 
this Country were Martial Law to take place, at least for twelve months, and 
Gen. Washington invested with power to call forth (any or) all the male inhab- 
itants (if wanted) at 24 hours notice ; then instead of hearing the disagreeable 
tidings that our army are fleeing before the enemy, you would hear that they 
had compelled the enemy to quit this land, or had him cut to pieces." 

The brigade remained at Peekskill until the latter part of July, guarding 
the approaches to the Northern army and forwarding recruits to re-inforce 
General Schuyler. The position was a dangerous one as it was the belief that 
Howe might march north at any time to connect with Burgoyne. On the 23d 
of July, Glover was ordered by General Washington to re-inforce General 
Schuyler with his brigade, and recalling a detachment which he had sent to 
General Clinton, he embarked his command up the Hudson for Albany on the 
27th, and started on the following day to join his men. In a letter of that date 
to Adjutant General Timothy Pickering, he stated that if, as was suspected, the 
enemy had sailed for New England, he hoped that General Pickering would 
use his influence to have him recalled in order that he might oppose the British 
in the attack on his native state. 

The brigade arrived at Saratoga on the first day of August and during the 
three days following were "constantly (night and day) in an alarm." In the 
retreat which then followed, the brigade brought away to Stillwater, all of their 
stores "with large droves of cattle, sheep and hogs." On the 6th of August, 
he wrote that they had had "25 or 30 men killed or scalped and as many more 



88 THE MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 

taken prisoners within 4 days." In the same letter, he stated that, owing to 
the withdrawal of many men whose term of enlistment had expired, the whole 
strength of the army at that post would be not more than 3,000 men on the 12th 
inst. "to oppose the enemy who from the best accounts we can collect are at 
least 8,000." He implored the authorities of Massachusetts to forward rein- 
forcements, writing, 'Tray let no time be lost, a day's delay may be fatal to 
America." 

From Stillwater, the brigade went to Van Schaick's Island and a letter 
from him there shows his hopeful spirit: "I hear the militia are on their way 
from Massachusetts — not any got in yet. When in force we shall move on 
towards the enemy. I think matters look fair for our side & I have not the 
least doubt of beating or compelling Mr. Burgoyne to return back at least to 
Ticonderoga, if not to Canada. His situation is dangerous, which he must see 
& know if he is not blind, and if he is not strong enough to move down to fight 
us, he cannot remain where he is without giving us a great advantage. We 
shall move on in three columns. . . . We shall be all ready by the 10th & if the^ 
militia gets in, you may depend on our marching forward that day. Our 
troops are healthy & in good spirits, but poorly shod & clothed, & many without 
blankets. The Hon. Brig.-Gen. Palmer and Doctor Taylor are witnesses of 
this. ... I should have been happy to have seen more of my friends with them. 
. . . When matters look gloomy, it has a fine effect (it gives a spring, and ani- 
mates our spirits) to have our friends to look at, and consult with ; at the same 
time they would have an opportunity of seeing for themselves, as well as seeing 
the pleasures we enjoy in a camp life ; but more of this the next Tuesday night's 
club, at a meeting when all the members are present, a good fire, pipes, tobacco 
and good punch — that's the place to talk matters over, not in this house made 
of hemp (I have quitted my log house mentioned in my last) the walls and roof 
of which are so thin they need no windows, nor do they obstruct the rays of 
light, or the rain passing through in the least." 

In the important battles which followed, Glover's brigade played a promi- 
nent part. On the 19th of September in the battle of Stillwater, with the 
brigades of Nixon and Patterson, it formed the right wing under command of 
General Gates. General Glover, in an account of the battle, wrote that it 
/'was very hot till 1-2 past 2 o'clock; ceased about half an hour, then renewed 
the attack. Both armies seemed determined to conquer or die. One contin- 
ual blaze, without any intermission till dark, when by consent of both parties 
it ceased. During the time we several times drove them, took the ground, 
passing over great numbers of their dead and wounded. Took one field piece, 
but the woods and bush was so thick & being close pushed by another party 



COLONEL JOHN GLOVER'S REGIMENT 89 

of the enemy coming up, was obliged to give up our prize. The enemy in their 
turn sometimes drove us. They were bold, intrepid and fought like heroes, 
and I do assure you, Sirs, our men were equally bold and courageous & fought 
like men." 

The next general battle occurred on the 7th of October, and between these 
dates General Glover employed his men in harassing the enemy by night at- 
tacks, taking off their pickets, capturing their horses and otherwise annoying 
them. General Burgoyne wrote later: "Not a night passed without firing, 
and sometimes concerted attacks upon our advanced pickets. I do not believe 
either officer or soldier ever slept in that interval without clothes ; or that any 
general officer or commander of a regiment passed a single night, without being 
upon his legs occasionally at different hours, and constantly an hour before 
daylight." 

The brigade was also on the right in the battle of October 7th under General 
Lincoln. Glover's men were held in reserve until the latter part of the day, 
"when a part of them joined in the vigorous and desperate assault under Arnold. 
It is said that during the engagement General Glover had three horses shot 
from under him. He had the credit of saving the American army from a bad 
predicament on the 11th. General Gates was led to believe that Burgoyne 
had retreated with his entire army toward Fort Edward and he accordingly 
ordered an advance. General Nixon's brigade had proceeded across a creek 
and General Glover was following, when he learned from a deserter from the 
British army that the entire force of the enemy was in camp, the detachment 
which had been sent off having returned. Nixon was informed in time to en- 
able him to extricate his men from their dangerous position. 

A few days later (on the 17th) Burgoyne was forced to surrender and Gen- 
eral Glover was selected to guard and conduct the prisoners to Cambridge. 
The following letter on file at the State House is of interest in this connection : 

"Albany, 22 Oct., 1777 
Sir; 

This will inform your Honour, that I have sent on one Division of the 
prisoners, Consisting of 2,442 British troops, by Northampton, the other. by 
way of Springfield, Consisting of 2,198 foreign troops. I Shall Come on to- 
morrow with Gen 1 Burgoyne, and expect to be in Worster in ten days, 
where I shall be happy to meet your Honour's Orders. I have endeavoured 
to collect Provisions to serve them to Worster; you will Please to order on 
Some to meet me at that place. 

I am with respect, 

your Honour's most obe dt hum bl Ser 1 , 

John Glover. 
P. S. the number of Prisoners, Drivers of waggons, Bat-horse-men & the 
Guards, are at least (>,000. I am put to great difficulty to find provisions for 
them. 

To the Hon'ble Jer'h Powell." 



90 THE MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 

The task of guarding the prisoners the length of Massachusetts was attended 
with many difficulties but it was performed with credit by General Glover. 
General Burgoyne, in addressing him later, alluded to "the very honorable 

treatment shown us when you conducted us upon the march." The 

captive army, upon its arrival, was placed under the care of Col. Lee and his 
new regiment. 

General Washington requested General Glover to join his brigade at Valley 
Forge in January, 1778, stating in a letter dated the 8th of that month: "As 
the short time we have to lay in winter Quarters ought to be spent in training 
the men, and endeavouring to bring into the Field in a more regular manner 
than they have hitherto been, I must desire that you will join your brigade as 
soon as possible in order to effect this measure." General Glover in his reply 
explained the difficulties which he was encountering in adjusting the pay and 
damage accounts with General Burgoyne. He wrote in part: "To acquit my- 
self from censure, I'm determined to lay them before the Gen. Court and desire 
that a Committee may be appointed to examine them & make what deductions 
shall appear to them to be just, which I hope will give satisfaction to both 
parties. When this is done I have to present it to him for payment & then 
advertise the Inhabitants to come & receive their money. I shall lose no 
time in bringing the whole to a close as soon as possible." 

Hindrances of various kinds arose and it was not until May loth that he 
was able to write to General Washington that General Burgoyne had paid the 
entire bill "hard money, to the amount Qf £9244, 2s.," which he sent to the 
"Hon'ble Board of Treasury at Yorktown," and £4098 in Continental bills. 
In this letter he wrote: "When I entered the service in 1775 I had as good a 
constitution as any man of my age, but it's now broken and shattered to pieces. 
However I shall make the best of it until I have the pleasure of seeing your 
Excellency, when I flatter myself, from your known generosity and humanity, 
you will not hesitate to favour my dismission from the Army." "I shall not 
wait longer than the first of June ; at which time if I find myself strong enough 
to undertake the journey I propose to set off for Camp ; but, from my present 
weak and much debilitated state, am very doubtful whether I shall be able to 
endure the fatigues of another Campaign." 

He returned to the army June 28th and was placed in command of Fort 
Arnold near West Point. In his orders for that day he emphasized the im- 
portance of finishing the works, and during his stay at the fort much was ac- 
complished under the direct supervision of Colonel Kosciusko, the Polish 
engineer. General Glover was ordered by General Washington, July 23d to 
join his brigade which was then marching with Varnum's Brigade and a part 



COLONEL JOHN GLOVER'S REGIMENT 91 

of Jackson's command, all under the Marquis de Lafayette, to unite with Gen- 
eral Sullivan in his attack on the British at Newport, R. I. A letter from 
General Sullivan to General Glover dated August 1st contained the following: 
"You will please to proceed to Boston, Marblehead and such other places as 
you may think proper, to engage two or three hundred Seamen or other persons 
well acquainted with Boats; who are to act as Boatmen in the Expedition 
against Rhode Island. . . . Their pay shall be three Dollars per day & their ex- 
penses borne upon the Road. ' ' 

He secured the "Boston Independant Company" under Lieut. Colonel 
Benjamin 'Hichborn, the Salem Volunteers under Captain Samuel Flagg, be- 
sides many volunteers from Marblehead. They marched to Providence under 
General Glover, arriving there on the 10th of August. The army under Gen- 
eral Sullivan then advanced and crossed to the Island of Rhode Island in eighty- 
six flat bottomed boats, the British retiring before them towards Newport. 
The Americans expected the co-operation of the French fleet and the assistance 
of several thousand marines from that fleet in the land operations. In spite of 
their disappointment at their non-arrival, General Sullivan advanced and 
camped on Quaker Hill about ten miles north of Newport. On the loth they 
advanced to within two miles of the British lines and erecting batteries, opened 
fire on the enemy. In this engagement General Glover's Brigade was on the 
left, under the immediate command of Colonel Bigelow, as Glover was serving 
temporarily on General Sullivan's staff. 

The French squadron sailed on the 23d to meet Howe and it therefore be- 
came necessary for the Americans to retire. On the night of the 2Sth they fell 
back to Butt's Hill and erected fortifications. On the following day the Brit- 
ish under Pigott made desperate attempts to rout the Americans but met with 
a very bloody repulse, and were finally driven in confusion to the protection of 
their guns behind the earthworks on a hill. Owing to the fatigued condition 
of his men, who had been without rest or food for thirty-six hours, General 
Sullivan deemed it inadvisable to follow up his advantage and attempt to dis- 
lodge the enemy. The Americans lost thirty killed, one hundred and thirty- 
two wounded, and forty-four missing. The British loss was two hundred and 
ten killed and wounded, and twelve missing. The army of General Sullivan 
withdrew from the island on the following night, the flat boats being in charge 
of Captain Samuel Flagg of the ''Salem Volunteers." 

General Sullivan, in his orders issued August 31st, congratulated his army 
upon the orderly retreat and ordered General Glover to take post at Provi- 
dence, whither the sick and wounded were sent. The brigade at this time 
under his command consisted of the Massachusetts Regiments of the Line 



COLONEL JOHN GLOVER'S REGIMENT 93 

dition as follows: "Instead of growing better as the Spring comes on. (as was 
the opinion of my physician) I find myself much weaker, my complaints and 
disorders being of such a complicated nature that they have baffled the power 
of medicine as well as the skill of the most able and approved physicians 
amongst us, who now tell me it must be the work of time to remove them and 
restore me to any tolerable health. . . . Your Excellency will hardly credit it. 
but be assured, sir, it is an absolute fact, I have not slept two hours upon an 
average in 24 for these four years past, and very often after severe fatigue I do 
not sleep a wink for two or three nights together." He wrote other letters to 
headquarters during the last two years of his service, in which he made other 
appeals for release on account of his ill health and the needs of his large family 
of small children, their mother having died in November, 1778. One letter 
written from West Point, January, 28th, 1781, is especially pathetic. In it he 
writes: "Duty and affection to my helpless orphan children (for so I must call 
them in my absence) call aloud, and urge the necessity of my making them a 
visit before the campaign opens, or they must unavoidably suffer, being all 
very young, and by no means capable of taking care of themselves, excepting 
a daughter of eighteen who has the charge of eight others, a burden much too 
great for so young a person." He mentions the high price of the necessaries 
of life at Marblehead and adds: "Nor is it in my power to furnish them not 
having received any pay for twenty months past." 

General Washington forwarded his request to be relieved to the Secretary 
of War, with a recommendation that it be granted and on the 22nd of July, 
1782, he was placed on the half pay establishment by Congress, "on account 
of his ill health." He returned to Marblehead and in later years took an active 
part in the civil affairs of the town. He died January 30th, 1797, and the 
Salem Gazette of the following day after giving just tribute to his military 
character, further eulogized him: "In private life he was the warm and steady 
friend, free from every appearance of guile and dissimulation. He was the 
affectionate husband, the kind brother, and the best of fathers. In civil capac- 
ity he sustained some of the first offices within the gift of his fellow citizens, 
and ever conducted to their approbation." 

LIEUT. COLONEL JOHN GERRY was commissioned May 19th, 1775. 
He served with the 21st Regiment of the Army of the United Colonies and is 
mentioned in the records of the army. He was officer of the day, June 30th, 
1775, but left the command within a month after that date. 

LIEUT. COLONEL GABRIEL JOHONNOT was born about 174S, the 
youngest son of Zachariah and Elizabeth (Quincy) Johonnot, and grandson of 



3£&&*$ 



94 THE MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 

Daniel J. Johonnot, a French Huguenot. He inherited his patriotic zeal from 
his father, who was a "Son of Liberty." Gabriel was a member of the Boston 
Latin School in 1754. He married December 18th, 1766, Judith, daughter of 
Rev. Samuel and Judith Cooper, and had two sons by her, Samuel Cooper and 
Zachary. His second wife was Sarah, daughter of Rev. Simon Bradstreet of 
Marblehead, to whom he was married November 17th, 1774. In 1773 he was 
a member of a committee appointed to wait upon the consignees of several 
cargoes of tea, shipped to Boston, by the East India Company and require 
them to promise not to land or pay duties on tea sent by said company. He 
was the chairman of a committee appointed by the Cadet Company of Boston, 
August loth, 1774, to proceed to Salem and return to Governor Gage the stand- 
ard, which he had presented to them. He was commissioned Major in the 
Marblehead Regiment, May 19th, 1775, and upon the retirement of John Gerry 
in July, became Lieutenant Colonel and served through the year in the 21st 
Regiment of the United Colonies. He was commissioned Lieut. Colonel of the 
14th Continental Regiment, January 1st, 1776 and served through the year 
in that command. We learn from a letter of Colonel Glover's that he was sick- 
in October, 1776. After the war he was a merchant in Hampden, Maine, 
where he died, October 9th, 1820, aged 72. 

MAJOR WILLIAM R. LEE was born in Manchester, Mass., in 1744. and 
removed early to Marblehead, where he was a merchant at the breaking out of 
the Revolution. When the Glover Regiment was organized, he was made 
senior Captain and upon the promotion of Major Johonnot he became Major. 
He served in this rank through 1775 in the 21st U. C. regiment, and in 1776 in 
the 14th Continental, until appointed Brigade Major, September 4th, when 
Col. Glover took command of General Clinton's Brigade. He was commis- 
sioned Colonel, January 1st, 1777, of "Lee's Additional Regiment," and with 
his command guarded the prisoners from Burgoyne's army at Cambridge. An 
account of his record as commander will be given in the article devoted to 
"Lee's Regiment." He resigned August 1st, 1778. He became one of the 
owners of the Letter of Marque ship "Thorn" originally captured from the 
British, which was sent on a very successful voyage to France. He was a 
school trustee in 1781 and one of the "benefactors" of the Marblehead Academy 
three years previous to that date. He was a leading communicant of St. 
Michael's Episcopal church. The Lee mansion, near Abbot Hall, was occupied 
by him. He was Collector of the Port of Salem from 1S02 until his death, 
October 6th, 1824. 

CAPTAIN WILLIAM COURTIS was engaged for service in the regiment. 
April 24th, 1775. He had been a member of the "Committee of Inspection" 



COLONEL JOHN GLOVER'S REGIMENT 95 

in 1774. In the engagement of October ISth, 177G, when the troops were 
withdrawing from New York Island, he commanded the regiment, as Colonel 
Glover was acting brigade commander, Lieut. Colonel Johonnot was sick and 
Major William R. Lee was serving as Brigade Major. He served as Major in 
Colonel David Henley's Regiment from January 1st, 1777 to May 20th, 177S. 
He may have been the "William Curtis of Marblehead, age, 30 yrs ; stature, 
5 ft. 10 inches; complexion, dark;" who was Captain of Marines on the ship 
"Pilgrim, "commanded by Capt. Joseph Robinson, August, 1780. 

CAPTAIN WILLIAM BACON was commissioned June 22nd, 1775. He 
was reported "on furlough" October, 1775. His name does not appear in the 
list of officers of the new 14th Continental Regiment in January, 1776. He 
was commissioned Colonel of the 5th Essex County Regiment, September 20th, 
1779. 

CAPTAIN THOMAS GRANT was engaged April 24th, 1775, and was 
recommended for commission June 22nd. He commanded a company during 
this year in the 21st. Regiment Army of the United Colonies and in 177G in 
the 14th Continental. He was commissioned as Lieut. Colonel of Colonel 
William Bacon's, 5th Essex County Regiment, September 20th, 1779. 

CAPTAIN JOEL SMITH, engaged for service April 24th, 1775, was recom- 
mended for commission, June 22nd. He had been a member of the "Com- 
mittee of Inspection," before the war. He served through the year in the 21st 
Regiment, U. C. A Joel Smith of Marblehead was a member of Colonel Jona- 
than Glover's 5th Essex County Regiment in November, 1777. 

CAPTAIN NICHOLSON BROUGHTON enlisted April 24th, 1775, and 
was recommended for a commission June 22nd. He had been a member of the 
committee of inspection in 1774. The account of his capture of the British 
ship "Unity" has been given in the early pages of this article in the narrative 
of the exploits of the regiment. At this time he was in command of the 
schooner "Hannah," which sailed from Beverly on September 5th, 1775. The 
account of his cruise to the mouth of the Saint Lawrence in the "Lynch," in 
conjunction with Captain Selman in the "Franklin," has also been given. In- 
asmuch as in both of these cruises, Broughton was under orders from General 
Washington, the claim can reasonably be made that he was the commander 
of the first public vessel sent out by the United Colonies and that he also com- 
manded the first naval expedition of the war. He was 2nd Major of the 5th 
Essex County Regiment in February, 1776, and in December of that year. 
was Major of the regiment commanded by Colonel Pickering, which was 
ordered to march via Providence to Danbury, Conn. He married Susannah, 
daughter of General John Glover. 



96 THE MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 

CAPTAIN WILLIAM BLACKLER, like several other officers in this regi- 
ment, had been a member of the "Committee of Inspection" in 1774. He 
enlisted April 24th, 1775, and was recommended for commission, June 22nd. 
The honor has been accorded him of commanding the boat in which Washing- 
ton crossed the Delaware. He was wounded in the Burgoyne campaign and 
as a result of his injuries, resigned his commission. In later years he owned 
and occupied the house in Marblehead in which Elbridge Gerry was born. 

CAPTAIN JOHN MERRITT was an ardent patriot before the Revolution 
and in 1774, was wounded by one of the British guards on Marblehead Neck. 
The people were greatly aroused at this indignity and to pacify them the offi- 
cers promised to punish the offender with 500 lashes. He was engaged April 
24th, 1775, and recommended for commission in June. He served through 
the year in the 21st, and July 19th, 177C, was commissioned a Captain in Col- 
onel Jonathan Glover's 5th Essex County Regiment. 

CAPTAIN JOHN SELMAN was one of the sturdiest of the partiots of 
Marblehead. He was engaged in April and served as a company commander 
through the year. His exploits on the water in command of the "Franklin," 
with members of his company as crew, have been narrated. He was commis- 
sioned a Captain in Colonel Jonathan Glover's 5th Essex County Regiment. 
July 19th, 1776, and 1st Major of the same regiment under Colonel William 
Bacon, September 20th, 1779. He was elected a member of the first board of 
directors of the Marblehead Bank, in March 1804. His house is still standing 
on Selman Street near Franklin. 

CAPTAIN FRANCIS SYMONDS was a resident of Danvers. He marched 
from that town to Lexington, April 19th, 1775, as Second Lieutenant of Capt. 
Samuel Epes's Company in Colonel Pickering's Regiment. June 22nd, he was 
commissioned a Captain in the Glover Regiment. 

CAPTAIN JOHN GLOVER JUN. was the son of the Colonel. He was 
a Lieutenant in Captain William R. Lee's Company in June, 1775, and upon 
Lee's promotion to Major he became commander of the company. He also 
served as Captain in the following year in the 14th Continental. He married 
Fanny Lee. 

.CAPTAIN NATHANIEL BOND served as surgeon in 1775 in the 21st 
Regiment and was commissioned captain and placed in command of a com- 
pany when the 14th Continental was organized, January 1st, 1776. 

CAPTAIN JOSEPH SWASEY served as Captain Lieutenant in Captain 
Samuel R. Trevett's Company in Colonel Richard Gridley's Regiment in 1775. 
He was commissioned a Captain in the 14th Continental, January 1st, 1776. 



COLONEL JOHN GLOVER'S REGIMENT 97 

A year later he became Major of Colonel William R. Lee's Regiment and served 
in that command until July 9th, 177S, when he resigned. He was mentioned 
at this time as belonging in Ipswich. 

CAPTAIN JOSEPH LEE, according to Colonel Glover's Letter Book, 
commanded the Gth Company in the 14th Continental in 1770. 

CAPTAIN MOSES BROWN was a sergeant in Captain Larkin Thorn- 
dike's (1st Beverly) Company at the Lexington Alarm. He was engaged as 
Captain at Beverly (probably in the sea coast service) for six months and six 
days from July 11th, 1775. He enlisted January 1st, 1776, as Captain in the 
14th Continental. 

CAPTAIN GILBERT WARNER SPEAKMAN was Captain of the eighth 
company in the 14th Continental in 1776, and in 1777 and 1778 served as Com- 
missary of Military Stores at Springfield. He was the Commissary of Ord- 
nance on the Penobscot expedition in 1779. 

The following men served as Lieutenant in either the 21st U. C. or the 14th 
Continental Regiments. Those of this rank who were promoted to a higher 
rank in these commands have already been mentioned. In 1775 each com- 
pany had one lieutenant and one ensign, in 1776 the companies of the 14th 
Continental had a first and second lieutenant and an ensign. 

LIEUT. ROBERT HARRIS served in Captain William Courtis's Com- 
pany in the 21st Regiment, U. C. through 1775. 

LIEUT. WILLIAM MILLS was a member of Captain William Bacon's 
Company in the 21st Regiment. He was engaged to serve April 24th, 1775. 
(A William Mills of Marblehead was engaged November 7th, 1777 from Colonel 
Jonathan Glover's Regiment for three years service in the Continental Army.) 

LIEUT. WILLIAM BUBIER was in Captain Thomas Grant's Company, 
in the 21st Regiment in 1775. He also served under the same company 
commander in the 14th Continental Regiment, in 1776. (A William "Boubier" 
was Lieutenant of Marines on the Brig "Hancock," according to a list oi 
prisoners sent from Halifax to Boston, in the cartel "Swift" November 9th,' 
1777.) 

LIEUT. JOHN BRAY enlisted in Captain Joel Smith's Company April 
24th, 1775. (A John Bray of Marblehead, probably the same person, was 
First Lieutenant of the privateers "True Blue" and "Tyrannicide" in 1777, 
the "Franklin" in 1780 and commander of the privateer ship "Oliver Crom- 
well" in 1781. He was described in that year as 41 years ; stature, 5 ft. S in. ; 
complexion, dark." 



98 THE MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 

LIEUT. JOHN STACEY was recommended for commission in Captain 
Nicholson's Company, June 22nd, 1775. He was adjutant of Colonel Samuel 
Brewer's Regiment in February, 1777, and in Colonel Nathaniel Wade's Regi- 
ment, July 6th, 17S0, also Brigade Major later in the same month. 

LIEUT, and QUARTERMASTER JOSEPH STACEY served in that capa- 
city in Colonel John Glover's 21st Regiment in 1775. He was Second Lieu- 
tenant in Captain Joseph Lee's Company in the 14th Continental Regiment 
in 1776. January 1st, 1777, he was appointed Quartermaster of Colonel Wil- 
liam R. Lee's Regiment. 

LIEUT. NATHANIEL CLARK was in Captain William Bladder's Com- 
pany in the 21st Regiment in 1775, being recommended for commission, June 
22nd. In 1776, he was First Lieutenant in Captain Joseph Lee's Company 
in the 14th Continental. He served as Lieutenant in Captain Mills Company 
in Colonel Jeduthan Baldwin's Regiment of Artificers. In 17S0, he was a 
Captain in the same Regiment. 

LIEUT. JOSHUA PRENTISS was engaged April 24th, 1775 and served 
through the year as Lieutenant in Captain John Merritt's Company. He mar- 
ried the widow of Peter Jayne, a noted schoolmaster and patriot. The "Tues- 
day Evening Club," mentioned in one of G.eneral Glover's letters which has 
been quoted, and the Committee of Safety, met in this house. The building, 
since known as the Prentiss House, stands on Mugford Street near Back Street 
in Marblehead. In 1791, the Methodist Church was organized in the old hall. 
It became the residence later of General Samuel Avery of the militia. Joshua 
Prentiss was town clerk for many years. 

LIEUT. ISAAC COLLYER was in Captain John Selman's (Sth) Company. 
He was engaged, April 24th, 1775, and served until "time out" December 31st 
of that year. 

FIRST LIEUT/ WILLIAM RUSSELL of Captain Francis Symonds's 
Company was engaged, April 24th, 1775. 

FIRST LIEUT. EDWARD ARCHBOLD served as Ensign in Captain 
William R. Lee's Company in June, 1775, and as Second Lieutenant in Captain 
John Glover's Company later in the year. He was First Lieutenant in Cap- 
tain William Courtis' Company in the 14th Continental Regiment in 1776. 
January 1st, 1777, he enlisted in Colonel John Lamb's Regiment and served 
as Captain Lieutenant in Captain Joseph Thomas's Company. He remained 
in this regiment as late as April, 1781. 

FIRST LIEUT. JOSHUA ORNE was engaged, April 24th, 1775, to serve 
as Ensign in Captain Joel Smith's Company and a little later joined Captain 



COLONEL JOHN GLOVER'S REGIMENT 99 

John Glover's 10th Company as Lieutenant. He was First Lieutenant in the 
same officer's company in the 14th Continental in 177G. In the march to 
Trenton, he became so benumbed by cold that he fell beside the road and was 
nearly covered with snow when discovered by some one in the rear of the 
regiment. January 1st, 1777, he was appointed Captain in William R. Lee's 
Regiment. He held the same office under Lieut. Colonel William S. Smith 
and in Colonel Henry Jackson's Regiment after the consolidation in 1779. 

FIRST LIEUT. THEOPHILUS MUNSON served in Captain Nathaniel 
Bond's Company in the 14th Continental in 1776. 

FIRST LIEUT. ROBERT WILLIAMS held that rank first in Captain 
Joseph Swasey's Company in the 14th Continental in 1776. He became 
Quartermaster in Colonel William R. Lee's Regiment June 3d, 1777. In the 
following year he was Paymaster in Lieut. Colonel William S. Smith's Regi- 
ment, and April 24th, 1779, acting paymaster in Colonel Henry Jackson's 
Regiment, ranking as Ensign in Captain William North's Company. He was 
appointed Paymaster, May 3d. He evidently served as Paymaster in this 
regiment through the remainder of the war, for we find records of wages al- 
lowed him as late as April 23d, 1784. 

FIRST LIEUT. WILLIAM GRAVES served under Captain Moses Brown 
in the 7th Company in the 14th Continental, in 1776. 

FIRST LIEUT. ROBERT NIMBLETT was an Ensign in Captain John 
Merritt's Company in 1775. He was First Lieutenant in Captain Speakman's 
Company in the 14th Continental in 1776, and later was a Lieutenant in Colonel 
Jeduthan Baldwin's Regiment of Artificers. (A Robert Nimlet "age 25. 
complexion, light; birthplace, Marblehead ;" was on the ship "Franklin" in 
1780.) 

SECOND LIEUT. THOMAS COURTIS enlisted April 24th, 1775. serving 
as Ensign in Captain William Courtis' Company. In 1776, he served as Sec- 
ond Lieutenant in the 14th Continental under the same company commander. 
(A Thomas Curtis of Marblehead was impressed into the British Navy in the 
Revolution.) 

SECOND LIEUT. EBENEZER GRAVES held an Ensign's commission 
in Captain Thomas Grant's Company in 1775. He was Second Lieutenant in 
the same officer's company in the 14th Regiment in 1776. He was one of the 
"benefactors" of the Marblehead Academy in 1788. 

SECOND LIEUT. NATHANIEL PEARCE enlisted April 24th, 1775 in 
Captain William Blackler's Company and on or before August 1st, was pro- 
moted to Second Lieutenant. 



100 THE MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 

SECOND LIEUT. MARSTON WATSON was in Captain John Glover's 
Company in the 14th Continental Regiment in 1770. He served as temporary 
Aid-de-camp to General Charles Lee. In 1777, he was First Lieutenant of the 
privateer schooner "Hawke," and in June of that year, was commissioned her 
commander. He was one of the "benefactors" of the Marblehead Academy 
in 17S8. He was born hrPlymouth, May 27th, 1756. At the outbreak of the 
Revolution he was studying with the intention of going to college. After the 
war he became a successful merchant and owned and occupied the "Watson 
House" on the hill at the head of Watson Street in Marblehead. In 1790, he 
became Lieut. Colonel of the Marblehead Regiment, and commander of a regi- 
ment in 1794. He removed to Boston in 1797 and died there August 7th, 1800. 

SECOND LIEUT. SEWARD LEE was recommended for an Ensign's 
commission in Captain William Bacon's Company, June 22nd, 1775, having 
enlisted April 24th. He served as Second Lieutenant in Captain Bond's Com- 
pany in the 14th Continental in 1770. 

SECOND LIEUT. THOMAS FOSDICK enlisted first as fifer in Colonel 
John Glover's Company June 1st, 1775, and was appointed Ensign in Captain 
Joel Smith's (4th) Company, July 1st. He was Adjutant a part of the year. 
January 1st, 177G, he became Second Lieutenant in Captain Joseph Swasey's 
Company in the 14th Continental Regiment. He was recommended by Gen- 
eral Glover in a letter to General Washington, June 20th, 1777, as Brigade 
Major, and his appointment followed. In the Rhode Island expedition in 
1778, Major Fosdick was one of General Glover's Aides-de-camp. . He was dis- 
charged at his own request, March 12th, 1779, and was thanked by his com- 
mander. 

SECOND LIEUT. JOHN WALLIS served in that rank in Captain Moses 
Brown's Company at Beverly, in 1775, and held the same office in the 14th 
Continental Regiment. 

SECOND LIEUT. WILLIAM JONES was a member of Captain Speak- 
man's Company in the 14th Continental Regiment in 1776. 

ENSIGN JOHN DEVEREUX Jr., was in Captain Nicholson Broughton's 
Company in 1775. He was appointed Captain in Colonel Jacob Gerrish's Re- 
giment of Guards, November 0th, 1777. 

ENSIGN EDWARD HOMAN (misspelled Holman in the records) en- 
listed in Captain John Selman's Company, April 24th, 1775. and served 
through the year. 

ENSIGN GEORGE SIGNECROSS was engaged, April 24th. 1775, in 
Captain Francis Symonds' Company. 



COLONEL JOHN GLOVER'S REGIMENT 101 

ENSIGN JAMES FOSTER was Second Sergeant in Captain William 
Courtis' Company in 1775, and served as Ensign in the same company in 177G. 

ENSIGN JOHN ALLEN was a sergeant in Captain John Glover's 
Company in the 21st Regiment in 1775, and in 177G, served as Ensign in 
Captain Grant's Company in the 14th Continental. 

ENSIGN WILLIAM HAWKS enlisted May 30th, 1775 as a Sergeant in 
Captain Francis Symonds's Company and was an Ensign in Captain John 
Glover's Company in the 14th Continental. January 1st, 1777, William P. 
Hawks (probably the same man) was appointed Lieutenant in Colonel William 
R. Lee's Regiment and served until November 17th, 1778. 

ENSIGN JEREMIAH REED enlisted as a Sergeant in Captain William 
Hooper's Company (Coast Defence) July 15th, 1775. He served as Ensign in 
Captain Nathaniel Bond's Company in the 14th Continental Regiment through 
177(3. January 1st, 1777, he was appointed a Lieutenant in Colonel William 
R. Lee's Regiment and served in it until he resigned November 15th, 1778. 
He was probably the Jeremiah Reed, who was First Lieutenant of Marines on 
the frigate "Boston," commanded by Captain Samuel Tucker. He was en- 
gaged for this service, November 15th, 17S1. He also served as Lieutenant 
of Marines on the Continental frigate "Deane," Captain Samuel Nicholson, 
May 15th, 1781 to May 31st, 17S2; also on the frigate "Hague," commanded 
by Captain John Manley in 1783. 

We hear of ENSIGN ROBERT WORMSTED, for the first time. February 
20th, 1775, when it is said that he fenced with six of the British regulars in 
succession, using a cane and disarming each of them. He was a member of 
Captain Samuel R. Trevett's Company in the Battle of Bunker Hill, and was 
wounded in the shoulder by fragments of a bursting shell. He served in 177G 
as Ensign in Captain Joseph Swasey's Company in the 14th Continental Regi- 
ment. In November, 1779, he sailed as mate in the letter of marque "Free- 
man" under Captain Benjamin Boden. The vessel was captured, but Worm- 
sted, slipping his handcuffs, liberated his shipmates and succeeded in knocking 
down the captain and many others. Taking their pistols, they recaptured 
both vessels. Wormsted, as commander, hauled down the British flag and 
appointing Captain Boden prize master, sailed for Guadaloupe. The prize was 
sold there. Shortly after leaving that port his vessel was captured. In the 
latter part of 1781, he sailed from Salem in command of a privateer and ran 
his vessel on the Nova Scotia coast to avoid capture. He and his men travelled 
through the woods for some time but finally seized an open boat and started 
for New England. They captured a vessel from Cork with a valuable cargo, 



102 THE MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 

by surprize, without arms, but were later chased by a British vessel and forced 
to abandon her. They escaped in their boat and finally reached Marblehead. 

ENSIGN SAMUEL GATCHELL served as a corporal in Captain Samuel 
R. Trevett's Company in Colonel Gridley's Artillery, at the Battle of Bunker 
Hill. He was a sergeant in Captain Francis Symonds's Company in the 21st 
Regiment through the rest of the year. He was appointed a Lieutenant in 
Colonel William R. Lee's Regiment, January 1st, 1777, and continued to serve 
in that organization under Lieut. Colonel William S. Smith, resigning March 
25th, 1779. 

ENSIGN JOHN CLARK (called also Jr.) enlisted as a sergeant in Captain 
John Merritt's Company in the 21st Regiment, in 1775 (May 18th.) January 
1st, 1776, he joined the 14th Continental serving as Ensign in Captain Moses 
Brown's (7th) Company. He was appointed a Lieutenant, February 10th, 
1777, in Colonel William R. Lee's Regiment. He was reported later as having 
resigned. 

ENSIGN JOHN BROWN, served in Captain Speakman's (8th) Company, 
in the 14th Continental Regiment in 1776. He was a Lieutenant in Colonel 
William R. Lee's Regiment, January 1st, 1777. His residence was given as 
Cambridge. 

The following officers served on Colonel Glover's staff: 

SURGEON NATHANIEL BOND was in the 21st Regiment in 1775. His 
further record has been given in the list of captains. 

SURGEON ISAAC SPOFFORD of Wenham was on Colonel John Nixon's 
staff in the 5th United Colonies Regiment in 1775 and in the 14th Continental 
in 1776. 

SURGEON'S MATE NATHANIEL HARRINGTON served in the 21st 
Regiment in 1775 and in the 14th Continental in the following year. 

ADJUTANT WILLIAM GIBBS was on Colonel Glover's staff in 1775 
in the 21st United Colonies Regiment. 



ipprtintttt of thi^mi mm Solution. 



Frank ,/V.Gar.dner.M. IX Editor. 



Tyrannicide. 

Many privateers and other armed vessels 
sailed from Massachusetts during the 
Revolution but few of them had a more 
eventful career than the Tyrannicide. 
Richard Derby, Jun., in a letter written 
to Richard Devens, Esq., Commissary 
General, May 20th, 1776, concerning her, 
stated that she was "now fixing out" and 
asked if he could "procure Cannon & other 
Implements^ of war to Equip faid Sloop." 
June 11th, the House of Representatives 
voted to grant two, six pounders from 
Col. Crafts' store of guns and eight, six or 
four pounders in addition. 

The first commander of the sloop was 
Captain John Fisk, who was born in 
Salem, Mass., April 10, 1744. He was a 
son of the Rev. Samuel Fisk, pastor of 
the First Church in Salem. Captain Fisk 
received his commission April 20, 1776, 
and was engaged May 9th. His First 
Lieutenant was Jonathan Haraden who 
had served as Second Lieutenant in Cap- 
tain Benjamin Ward, Jun.'s company in 
1775. He was born in Gloucester, Mass., 
in 1745. The Second Lieutenant, Joseph 
Stockman, was commissioned June 3d, 
and served until Sept. 30th. Edwin 
Rollins was Master and Thomas Hunt, 
Master's Mate. 

Captain Fisk was ordered to cruise from 
"Harbour to Harbour in the same Colony 
& Newhampshire," June 13, and on the 
same day captured the British packet 
schooner "Despatch" with 8 guns, 12 
swivels and 31 men, under command of 
Capt. Gutteridge. At this time the Tyran- 
nicide had 14 guns and 100 men. On the 
4th of July (the first Independence Day) 



he was ordered to sail again and cruise 
between Cape Sable and Nantucket. He 
soon captured the armed ship "Glasgow." 
The officers among the Tyrannicide's pris- 
oners at Salem were ordered to be removed 
to Topsfield, July 24, 1776. In August 
she captured the brig St. John and the 
schooner Three Brothers. Captain Fisk 
petitioned that she be rigged as a brigan- 
tine and the change was ordered on the 
13th of September. Second Lieutenant 
Stockman was discharged Sept. 30. (He 
was commissioned commander of the 
schooner "Washington" of Newburyport, 
Apr. 22, 1777.) Jonathan Gardner took 
his place as Second Lieutenant, Oct. 18. 

The Tyrannicide was again ordered to 
sea, Oct. 22, 1776, and additional instruc- 
tions were issued to Capt. Fisk, Dec. 13. 
On the 31st of the month he captured the 
snow "John," 140 tons, Capt. Barrass. 
Jan. 1, 1777, Richard Derby, Jun., agent 
of the Tyrannicide and the Massachusetts, 
petitioned for the settlement of the sale of 
their prizes; the schooner "Despatch," 
snow "Ann," and brigantine "Henry & 
Ann." The value of the vessels was as 
follows: "Despatch" £1802:16:10, "Ann" 
£857:5:4, "Henry & Ann" £5685:7:11 1-4. 
The net proceeds of the sale to the state 
being £5103:11:3. On the 27th of Jan. 
or the 3d of Feb. (two dates given in the 
archives) Capt. Fisk captured the brig 
"Three Friends," 100 tons, Capt. Holms. 
She was brought into Salem, Feb. 23d. 
Her cargo was appraised at £4629:3:7 1-2 
and that of the "John" previously men- 
tioned, at £9029:2:0. 

On the 20th of February, 1777, Jonathan 
Haraden was made Commander, Israel 



101 



THE MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 



Thomdike of Beverly who had commanded 
the schooner "Warren" was made First 
Lieutenant. A few days later, Benjamin 
Moses of Salem was made Second Lieuten- 
ant and Benjamin Lovett of Beverly, 
Master. (Capt. John Fisk, Feb. 19, 1777, 
was given command of the ship "Massa- 
chusetts." After the war he engaged in 
commerce and became very wealthy. He 
was commissioned a Major-General of 
Militia in 1792.) Thomas Hunt was en- 
gaged as Master's Mate. 

A resolve was passed in the Council, 
March 26, 1777, "that the Hebrew Books^ 
Sabbath Lamp & pontifical Cup etc cap- 
tured by the Brigantine Tyrannicide and 
now in the State Store be sent to the Li- 
brary of Harvard College for the use of the 
same." Apr. 27, Capt. Haraden on board 
the brig, wrote a letter to the Board of War, 
informing them that he had that day cap- 
tured the snow "Sally," Capt. Stephen 
Jones, from London to Quebec, with a 
cargo of English goods. He also stated 
that he would soon be obliged to make a 
port to procure water, and that he had 
captured a transport brigantine with sixty- 
three Hessians on board. The Sally ar- 
rived in Salem, June 6. Capt. Haraden 
wrote a letter in May, stating that he had 
taken the ship Chalkley, Capt. James 
"nines"? from Honduras, bound to Bristol, 
with a cargo of mahogony, logwood etc. 
Another letter from him the same month 
contained an inventory of goods taken 
from the brig "Eagle." May 10, he cap- 
tured the ship "Lonsdale," 500 tons, Capt. 
James Grayson. She was taken into Bos- 
ton, on the 20th. At this period the Ty- 
rannicide was sailing in company with the 
brigantine Massachusetts. Littlefield Sib- 
ely, prizemaster of the barque White 
Haven, in a letter to the Board of War 
May 13, announced his arrival at Piscat- 
away, the barque having been captured 
by the Tyrannicide on her way to Quebec. 

Capt. Haraden captured April 30 the 



brigantine "Trepassy," 100 toas, Capt. 
Isaac Follett. She arrived in Boston, 
June 25th. On June 20, James Miller, who 
had been captured on the Lonsdale peti- 
tioned to be allowed to go to Rhode Island 
as he was only a passenger on board the 
ship. His request was granted. In a 
memorandum of rations dated June 25, on 
file in the State archives, the rations issued 
to this ship from June 25 to Sept. 1, a- 
mounted to £114:2:1. A receipt was 
given to Capt. Haraden, Oct. 21, 1777 for 
"five hundred three Quarters of Ship Bread 
(7 barrels)" for the "Gard Ship Rifing 
Empire." Rations were furnished the 
officers of the Tyrannicide in 1777 as fol- 
lows: Capt. Jonathan Haraden, triple 
rations and Lieut. John Bray, Joseph Doli- 
ber, John Batton and Ed. Kitchen Turner, 
double rations. Ninety-eight different sea- 
men were named. John Bray above 
named was made First Lieutenant of the 
Tyrannicide, Sept. 15, and Lieut. Israel 
Thomdike whom he succeeded took com- 
mand of the schooner "Scorpion," Nov. 
8th. Israel Thomdike later (June 12, 
1780) comanded the ship "Resource." 
John Bray was about 37 years of age at 
this time, 5 ft. 8 inches tall and dark com- 
plexioned. 

Capt. Haraden in the "Tyrannicide" and 
Captain Sampson in the "Hazard" were 
ordered Nov. 16, 1777, to sail to the coast 
of Spain and Portugal, thence to the south- 
ward of Madeira and home by the West 
Indies. Definite instructions were given 
regarding the various ports to which the 
different classes of cargoes were to be sent. 
Before they got away they were ordered, 
Nov. 21st to sail to Townsend and capture 
if possible two schooners, one commanded 
by Capt. Callahan of Halifax and another, 
the "Halifax," supposed to be coasting for 
the purpose of capturing "two ships now 
laden and ready to sail for France." Dec. 
2nd Capt. Haraden in a letter to the Board 
of War, wrote that he had lost his gripe 



DEPARTMENT OF THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION 



105 



and had put into the harbor of Falmouth 
to refit. While at the wharf four of his 
men deserted. He soon got to sea how- 
ever and in company with the sister ship 
captured Dec. 13, the brigantine "Alexan- 
der," Capt. James Waddie, bound from 
Halifax to Jamaica with a cargo of shooks 
and fish. On the 22nd, they captured the 
schooner "Good Intent," Capt. William 
Dashpar, bound from "Harbor Grafs, N. F. 
to Dominco, laden with fish and hoops. 
They made another capture on the follow- 
ing day, the "Polly," Capt. Walter Stevens, 
from St. John's, N. F. bound for Barba- 
does, loaded with fish, hoops and feathers. 
Capt. Haraden announced in a letter 
written Feb. 17, 1778. that they had taken 
two vessels, one of which had arrived at 
Antigua and the other, having mistaken 
Dominica for St. Pierre, had been recap- 
tured. A letter written four days later 
from St. Pierre, Martinique, announced 
their arrival there and stated that they had 
received all needful assistance. 

Captains Haraden and Sampson sent a 
petition to the authorities that they be 
allowed eight full shares of prizes like other 
officers of their rank, instead of six as 
granted by the Council. A letter written 
at St. Pierre, Mar. 10, stated that the Ty- 
rannicide would be ready to sail in five or 
six days. Another letter dated the loth 
from the same port, gave the net proceeds 
of the sale of the brig "Polly" above men- 
tioned as 74,257 livres, 2 sols. The "Ty- 
rannicide" and "Hazard" in company with 
the brig "Lion" of Salem, sailed from St. 
Pierre, Mar. 30, 1778. We next hear from 
Capt. Haraden May 10th, in a letter written 
from 'Squam Harbor, where he had run in 
after seeing a British frigate off Thatcher's 
Island. He mentioned ill luck and stated 
that some of the men were sick with small- 
pox. The announcement was also made 
that he had captured the snow "Swift" 
from Bristol, loaded with flour. As the 
cargo was of a perishable nature, the Mara- 



time Court authorized "Samuel Philips 
Savage of Westown and George Williams 
of Salem" to make immediate sale of the 
same. The First Lieutenant, John Bray, 
received his discharge from the Tyrannicide 
May 8. He became First Lieutenant of 
the ship "Franklin" in 1780, and com- 
mander of the ship "Oliver Cromwell," 
Apr. 19, 1781. 

In a letter from the Board of War dated 
May 15, 1778, Capt. Haraden was men- 
tioned as having arrived a few days before 
and as "soon going out again." The 
letters on file in the archives reveal the 
fact that the agents at St. Pierre had pro- 
tested to the authorities at Boston on ac- 
count of the large amount of money ad- 
vanced in refitting the Tyrannicide and 
Hazard for the return voyage. They 
found fault especially in regard to the mat- 
ter of rations, and as a result the Secretary 
of the board wrote, expressing surprise 
that the commanders had applied for funds 
for rations and requesting that in the fu- 
ture no such requisitions be complied with. 
These agents wrote, May 24, that the last 
of the Tyrannicide's men had left the hos- 
pital. A bill was enclosed for the care of 
three men Supplies for the "Tyrannicide" 
were delivered to Capt. Waters at St. Pierre 
May 2Sth. An account of rations to June 
25, shows that triple rations were given to 
Jonathan Haraden, double to Israel Thorn- 
dike (who had returned to the brig't) Ben- 
jamin Moses, Benjamin Lovett, William 
Coffin, James Grayson, Chris. Asbridge, 
Stephen Jones and Capt. Coombs. At 
least two of these had been captains of 
captured vessels, James Grayson of the 
"Lonsdale" and Stephen Jones of the snow 
"Sally." 

A letter from the Board of War to the 
Council, dated June 25, 1778, announced 
the determination of Capt. Haraden to 
resign his commission. The document 
read as follows; "The Board most sincerely 
laments ye Lofs of so brave an Officer and 



106 



THE MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 



deserving a man, who has been in the Ser- 
vice of his Country from the beginning of 
the War in which he hath always acquitted 
himself wt spirits & honor. This step Capt. 
Haraden declares he takes with the greatest 
reluctance but the late difsarrangement of 
Commanders as he apprehends, oblige him 
to it. The officers and men entering into 
their Captains motives have one & all left 
the Vessel & represent to your Honor that 
the Tyrannicide is now ready for the Sea 
and that the Season most favourable . . . 
request your Honor to appoint some person 
to the Command of said Brigt that she may 
proceed on her voyage without further 
loss of time." 

Capt. Haraden, in the spring of 1780, 
took command of the ship General Picker- 
ing and made a wonderful record in her. 
Maclay says of him that he "was one of the 
most daring and skillful navigators that 
ever sailed from Salem, and that is saying 
a great deal when we come to consider the 
long list of successful commanders who 
have hailed from that port. . . . Haraden 
had the reputation of being one of the most 
intrepid commanders known to Salem 
ship lore. It has been said of him that 
'amid the din of battle he was calm and 
self-possessed. The more deadly the strife, 
the more imminent the peril, the more 
terrific the scene, the more perfect seemed 
his self-command and serene intrepedity. 
He was a hero among heroes, and his name 
should live in honored and affectionate 
remembrance.'" Maclay calls this rather 
lavish praise but states that the man de- 
served it. He is said to have taken nearly 
a thousand cannon from the British during 
the war. 

His successor in command of the Tyran- 
nicide was Capt. Allen Hallet, who was 
appointed, July 6, 1778. His first com- 
mand had been the "Sturdy Beggar" in 
August, 1776. He next became master 
of the "Republic" and in 1777 commanded 
the "Starks" and the brigt. "America." 



His First Lieutenant on the Tyrannicide 
was Joseph Doliber, who had served in the 
next lower grade under Capt. Haraden. 
Aug. 16, 1778, the Board of War ordered 
that £8:0:0 of bread be delivered to Capt. 
Hallet in the Tyrannicide, and a letter was 
received from Count d' Estaing acknowl- 
edging its receipt. In Oct., the Board of 
War approved a bill of £1 :0:0 for wharfage 
of cables belonging to this brigantine. 
Capt. Hallet wrote from St. Pierre, Feb. 
23, 1779, that he had captured and sent in 
a prize laden with fish. March 29, off Ber- 
muda he carried "by boarding after an 
obstinate resistance of more that one hour, 
the British brig "Revenge" of 14 guns and 
85 men, Capt. Kendall. A spirited ac- 
count of this engagement is given in the 
following letter written by Capt. Hallet 
and preserved in the archives. 

"At fea on board the Tyrannicide, 

March 31, 1779. 
In Latitude 28°, 30* N. Long. 68° 25" West- 
Gentlemen 

xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx I have the 
Pleasure of sending this to you by Mr John 
Blanch who goes Prizemaster of my Prize 
the Privateer Brig Revenge, lately com- 
manded by Capt. Robert Fendall belong- 
ing to Grenada, but last from Jamaica 
mounting 14 Carriage Guns, 6 & 4 pound, 
4 Swivels & 2 Cohorns, & sixty able bodied 
Men, which I took after a very smart & 
Bloody Engagement, in which they had 
8 Men killed & fourteen wounded, the Vef- 
sell cut very much to pieces by my Shott 
so that they had no command of her at all 
— amongst the killed was the 1st Lieu 1 & 
one Quarter M r — amongst the wounded 
is the Cap* 2 d Lieu 1 & Gunner — I captured 
her as follows — on the 29th Inst at 4 P. M. 
I made her about 4 Leagues to windward 
coming down upon us, upon which I cleared 
Ship and got all hands to Quarters, ready 
for an Engagement, & stood close upon the 
Wind waiting for her, about half past 6 



DEPARTMENT OF THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION 



107 



P. M. she came up with me, and hail'd 
me, ask'd me where I was from, I told 
them I was from Boston & ask'd where 
they were from, they said from Jamaica & 
that they were a British Cruizer, I imme- 
diately told them I was an American 
Cruizer, upon which they ordered me to 
Strike, & seeing I did not intend to gratify 
their desires, they rang'd up under my 
Lee & gave me a BroadSide, I immediately 
return'd the Compliment & dropping a 
Stern, I got under their Lee and then 
pour'd our Broadfides into her from below 
and out of the Tops, so fast & so well di- 
rected that in one hour & a Quarter we dis- 
mounted two of her Guns & drove them 
from their Quarters, & compell'd them to 
strike their Colors. During the whole 
Engagement we were not at any one time 
more than half Pistol Shott distant & some 
part of the Time our Yards were lock'd 
with theirs — I had Eight Men wounded 
only two of which are Bad — amongst the 
wounded are my first Lieut. & Master, I 
intended to man her and keep her as a Con- 
sort during the Cruize, but having twenty 
wounded Men on board, of my own men & 
prisoners I thought it Best to send her 
home, with all the wounded men on board 
under the Care of the Sergeon's Mate, 
xxxxxxxx on board the Prize Comes Mr 
Leyerett Hubbard late Master of the Sloop 
Friendship from Xew Haven bound to 
St. Croix, who was taken by the Brig 
Revenge on the 4th of March last — the 
Sloop was sent to Granada Capt. Hubbard 
will afsist the Doctor in drefsing the 
wounded men as he is acquainted with the 
manner — any favour shewn him will be 
very Acceptable — 

I have the honor to be 
Gentlemen 
Your most obedient 

& most humb 1 Servant 

Allen Hallet." 
Mass. Archives 44 p. 408. 

Capt. Hallet commanded the "Active" 
in the Penobscot Expedition, the "Phoenix" 
and "Tartar" in 1780, the "Franklin" in 
1781 and the "Minerva" in 1782. John 
Cathcart was engaged as First Lieutenant 
Jan. 4, 1779, and after Capt. Hallet finished 
his service in the "Tyrannicide," he was 



appointed (May 4th,) his successor. The 
"Tyrannicide" was ordered to the Penob- 
scot in August, 1779 and was one of many 
vessels burned by the crews to prevent their 
falling into the hands of the enemy. Capt. 
Cathcart commanded the "Essex" in 1780, 
at which time he was 26 years old, 5ft. Sin. 
tall. In 1782 and 3 he commanded the 
"Tartar." 



The Settlers about Boston before the 
Winthrop Migration in 1630. 

The writer read with peculiar pleasure 
the report of an address delivered at the 
recent annual banquet of the Society of 
Colonial Wars in Massachusetts by Hon. 
Nathan Matthews. The able ex-mayor of 
Boston raised the question as to who were 
the real founders of Boston, and stated 
that "The universally accepted opinion is 
that Massachusetts was settled by from 
20,000 to 30,000 Englishmen who came 
over here between 1630 and 1640, under the 
auspices of the governor and company of 
the Massachusetts Bay and a charter given 
by Charles I to certain Puritan merchants, 
and the city seal states that the city was 
founded in 1630. The history of Massa- 
chusetts, as commonly written, begins in 
1630." Continuing, he is quoted as saying; 
"I desire to raise the question whether this 
view of the case is correct, and whether it 
does full justice to the men who were here 
before the Puritans came under Endicott 
and Winthrop." 

He then named some of the leaders and 
told of the work which they did. Our 
belief is that we should study carefully and 
exhaustively, the lives of each of these men, 
who like Maverick, Blaxton (Blackstone), 
Thompson and Walford, were dwellers on 
the shores of Boston Harbor and the Mystic 
when Endicott arrived in Salem in 162S. 
Each man, who set up his dwelling on the 
lonely shore and stayed, was a powerful 
factor in drawing others hither. The rec- 
ord made in the little plantation of Roger 



108 



THE MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 



Conant and his men at Salem in the years 
1626, 1627 and 1628, made the Endicott 
migration of the latter year possible;* and 
the success of the combined colony of 
Planters and Puritans in the months fol- 
lowing resulted in the coming of the still 
larger company under the Reverends Hig- 
ginson and Skelton in 1629. We doubt 
not that the success of Blackstone and 
Maverick was known to "the Council of the 
Massachusetts Bay," and that this knowl- 
edge had much to do with the instructions 
which they gave to Governor Endicott in 
1629, to send to Charlestown, Ralph, Rich- 
ard and William Sprague, John Meech, 
Simon Hoyte, Abraham Palmer, Nicholas 
Stowers, John Stickline, Mr. Graves and 
the minister, Mr. Bright. 

This certainly is a list of no mean pro- 
portions for those early days, and these 
men with their families made a respectable 
number of persons ready to greet Winthrop, 
when he sailed up the bay and into the 
Mystic River after his short stay at Salem. 

Charlestown, when Winthrop arrived, 
was by no means the desolate wilderness 
which some have painted. Thomas Graves 
above mentioned was an engineer and the 
new town and plan of streets laid out by 
him were both approved "by Mr. John 
Endicott, Governor," whose authority at 
that date covered the territory from three 
miles north of the Merrimack to three miles 
south of the Charles river in "the bottom of 
Massachusetts Bay." That Endicott had 
no hesitation in exercising this authority, 
was shown in the article upon the "Found- 
ers of Massachusetts Bay Colony" in the 
January number of the Massachusetts 
Magazine. 

It is interesting to note the difference in 
the treatment accorded the "old planters" 
at Salem by Endicott, when he came in 
1628, and that given the "old settlers" 

♦Governor Endicott arrived at Salem, September 
6th, 1G28, not 1G29 as given in the report of the 
address herein mentioned. 



about Charlestown by Winthrop, two 
years later. The "Company of the Massa- 
chusetts Bay" which sent Endicott, having 
purchased the rights of the Dorclv 
merchants (who had sent the old planters) 
recognized their claim, and requested them 
to choose two of their own number as mem- 
bers of the local board of government. 
They further granted them all the privi- 
leges which their own men enjoyed, and 
gave them in addition certain special privi- 
leges which were forbidden to their own 
men. The Company in London in 1630 
recognized that the men about Charlesto-.vn 
must be reckoned with, but instructed 
Winthrop to make whatever terms could 
reasonably be made with them. 

In closing, the writer wishes to felicitate 
students of history in general, upon the 
growing tendency to specialize in work of 
this nature and to focus the attention upon 
definite periods of time. It is true that 
some wonderfully able and accurate works 
covering the entire span of the nation's 
history have been written by such men as 
Bancroft and Winsor, but specialization is 
in the air in this as in all other fields of re- 
search. This is notably shown in "The 
American Nation, A History" edited by 
Professor A. B. Hart of Harvard. 

It is to be hoped that the suggestion of 

Hon. Xathan. Matthews that these matters 

be further investigated, will meet with a 

hearty response from workers in eariy 

colonial history. 

F. A. G. 

It is a singular coincidence that at a 
meeting of the Council of the Old Planters 
Society held early in the present year, 
plans were laid for future meetings of the 
society. Among other subjects definitely 
agreed upon, was an address upon these 
very men, the settlers about the site of 
Boston, prior to 1G3U. This will be de- 
livered at a meeting of the society to be 
held in Boston in the early fall, and will be 
published later in this magazine. 



DEPARTMENT OF THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION 



109 



Authority for Statements. 

The editor of this department regrets 
that the authority for every statement 
made, cannot be given in the text of the 
articles upon the regiments and ships. The 
large number of references on many of the 
pages would occupy an unreasonable a- 
mount of space. Any student of history 
desiring to know the authority for any 
statement made, will be supplied with such 
information upon application to the editor. 



Col. Win. Prescott's Regiment. 

The next regiment to be taken up in 
our series of articles on the organization 
of regiments is to be Colonel William Pres- 
cott's 10th Regiment. The editor of the 
department extends a most cordial invita- 
tion to the descendants of officers, who 
served either on the brig "Hazard" or in 
the Prescott Regiment, to send in any 
special information which they may possess 
in regard to the service of such officers. 
It is desired to make these records as full 
and complete as possible and the editor 
wishes to express his sincere thanks to the 
descendants of revolutionary heroes who 
have already given him valuable assistance. 



Personal Diary of 

Mr. Ashley Bowen of Marblehead 

1757-1776. 

The invitation extended in the January 
number to those who possessed any diaries, 
letters, orderly books or other original 
material, to loan such to the editor for use 
in the magazine, met with cordial and 
prompt acceptance. The most valuable 
among those offered was the personal diary 
of Mr. Ashley Bowen, of Marblehead, 
kindly loaned by the present owner. 
Ashley Bowen was at Quebec in the French 
and Indian War and kept an accurate 
record of events which transpired at that 
time. These records contain lists of Brit- 



ish ships in that expedition, with a de- 
scription of them, lists of men who were in 
these vessels, with sketches of some of the 
larger craft, maps of the region about 
Quebec, colored sketches of the shore about 
Montmorency Falls and many other notes 
and descriptions of equal interest. He 
continued the diary after this war bringing 
it down to 1776. During the early years 
of the American Revolution he kept a 
daily record of all that transpired in Marble- 
head. The landing of the British under 
Lieut. Col. Leslie. February 26th, 1775. 
the raising and departure of the Glover 
Regiment, the naval exploits of Selman, 
Broughton and Manley, and the arrivals 
and departures of the British war vessels 
with dimensions of the same, are all re- 
corded. As he was a loyalist in the Revo- 
lution his views of certain phases of the war 
are unique. The diary contains several 
lists of deaths in Marblehead, which are of 
especial value to genealogists. The book 
will be printed verbatim with explanatory 
notes by the editor. 



Battle Flags at Auction. 

Patriotic Americans have recently been 
stirred by the press announcement that 
the flag of the Chesapeake had been pur- 
chased and presented to a British mu- 
seum by an unnatural and denaturalized 
American, resident in London. The July 
number will contain an article upon the 
auction price of British ensigns and jacks 
in Salem during the Revolution, when 
many were sold by the thrifty and enter- 
prising captains, along with captured guns 
and hawsers. 



Lists of Revolutionary Soldiers and Sailors 
by Towns. 

As soon as space will permit, an alpha- 
betical list of the quota furnished in the 
Revolution by the different towns of the 
state will be commenced. The material, 
made up from the records in the Massa- 
chusetts archives, is in the hands of the 
editor and publication will be taken up as 
soon as practicable. 



<£?rttict^m $c (Sommntt 



on goo^rf anb £W]er ^uhjech? 



"Puritan" and "Pilgrim." 
Massachusetts Magazine: 

A few months ago when President Theo- 
dore Roosevelt delivered his speech at 
Provincetown, at the dedication of the 
Pilgrim monument, he found it necessary 
to open his remarks with an apology, say- 
ing: "Let me at the outset ask to be ex- 
cused for one error in my speech of which 
I was not aware until I read it to a Massa- 
chusetts man. I have mixed up the Pilgrim 
and the Puritan. Out in a remote region 
like New York we tend to confound men. 
I ask your pardon for not having appre- 
ciated the difference between them. When, 
therefore, I speak of the Puritan, I speak 
in the large generic sense that takes the 
Pilgrim in." 

In this connection I have recently been 
interested to read in the preface to Rev. 
Charles H. Pope's "Massachusetts Pio- 
neers" the following opinion in regard to 
the terms Puritan and Pilgrim : 

"Many . . . evidences prove the identity 
of the people of both these colonies with the 
grand Puritan host of England, described 
so admirably by Macaulay in his Essay on 
Milton; who, whether remaining in the 
organization of the church of England or 
refusing to conform to ceremonies they 
believed anti-christian, were one in pure 
faith and life, one in resolute attempt to 
carry the doctrine of the Fatherhood of 
God and the Brotherhood of Man in all 
departments of religious and secular life." 
He cites instances of interchange of 
parishioners and other civilities between the 
churches of the two colonies, and con- 
cludes: 



"It is not correct, therefore, to call the 
people of one of the colonies Pilgrims and 
those of the other Puritans, for both were 
Puritans in the fact of a holy determination 
to avoid every impure, degrading fashion 
and to live by the standards of the Re- 
vealed Word of God; and both were Pil- 
grims in the fact of making a journey from 
a high religious motive." 

I should be interested to know how the 
editor of the Massachusetts Magazine, 
looks at this question. Was the presi- 
dent's advisor needlessly "splitting hairs," 
and is it a distinction without a difference. 
. Yours truly 
A Reader. 

Editor's Note. — Among the Puritans 
of England there were those, who carried 
their repugnance to the Established church 
to such an extreme degree, that they or- 
ganized independent churches and wor- 
shipped according to the dictates of their 
own consciences. The independent church 
at Scrooby with its pastor, John Robinson, 
migrated bodily to Leyden in 160S, and 
again in 1620, migrated to Plymouth, 
though Robinson remained. This church 
and the Plymouth colony which it settled 
were known as Separatists or Indepen- 
dents. The great bulk of the Puritans 
were Nonconformists in their protest a- 
gainst the rites and ceremonies of the Es- 
tablished church. Many Puritan ministers 
were driven from their parishes by Arch- 
bishop Laud for their non-conformity. 
They were not Separatists or Independents, 
however. Migrating to New England to 
secure the religious liberty they were denied 
at home, they had no d'istinct purpose of 
withdrawing absolutely from the Church of 
England. They esteemed it "an honour 
to call the Church of England, from whence 
we rise, our dear mother." and emigrated 
that they might be divided from her cor- 



CRITICISM AND COMMENT 



111 



ruptions and not from herself. But they 
became Independents or Separatists, as a 
necessity of their new life, that they might 
guard their ecclesiastical and civil liberties 
more perfectly, as well as from choice. 



General Wm. F. Draper. 

The publishers, Little Brown & Co., 
Boston, announce an important biograph- 
ical volume with the title "Recollections 
of a varied career" by General Wm. F. 
Draper, to be issued in the fall. General 
Draper is a son of Massachusetts, who 
has had a most varied and interesting 
career, as military chieftain, captain of in- 
dustry, and ambassador representing his 
country abroad. The publishers assure us 
that the work contains comments on per- 
sons and "things in general" which make 
it a valuable contribution on contemporary 
affairs. 



Some interesting articles in recent Magazines. 

Newspapers. Early Mass. newspapers. 
By L. H. Weeks. (American historical 
magazine, March, 1908. v. 3, p. 111- 
140). 

Bedford. Some records of Bedford: 
deaths 1808-1834, from the papers of 
Rev. Samuel Stearns, Part I. Communi- 
cated by C. W. Jenks. (Xew England 
hist, and gen. register, Jan. 190S. v. 62, 
p. 69-78). The record begins with 1803 
but the earliest entries are found in the 
parish book and were incorporated in 
"Vital records of Boxford," 1903. 

Beverly. Early records of the town: 
marriage intentions, marriages and 
deaths, copied by A. A. Galloupe, pt. 10. 
(Genealogical magazine, Apr. -Dec, 1907. 
v. .2, p. 53-73). Begun in the no. for 
June, 1905. This instalment includes 
marriage intentions, 1695-1722; mar- 
riages, 1659-1704; deaths, 1660-1704. 

Boston. A business city government. By 
G. A. Hibbard, mayor. (Xew England 
magazine, March, 1908. v. 38, p. 9-15). 



The man who saved Boston: W. H. 
Holden and his part in the last political 
campaign. By F. A. Walker. (Inde- 

■ pendent, Jan. 9, 1908. v. 64, p. 89-90). 
The new Museum of Fine Arts, by F. 
W. Coburn. (Xew England magazine, 
Jan., 1908. v. 37, p. 548-553). 

Cape Cod. The new canal and old Cape 
Cod, by Reed Carradine. (Harpers 
weeklv, Jan., 11 1908. v. 52, no. 2064, 
p. 16-17). 

Haverhill. Inscriptions, Pentucket ceme- 
tery. (Essex antiquarian, Jan., 1908. 
v. 12, p. 1-25). All dates before 1800. 
This cemetery is located at site of first 
Haverhill meeting house. 

Medford. Medford 54 years ago. By C. E. 
Hurd. (Medford historical register, Jan., 
1908. v. 11, p. 1-16). 

Xew Braintree. Deaths in Xew Brain- 
tree from a manuscript in possession of 
W. E. Woods, supplementing Vital 
records; pt. I. (Xew England hist, and 
gen. register, Jan., 1908. v. 62, p. 17-24). 
Period 1810-1842. 

Newbury. Ancient Poor tavern: illus- 
tration. (Essex antiquarian, Jan., 190S. 
v. 12, facing p. 1.) 

Salem. Old Salem ships and sailors. By 
R. D. Paine, pts. I— III. (Outing maga- 
zine, Jan.-Mar., 190S. v. 51, p. 385-399, 
559-571, 709-717). 

Salem in 1700, no. 30. By Sidney 
Perley. (Essex antiquarian, Jan., 1908. 
v. 12, p. 31-33). Series began Nov., 
1898; each no. includes a plan showing 
old streets and boundary lines of estates. 

Shirley. Report of Old Shirley chapter, 
D. A. R. by Abbie J. Wells, secretary. 
(American monthlv magazine, Feb., 
1908. v. 32, p. 153-154). 

Springfield. The practise of city plan- 
ning: recent developments in Spring- 
field. By H. C. Wellman. (Charities and 
the commons, Feb. 1, 190S. v. 19, p. 
1548-1549). 

Report of Mercy Warren chapter, 
D. A. R. by M. B. S. Sawn, historian. 
(American monthly magazine, Feb., 
1908. v. 32, p. 150-151). 



112 



THE MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 



Wenham. Records of the Congregational 
church, concluded. (New England hist. 
and gen. register, Jan., 1908. v. 62, p # 
34-4S.) Part first was in the no. for 

- Oct., 1907; the present instalment cover- 
ing baptisms for 1675-1719. 

Charles A. Flagg. 



An Error Corrected. 
To the editor: 

I wish to take advantage of one sug- 
gestion which I see in the prospectus, that 
one aim of the magazine will be to correct 
wrong statements in existing publications. 
I desire to speak of one case in my own 
family which has annoyed me a great deal, 
where I have not been able thus far to get 
the story straightened out. In the history 
of the family of Zaccheus Gould of Tops- 
field, by Professor Benjamin- A. Gould, 
published by Nicholas in 1S93, there are 
two mistakes. The first is on page 326 of 
the appendix under the head of Mager 
Gould of Ipswich. It is there stated that 
Mager lived at Chebacco, now the town of 
Essex. I have searched for many years 
to find the identity of this man, and thus 
far without avail, for there is not the 
slightest reference in Choate, or in Parson 
Wise's Journal, or in any Essex records, 
that such a man ever lived in that part of 
Ipswich which is now Essex. Indeed, the 
name of Gould does not appear in any way. 

On the other hand, it appears from the 
lately published "Ipswich in the Massa- 
chusetts Bay Colony," p. 364, that Mager 
Gould bought a homestead on High Street, 
Ipswich, in 1729, when he was about twenty 
six years old, which continued in that fam- 
ily until 1821. There was never a mort- 
gage upon it. He married Elizabeth 
Treadwell of that town, lived there all his 
days and brought up his family. His son, 
Mager, Jr., lived in the same place, and 
there my grandfather was born. I have 
worked this thing out to the finish. The 
old barn is in the yard to this day and also 
the fish house in the back corner of the 
yard. This man was a dealer in fish rather 
than a fisherman. He had a shed and 
shop near where the steamer now lands. 

Again, it is stated, on page 328, that 
Mary was born in 1830, married Andrew 



McGlinchy, and died in 1894, November 21. 

This whole statement is a myth. There 
was no Mary in the family. I "have a per- 
sonal recollection of all the members who 
were living about that time, have seen 
them, and visited them, and there was no 
Mary. The error came in this way. There 
was an Irishman who was a notorious rum- 
seller in Portland by the name of Edward 
Goold, who was frequently confused with 
my venerable father, to whom reference is 
made in the same paragraph as the cashier 
of a bank in Portland. This Irishman, 
who was no possible relation to the Gould 
family in any way, was a very good impor- 
tation from Ireland, and married a Mc 
Glinchy girl. There is where the trouble 
sprung up. There is not the slightest con- 
nection between the families. The error 
has been copied in a dozen books, and it is 
time that a correct statement should be 
made. 

Very truly yours, 
Wm. E. Gould. 



A Sailor's Story of Old Sailing-Ship Days. 

So little has been written and preserved 
of the wonderful maritime history of Mas- 
sachusetts that we shall await with interest 
the auto-biographical narrative by Capt. 
John D. Whidden, of his long service on 
the sea, to ports of the world where most 
of Massachusetts trading has been done. 
The publishers specially mention the human 
interest in his story, which is so strong 
that they class it as fiction, yet it is a per- 
sonal and true record of his experiences, 
from cabin boy to captain. 



St. Botolph's Town in Colonial Days. 

A new book with the above title by Mary 
C. Crawford, is announced by L. C. Page 
& Co., Boston. It will be of particular in- 
terest to readers of this magazine because 
it deals with the romantic history of old 
Boston, and establishes the relation between 
Boston of Old England and Boston of New- 
England. Harry Vane, Frankland and 
Agnes Surriage, Paul Dudley. Winthrop. 
Endicott, Hutchinson, and other historic 
characters who played a part in Massa- 
chusetts are introduced in the chapters of 
the work. 



-'•'. 



SOME MASSACHUSETTS 
HISTORICAL WRITERS 

[Under tbis heading in each issue we shall give concise biographical sketches of town historians, family 
genealogists, and writers on other historical subjects pertaining to Massachusetts.] 



CRANE, ELLERY BICKNELL, librarian, 
born Cloebrook, X. H., Xov. 12, 1836; son 
of Robert Prudden and Almira Paine (Bick- 
nell) Crane; educated in the public and 
private schools of Beloit. Wis., took course 
in preparatory department of Beloit College 
and graduated in business college. Mar- 
ried May 13, 1S59, Salona A. Rawson, at 
Beloit, Wis., and has one son, Morton R. 
Crane, 38 years old. Republican in poli- 
tics. Unitarian in religion. As a young 
man spent his life in Wisconsin, California 
and Oregon, and came to Worcester in 
April, 1867, where he carried on a whole- 
sale and retail lumber business until 1901. 
Has served the city of Worcester in every 
public or political office from clerk of the 
precinct to alderman, and has represented 
the city in the state legislature and senate; 
for many years actively interested in the 
Worcester Society of Antiquity and for 
many years its president; member of "The 
Worcester Continentals;" served for nine 
years on Republican City Committee, and 
for two years President of the Worcester 
County Mechanics Association, delivering 
the historical address at the fiftieth anni- 
versary of its organization. 

Historical works: "Rawson Family Me- 
morial," 335 pp., 1875; "Ancestry of Ed- 
ward Rawson," 54 pp., 1887; Records of 
five branches (3 of Connecticut, 2 of New 
Jersey) of the Crane Family, in two vol- 
umes, of 850 pp. ; was supervising editor 
of Genealogical and Personal Memoirs of 
Worcester County, in four volumes, in 
which are traced the pedigrees of about 
1200 Worcester County families from the 
emigrant ancestor down to the present 
generation ; also many other genealogical 
papers, and local historical papers con- 



tributed to the proceedings of the Worces- 
ter Society of Antiquity. Now at work on 
a history of Beloit, Rock county, Wis., 
with 400 pages of manuscript completed. 

The Genealogy of the Crane Family i< in 
two volumes of 201 and 642 pages, with the 
armorial bearings in colors, and 45 jor- 
traits of members of the family. Volume 
1 contains articles on the Crane armorials; 
the origin of the name; the Crane Family 



_ . 







■fr|-iiiH-r»|-Tf iffotf 



I 



Hon. EUery B Crane. 



in England; the first of the name in New 
England; nine generations of the descend- 
ants of Henry Crane of Wethersfieid, Conn.. 
and a list of the members who served from 
Connecticut in the French, Indian and 
Revolutionary' Wars. The second volume 
contains the four chapters, Benjamin 
Crane, of Wethersfieid, Conn., and his de- 
scendants to the ninth generation; John 
Crane of Coventry, Conn., and his descend- 



114 



THE MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 



ants to the sixth generation; Jasper Crane 
of New Haven, Conn., and Newark, N. J., 
and his descendants to the tenth genera- 
tion; Stephen Crane of Elizabethtown, 
N. J., and descendants to the eight genera- 
tion; and an Addenda giving several fami- 
lies whose records have not been completed 
so as to establish their connection in the 
five lines given. There are eleven indexes 
to the woncs, six of them being Christian 
names to the five branches and the addenda 
and five of them being inter-married sur- 
names. 

Residence, 139 Highland street, office 
address, 39 Salisbury street, Worcester, 
Mass. 



SHARPLES, STEPHEN P., chemist and 
assayer, born West Chester, Pa., April 21, 
1842; son of Philip Price and Mary A. 
(Paschall) Sharpies; graduated at Harvard 




University with degree S. B., 1866; married 
June 16, 1870, to Abbie M. Hall, at Cam- 
bridge, Mass., and has five children: Mabel 
H., Philip P., Sarah H., William H., and 
Alice W. Religious denomination, Uni- 



tarian Friends. Republican in politics. 
Was instructor at Lehigh University in 
1807-8, and at Harvard University from 
1S68 to 1871; was one of the Whitney Ex- 
pedition to Lake Superior and Colorado in 
1869; assistant Editor of Boston Journal of 
Chemistry 1872-3; professor of chemistry 
at Boston Dental College, 1875 to 1892; 
was expert on the subject of woods on the 
tenth U. S. census; state assayer of Massa- 
chusetts for 18 years; also state assayer and 
inspector of liquors. Member of Am. 
Academy of Arts and Sciences, Am. Philo- 
sophical Soc, Am. Inst, member American 
Chemical Soc, Society of Chemical In- 
dustry, N. E. Historic Genealogical Soc, 
Honorary member California Hist. Soc, 
vice-president of Alumni Association of 
Lawrence Scientific School of Harvard; 
largely interested in the Amador Mining 
and Milling Co., and the Campbell Magnetic 
Separator. 

Historical work: History of the Kimball 
Family, The Records of the First Church 
of Christ in Cambridge, Many articles on 
the Webster family of New England, and 
the Ames family of Essex County; unpub- 
lished manuscript on the Webster families 
of northern New England. 

The History of the Kimball Family in 
America, is a two-volume work of 12S6 
pages, with the family coat of arms litho- 
graphed in colors, and over sixty portraits 
of members of the Kimball family. The 
work is planned in four chapters. The 
first is devoted to the Kimball family of 
England, some 17 pages; the second to the 
descendants oi Henry Kimball who settled 
in Watertown, a small family taking only 
eight pages; the third to the descendants of 
Richard Kimball, who settled in Ipswich, a 
prolific family, requiring nearly 1000 pages 
of the book for enumeration; the fourth 
chapter gives some account of other 
branches of the family in Vermont. Maine. 
New Hampshire and around Boston. 
There is a very full index of 126 pages. 



MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL WRITERS 



115 



The history covers a period from 1634 to 
1897. Compiled in collaboration with 
Leonard A. Morrison, A. M. 

Other literary works: Thesis Chemical 
Tables, published 1866; Food and its Adul- 
terations in Am. supplement to the En- 
cyclopaedia Britannica. 

Residence: 22 Concord Ave., Cambridge, 
Mass., Office, 26 Broad St., Boston, Mass. 



KELLOGG, LUCY J. CUTLER, born in 
Springfield, Mass., Oct. 3, 1S66; daughter 
of Nahum S. and Harriet I. (Hoyt) Cutler. 
Married Nov. 24, 1885, Harry Whiting 
Kellogg, tool maker at Greenfield, Mass. ; 
has three children, Henry C, Earl X. W. 
and Evelyn, ages 21, 19, and 14. Unitar- 
ian in religion. Worthy Matron, two 
years, of Order Eastern Star; Associate and 
Grand Conductress of Grand Chapter, 
Order Eastern Star; charter member and 
historian of Dorothy Quincy Hancock 
chapter D. A. R. seven years; charter mem- 
ber and director of Greenfield Historical 
Society; president of Mothers club organ- 
ized in 1907; three years member of school 
committee in Greenfield; for 20 years 
organist in different churches in Green- 
field. 

Historical works: History of Bernard- 
ston, Mass., with genealogies; History of 
Arcana Chapter Order Eastern Star, at the 
10th Anniversary Exercises, 1906; papers 
contributed to Proceedings of Pocumtuck 
Valley Memorial Association; " Dedicatory- 
Address, " at Charlemont. Mass., "Bernard- 
ston's settlement and history," "Life of 
Major John Burke;" assisted her father in 
preparation of "Cutler Memorial;" author 
of several papers for Daughters of Ameri- 
can Revolution not yet published. 

The "History of the Town of Bernard- 
ston" with genealogies is a volume of 595 
pages, with 49 inserted illustrations, cover- 
ing the history of the town from its settle- 
ment in 1737 to the year 1900. The first 



half of the book is devoted to the history 
of the town, the general plan and scope of 
which is shown by the table of contents: 
Location and boundaries. Additional 
grants, Colraine Gore, District of Leyden, 
Names of the town and their origin, Natu- 
ral features, Rivers, Brooks, Mountains, 
Glen, Soil, Productions, Anecdote of Sam- 
uel Connable; Early history and origin, 
The Falls fight, Petition for a grant, The 
reply, Territorial grants, Proprietors, First 
proprietors' Meeting, Division of land, 
Numbers of the lots drawn, Josiah Scott's 
settling bond, Collectors, Plan of the town 
ordered, The "Gore," First families, Church 
matters; First settlements, Location of the 
forts, Methods devised for escape from 
the Indians, Mr. Norton's dismissal, Indian 
hostilities, Burk Fort and its inhabitants, 
Records of military service, Anecdotes, 
Letter from John Burk to his wife, Resi- 
dents in 1760, Rev. Mr. Wright's call and 
acceptance, Incorporation of the town. 
Pound ordered, First town meeting and 
town officers, Petition for relief from the 
Province tax. First representative, Major 
John Burk, Extracts from his diary. His 
commissions; Roads, Votes relative to 
roads and bridges. Bridges, Mills, Taverns, 
Stages, Railroad, Industries, Shoe shops, 
Snath shops, Lime quarries, Blacksmiths. 
Stone work, Rope work, Tailors, Harness 
making, Distilleries, Cutlery, Stores; Politi- 
cal and military history. Patriotic position 
taken during the Revolution, Committees 
of inspection and safety appointed. Their 
duties, Case of Jacob Orcutt, Revolutionary- 
soldiers, Captain Joseph Slate. Action in 
regard to the state convention, Amount of 
supplies furnished, Votes in the first state 
election, Valuation of the town in 17S0. 
Shay's rebellion, War of 1812, Civil war. 
First volunteers, Roll of Bemardston men 
who served in the army, Relief work of 
the Ladies, Presentation to Lieut. Hurl- 
bert; District of Leyden. Fall town Gore; 
Ecclesiastical history, First parish. Organi- 



116 



THE MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 



zation, Early history, Early ministers, 
Ordination sermon. Rev. John Norton, 
Rev. Job Wright, Rev. Amasa Cook, Rev. 
Timothy Rogers, Society becomes Unitarian. 
Unitarian pastors; Baptist society, Pastors, 
Orthodox Congregational Society, Pastors, 
Universalist Society, Pastors, Methodist 
Society, Pastors, Dorrellites; Bernard- 
ston's centennial Aug. 20, 1862; Cushman 
library, Schools; Historical and local items, 
Roll of those who served in wars of 1744- 
1758, Revolution, Shays rebellion, war of 
1812, Civil war, Postmasters, Town offi- 
cials; Homes, Park, Public buildings, 
Cemeteries, Town farm, Conclusion. Gen- 
ealogical register. The last half of the 
book is devoted to genealogies of families 
of the town. Indices to names of persons 
are given in the last 55 pages. 

Address: 19 Highland Ave,, Greenfield, 
Mass. 



TILDEN, WILLIAM SMITH, teach- 
er, retired; born Medfield, Mass., April 
4, 1830; son of Eleazar P. Tilden, and 
Catherine (Smith) Tilden. Married 
Nov. 6, 1853, Olive M. Babcock, at Med- 
field. Baptist in religion. Republican 
in politics. Teacher of music in the 
public schools of Salem, 1868-1873, and 
later at Newton, Pittsfield and Framing- 
ham. Director of music in State Nor- 
mal School, Framingham, Mass., 1884 to 
1897. Representative to State Legis- 
lature in 1879. First President Med- 
field Historical Society. 

Historical works: History of the 
Baptist Church in Medfield, 1876; His- 
tory of Medfield, 1887; Historical Ad- 
dress at Medneld's celebration of its 
250th Anniversary in 1891; reminis- 
cences and sketches of old homesteads 
(now in possession of local historical 
society). 

Other literary works: School music 
books, "Hour of Singing," "High School 
Choir," "Welcome Chorus," "Common 



School Song- Reader "; Souvenirs of Med- 
field. 

The History of Medfield is a book of 
556 pages, with 27 illustrations in the 
text by John A. S. Monks. It embraces 
the years 1650 to 1886, with 278 pages 
divided into fourteen chapters as fol- 
lows: Introductory; the lands of Chick- 
atabot; the place commonly called Bog- 
gestow; glimpses of colonial life. 1630- 
50; the settlement of Medfield; the years 









William S. Tilden 



before King Phillip's war, and burning 
of Medfield; rebuilding and progress, 
1677-99; annals of the town during the 
transition period; Medfield in revolu- 
tionary times; closing annals of the 
eighteenth century; Medfield in the 
nineteenth century; town statistics. 
1885-6; list of streams, bridges and 
localities. The latter part of the book, 
pages 279-525, contains the genealogies 
of the families that held real estate or 
made any considerable- stay in the town. 
At the end there is a chapter of Miscel- 
laneous Births, Marriages, and Deaths. 
12 pp.; an historical index. 7 pages: an 
index to genealogies; and an index to 
the names who have intermarried with 
Medfield families. 

Address, Medfield, Mass. 



Rev. Thomas Franklin Waters. 



THERE is scarcely a town or village 
in Massachusetts or in all New Eng- 
land, where the public burying place 
is not a well-kept and attractive spot. It 
rarely happens that the enclosure is not 
well fenced, and that the family lots do not 
show the traces of loving remembrance of 
the dead. Neat stones and often impos- 
ing monuments abound. Walks are trim- 
med and the grass mowed. 

But in many of the oldest communities 
there is an old ground, or an old part of the 
present cemetery, which is wholly disused 
or used infrequently for the burial of a 
member of an ancient family. Here the 
earliest interments were made. The family 
names upon the headstones have become 
wholly extinct. Xo relative survives, who 
would be expected to care for the ancient 
graves. The present appearance of these 
sacred spots is often pathetic and deplorable. 
Sometimes the fence is insecure or 
broken and its dilapidation invites wanton 
mischief. A tangle of long grass and black- 
berry vines hides in part the poor old 
stones and makes it hard for the stranger, 
drawn thither by sentiment or old associa- 
tions, to search among the long forgotten 
names. The stones are broken. Some 
lie prostrate, some lean in every angle of 
desolation. The moss and the weather 
have nearly obliterated many inscriptions. 
Yet the names upon these old stones were 
names of grace and glory in their time. 
The. old minister, who came in his youth 
and spent all his life in ministering to his 
chosen nock, lies here amid the graves of 
those he taught and loved. The soldier of 
King Philip's war or of the Revolution, 
deacons of the church, the worthy citizens, 
the excellent mothers in Israel, rest here. 



while the homes they 
who never knew them. 



left shelter those 



SOMETIMES this neglect seems incon- 
ceivable. In the town, which has 
been made famous by the glory of 
the name of Rev. John Wise, his monu- 
ment still stands and is visited by thou- 
sands. Near by is the headstone of one of 
his associates in a critical period of early 
colonial history, who suffered imprison- 
ment and fine for his patriotism. A great 
fragment has been broken away and lost, 
and a growing tree threatens to uproot it 
bodily. All around the ancient stones, 
full of interest, are in the saddest state of 
neglect and ruin. In one old town in 
middle Massachusetts, the beautiful build- 
ings and great campus of a famous college 
for women occupy one side of the broad 
village street. Across the way was the old 
burying ground, so tangled and overgrown 
a few years since that it was almost im- 
possible to walk through it. The neglect 
and dishonor, so painfully manifest, cul- 
minated not unnaturally in the wanton 
selection of this spot as the site of a public 
library, offered by a wealthy man, on con- 
dition that it should be built on this spot. 
To its eternal shame, the citizens accepted 
the offer and tore the long buried remains 
rudely from their resting, place, to gratify 
their pride. In another community simi- 
lar sacrilege was wrought that an engine 
house might be located to advantage. The 
degenerate influence of such irreverent 
outrage of the dead is appalling. If large 
and thriving communities deal thus with 
the ancient sepulchres, why should the 
little village trouble itself if the first burial 



118 



THE MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 



place become again a forest, or a waste and 
desolation ! 

HAPPILY these conditions are ex- 
ceptional. For the most part, the 
old burying ground is cared for. 
Sometimes a philanthropic individual has 
made this his charge and care. In other 
communities, a true civic pride leads to a 
reasonable expenditure of the public funds. 
The fading inscriptions have been copied 
carefully. In one instance at least, at 
public expense, a notable epitaph has been 
recut and preserved for future generations. 
But much remains to be done. Many 
old burying places abide friendless and for- 
saken. A new reverence for the dead 
should assert itself; and the finest modern 
culture is a failure if' it does not inspire 
right regard for the graves of the fathers. 
The old slate stones should be protected 
from the ravages of the frost by an inex- 
pensive copper cap. The moss may be re- 
moved at small cost, revealing the now 
illegible lettering. Many inscriptions 
might be chiselled more deeply. If some 
earnest soul, sensible of the importance of 
this task, would begin the work of restora- 
tion, in each and every neglected spot, we 
are persuaded that public sentiment would 
be aroused at once, and that a generous 
response would be made, adequate to every 
, needful work. 

CONVERSING with an eminent 
genealogist of international repu- 
tation some years ago with regard 
to a family genealogy, which he was revis- 
ing, he observed with some bitterness, 
"This work is wholly unreliable. The author 
composed it in his library, writing letters 
and picking up material from any source." 
"Here," he said, pointing to the volumes 
of Probate Records in the Essex Registry, 
"here, in this room, and in the room below, 
where the records of the Registry of Deeds 



are preserved, he ought to have found his 
material." 

The criticism was well founded, no 
doubt, in this particular instance, and it 
suggests that the same defective method 
may characterize a considerable portion 
of modern genealogical work. Certainly 
many inaccuracies exist, and there is great 
uncertainty among genealogical investi- 
gators as to the reliability of certain data 
that are published with confidence. The 
weekly budget of questions and answers 
in the Boston Transcript is a case in hand. 
Here we find an endless series of family 
pedigrees, of graphic and entertaining 
records of noteworthy individuals in the 
family line, and delicate bits of traditional 
lore. Here also is an unfailing series of 
criticisms, of confident denials of the truth 
of statements which have been published 
on this page, and of serious questioning as 
to the identity of the individual or the 
credibility of the tradition. 

Self-confidence is the peculiarly beset- 
ting sin of the genealogist, and it reveals 
itself in firm rebuttal as well as strong 
affirmation. In no department of historic 
research, perhaps, is there greater facility 
of error. The identity of name in succes- 
sive generations and in collateral lines of 
the same generation is often an insuperable 
obstacle to absolute assurance. The com- 
plete lack of early family record, the 
meagreness of vital statistics, the necessity 
of long and careful researchin Court records 
and land registries, render the accumula- 
tion of a sufficient store of raw material a 
slow and difficult task. Too often the 
investigator lacks the calm, judicial habit, 
or the passion for perfect accuracy, or the 
inexhaustible patience in struggling with' 
fussy details, which are a prime essential 
of the best work. Over eager to appear 
in print, he publishes his newspaper skit 
or a crude and ill-digested volume, inaccu- 
rate and misleading. 



OUR EDITORIAL PAGES 



119 



EVEN in this age of light and reason, 
the printed page has marvellous 
authority. "Thus it is written," 
is the shibboleth of many a superficial 
dabbler in genealogic pursuits. With 
strange incredulity, the majority of readers 
accept anything and everything on the 
printed page as the word. of infallible truth. 
The easy-going maker of genealogies by the 
library method seizes the new volume and 
reembodies its faults and fallacies in his 
ready-made books. 

Can anything be done in the interest of 
a more reliable and accurate method, which 
shall lift this rapidly increasing volume of 
genealogical literature to a higher level? 
By common consent of the craft, can there 
be certain canons agreed to, which shall be 
recognized as the rules of thorough going 
and authoritative work? It may seem a 
wild dream. Every genealogist, amateur 
or professional, is at liberty to work in his 
own way and publish whatever he chooses. 
There is no guild or trades union to dictate, 
or demand uniformity of style. No school 
of genealogy exists, to train in standard 
methods and confer degrees for distin- 
guished excellence. Yet it is not beyond 
imagination, that a professional cult 
might be attained. The methods which 
have approved themselves to the most ex- 
perienced and authoritative might be 
stated by them, for the guidance of be- 
ginners in the art. The defects which 
are most common might be indicated. 
Thoughtless or careless investigators might 
learn better methods. 

A recent experience of our own illus- 
trates the point in mind. Having occa- 
sion to consult a printed genealogy of an 
old New England family, we asked for it 
in a library where much research is carried 
on. As the great folio was laid before us, 
a stranger remarked, "You will find it very 
unreliable." We made copious notes and 
at our leisure compared them with the re- 



sults of our own research in the Vital Statis- 
tics of the town, where one branch of the 
family had lived for generations. There 
were many omissions, which suggested that 
the local records had not been examined, 
but these were less startling than the dis- 
crepancies in the dates. At least fifty per 
cent of those in the Genealogy were at 
variance with the dates in the Town book. 
The question at once arose, how could there 
be such a serious disagreement? The Vital 
Statistics of our towns are accepted as of 
standard value. At great expense to the 
Commonwealth a complete transcript of 
these records, including Parish and Town 
records, is being made by # experts and many 
volumes are already published. A clergy- 
man's private record of baptisms, mar- 
riages and funerals may be reckoned as 
accurate, as the entries were made at the 
time from first-hand knowledge. The 
record kept by a Town Clerk is not infalli- 
ble. As compulsory returns of births, 
marriages and deaths were not made in 
olden times, the record varied as the tem- 
perament and official qualification of the 
Town Clerks varied. Within twenty-five 
years, one Town Clerk was so negligent and 
incompetent that he failed to make any 
birth entries for a considerable period and 
the accuracy of any of his work might be 
fairly questioned. The Clerks of the early 
centuries may have been equally at fault 
in some communities. 

Be that as it may, the official record of 
the native town of a family must be reck- 
oned with. It affords the most complete 
contemporaneous series of relationships and 
dates. The only other authoritative data 
of any magnitude are the family records 
in the old family Bibles. Did the compiler 
of the genealogy in question which is in 
such ill odor with the knowing ones, gather 
his family histories from the old family 
Bibles, or other authoritative source? Is 
he justly condemned for inaccuracy be- 
cause his record varies from the Town 
statistics? 



120 



THE MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 



AS the case stands, the value of his 
work is questionable and it must 
continue so. But by one simple 
device, its reputation might have been 
established as scholarly and trustworthy 
or the reverse. The citing of authorities 
in a reasonably full series of footnotes 
would have revealed the sources of his 
material and his method of research. A 
citation from a Town Record or a family 
record or other original source might be 
easily indicated. The bulk of the volume 
would not be perceptibly increased by this 
addition and its value would be enhanced 
many fold. 

WE recognize, of course, that the 
sources of information are various 
and that the narrative might be 
loaded down with pedantic quotations and 
citations. The scaffolding is always taken 
down when the building is complete. It 



would show just how the structure was 
built if left in place but would ruin its 
symmetry and beauty. We make no plea 
for such a device. Let the method of the 
best genealogists in this particular prevail. 
The result of original research can 
easily be noted. Borrowed data may be 
credited to the rightful authority. If the 
book is the result of study of material, 
patiently acquired at first hand, in the 
main, it will speak for itself. If it is a 
patch-work, a genealogical "crazy-quilt," 
the discerning reader will soon determine 
its worth. 

These publications are the result of long 
years of patient and unrewarded labor. 
Their authors hope that they are making 
a permanent contribution to standard 
genealogical literature. They can ill afford 
in justice to themselves to fail to use any 
legitimate device to enhance the value of 
their work. 



THE 



MASSACHVSETTS 



MAGAZINE 




Published bythe Salem Press Co. Salem, Mass. U.S. A. 



3TIJC JHassarijustffs JHaaamte. 

A Quarterly cMagazine Devoted to History, Genealogy and Biography 
Thomas Franklin Waters, Editor, rrawicv, mass. 

ASSOCIATE AXD ADVISORY EDITORS 

Frank A. Gardner, M. D. Charles A. Flagg John X. McClintock Albert W. Dexxii 

SALEM, MASS. WASHINGTON, D. C DORCHESTER, MASS. ' SALEM, MAC*. 

Issued in January, April, July and October. Subscription, $2.50 per year, Single copies 75c. 



VOL. I 



JULY, 1908 



NO. 3 



Contents af fins Jssnc- 

The Idylls of Franklin County .... Thomas F. Waters . 123 

The American Frontier Henry Cabot Lodge . 132 

The Paul Revere House Harriet Caryl Cox . 133 

Hon. John N. Cole . . . *. John N. McClintock 137 

Hon. Louis A. Frothingham John N. McClintock 140 

Robert Luce John N. McClintock 143 

Colonel William Prescott's Regiment . . F. A. Gardner, M.D. 149 

The Old Roy all House Helen Tilden Wild . 16S 

Personal Diary of Ashley Bowen of Marblehead 174 

Pilgrims and Planters Lucie M. Gardner . 177 

Some Massachusetts Historical Writers , . 184 

Massachusetts Pioneers in Michigan . . . Charles A. Flagg . l$6 

Criticism and Comment 191 

Department of the American Revolution F. A.Gardner, M. D. 195 
Our Editorial Pages ....:;... Thomas F. Waters . 202 



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Entered as second-class matter March 13, 1908, at the post-office at Salem, Mass., under the act of Congress < 
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THE IDYLLS OF FRANKLIN 

COUNTY. 



By Rev. Thomas F. Waters 




IR WALTER SCOTT died on Sept. 21, 1832. Grief at his 
death and a keen sense of the loss sustained by the world 
of letters was universal. A few months later, Rufus Choate 
delivered a lecture in Salem, entitled, The Importance oi 
illustrating New England History by a series of Romances 
like the Waverley Novels. "Every lover of his country," 
he observed, ' 'and every lover of literature would wish 
... to see such a genius as Walter Scott, or rather a thousand such as he, un- 
dertake in earnest to illustrate that early history by a series of romantic 
compositions, in prose or rhyme, like the Waverley Novels, the Lay of the 
Last Minstrel, and the Lady of the Lake, the scenes of which should be laid 
in North America, somewhere in the time before the Revolution, and the in- 
cidents and characters of which should be selected from the records and 
traditions of that, our heroic age." 

"Now, I say, commit this subject," he continued, "King Philip's War — 
to Walter Scott, the poet or the novelist, and you would see it wrought up 
and expanded into a series of pictures of the New England of that era,— so 
full, so vivid, so true, so instructive, so moving, that they would grave them- 
selves upon the memory, and dwell in the hearts of our whole people 
forever. " 

This happy blending of romance with the sober details of history was 
nearer its realization than Mr. Choate imagined. Nathaniel Hawthorne was 



124 & n T HE MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 

then in his twenty-ninth year and already deeply interested in early colonial 
history. In due time, The Scarlet Letter appeared and Twice Told Tales, 
and the charm of his narrative won a multitude of readers, who learned for 
the first time the manner of life in the early days. Historic episodes, heroic 
and inspiring, like Endicott's cutting the cross from the the British flag, 
became familiar tales in the household. The stern laws, the tragic penalties, 
the tense moral standards, the awful publicity attending inquiry into lapse 
from virtue and its publication in the community, were painted with deft 
touch. 

John Greenleaf Whittier was twenty-seven years old, when Mr. Choate 
was dreaming of his new school of historic writers. Before many years, 
he began to find inspiration for his verse in the romantic episodes of the early 
days and the sorrowful tales of the witch craft delusion, and his prose essay, 
Leaves from the Journal of Margaret Smith, proved a true and graphic 
portraiture of many phases of the every day life of the early colonial time. 

Thus Puritan life was portrayed in old Essex County. Longfellow's Court- 
ship of Miles Standish, and Mrs. Austen's Standish of Standish made a 
popular hero of the rugged soldier of Plymouth. The historical novel 
sprang into being and is well established as a popular accessory of historical 
study. Marmion and Ivanhoe and the Lady of the Lake have not yet found 
their duplicate in New England, but Sir Walter's method has inspired 
noteworthy contributions to this school. 

Nowhere in New England can richer material for such romantic narra- 
tive be found than in the early settlements in the fertile valleys of the Con- 
necticut and Deerfield rivers. Here was a vast and solemn wilderness, into 
which little companies of settlers made their way cautiously. In the year 
1669, the settlement of Deerfield, fourteen miles beyond Hatfield, was begun. 
A few acres were cleared and gradually a few humble homes built. A little 
group of venturesome families gathered, and in 1673, Samuel Mather came 
to be their minister. 

Explorers from Northampton, pressing into the wild, found the soil 
fertile and the location inviting at the Indian village of Squakheag, and by 
purchase and grant, a tract of land six miles square was secured. Sixteen 
families came in 1673, built their log-houses and their stockade and called 
their village Northfield. The isolation was appalling. Deerfield was sixteen 
miles away, Hadley, thirty miles, Brookfield, forty-five, and Lancaster, sixty. 
To the west, no settlement was nearer than Albany, and the wilderness 
stretched unbroken on the north to the St. Lawrence. 

The Indians were peaceful and the little settlements prospered. But in 



IDYLLS OF FRANKLIN COUNTY 125 

1675, Philip's War burst upon them. Brookfield, their neighbor, was assailed 
and partially burned. A brave defence was made, but only the opportune ar- 
rival of troops saved the day. The settlers at Deerfield and Northfield 
realized their peril but held manfully to their homes. Gun in hand, they 
went to their work and their worship. The days and nights were filled with 
suspense. At last the blow fell. On Sept. 1st. Deerfield was attacked, one 
man slain and seventeen of the houses burned. The next day, eight men 
were killed while at work in the fields at Northfield. A swift courier carried 
the news to Hadley, where the soldiers were gathering, and Capt. Beers 
was dispatched with thirty-six men for their relief. Early on the morning 
of Sept. 4th while advancing carelessly he fell into an ambuscade. In the 
sharp fight which followed, the leader fell and the greater part of his little 
company. The remnant made their way back to Hadley. Major Treat 
with more than a hundred men set out at once to withdraw the North- 
field garrison, which was successfully accomplished, though the untried 
nerves of the soldiers were sorely shaken by the sight of the heads of 
the slain impaled on stakes by the road side, and one poor victim hang- 
ing by a chain hooked into his lower jaw. Garrisons were established at 
once at Deerfield, Hatfield and the lower towns. 

On Sunday, the 12th of September, the soldiers and settlers gathered for 
worship in the central stockade at Deerfield. Returning, the north garrison 
was ambuscaded and one man captured, but the Indians were repulsed after 
they had plundered and burned the north fort, and stolen much of the stock 
of the settlers. Preparations for abandoning the town were made straightway. 
Household goods and the plentiful crop of corn were loaded upon wagons and 
sent to Hadley, escorted by Captain Lathrop and his company. Unheedful 
of the usual tactics of their foe which had already resulted in the loss of so 
many lives, soldiers and teamsters proceeding leisurely fell into an ambuscade 
where Muddy Brook crossed the road. Sixty- four fell in the short, sharp 
fight. This dreadful calamity happened on Sept. ISth, "that most fatal Day, 
the Saddest that ever befel New England," as Hubbard wrote. 

On the 31st of May, 1676, Captain Turner surprised a great body of Indians 
at the Falls, still known as Turner's Falls, and slaughtered a multitude, panic- 
struck and unresisting. But a large body of Indians assembled and drove the 
soldiers back, their Captain falling in the retreat. A later attack was made on 
Hatfield, but in August, Philip was killed and the war seemed to be ended. 

With singular daring, Quentin Stockwell, one of the Deerfield settlers, ven- 
tured to return to the ruined town in the autumn of that same year and begin 
the work of rebuilding his home. The Indians burned his half-built house and 



126 THE MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 

he fled back to the safer settlements. Undaunted by his perilous experience, 
Stockwell returned again the following spring, 1677, with a few brave com- 
panions. The summer passed without alarms, but on Sept. 19th, a band of 
Indians, having already assailed Hatfield and carried away with them seven- 
teen captives, for the most -part women and children, fell upon the Deerfield 
men. John Root was killed but Stockwell was captured and carried with the 
rest of thej prisoners to Canada. His narrative of his sufferings and miracu- 
lous deliverances was recorded by Cotton Mather and ranks with Mrs. Row- 
landson's story of her captivity, in weird and thrilling interest. 

A few years passed, the courage of the afflicted settlers again revived and 
in 1682 the rebuilding of Deerfield was begun. In 1685, twenty families re- 
turned to Xorthfield, which had been totally destroyed, but fresh inroads by 
the Indians were instigated by the French in the disturbed condition of the 
Colony resulting from the resistance to Governor Andros, and in 1690, the set- 
tlement was again abandoned. Deerfield, however, was not disturbed. Rev. 
John Williams, a Harvard graduate in the class of 1682, was ordained the min- 
ister of the town in 1688, and in the following year he brought his bride, Eunice 
Mather, daughter of the Rev. Eleazer Mather, and cousin of the first preacher 
of the town. A few untroubled years followed, then the storm clouds 
gathered. France and England were again at war, and the French in Canada 
incited the Indians against the English settlements. Deerfield was the most 
exposed, and tidings of an intended attack came from friendly observers. Some 
precautions were taken: the settlers living for the most part crowded within 
their stockade fort; the winter was passing without an assault. But on the 
night of February 29, 1704, a band of French and Indians easily climbed the 
stockade, half buried in snow, and attacked the sleeping citizens. Doors were 
battered in and the frightened and helpless inmates were slaughtered, or bound 
with thongs and taken to the meeting house. Babes were dashed against 
the door-stones. The stout oak door of John Sheldon's house was hacked 
through, an Indian, inserting his gun, fired at random, and the ball struck and 
killed the mother of the household, sitting upon her bed in her sleeping room. 
The minister and his family were among the captives, who were hurried away 
in the early morning. The strength of Mrs. Williams, weak from recent sick-' 
ness, soon failed her and she was slain by a blow from a tomahawk. Her body 
was discovered and brought back for burial near the great grave where the 
slaughtered were laid to rest. Thirty-eight of the settlers and nine soldiers had 
been slain, one hundred and twelve were carried into captivity. 

The winter journey through the wilderness to Canada was accomplished at 
terrible cost of hunger and cold and fatigue, and twenty- two perished or were 



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IDYLLS OF FRANKLIN COUNTY 127 

killed by the savages, but the anguish of the survivors was scarcely less. En- 
sign John Sheldon was soon upon the trail and three trips were made, 300 miles 
through the wilderness, to Montreal, to sue for their release. The French made 
the most strenuous exertions to win the captives to the Catholic faith. Even- 
tually not a few, worn out with threats and intimidations yielded and were 
baptized, among whom was Eunice Williams, daughter of the pastor. All 
efforts to secure her release were vain. She married an Indian and reared a 
family. She returned to Deerfield for brief visits but could not be weaned 
from her wild life. The greater number of the captives were redeemed and 
returned to their desolate home, but a black pall of sorrow hung over the hap- 
less town. Their grief for the slain was bitter, and even more bitter was the 
uncertainty as to the fate of many and the consuming distress over those who 
had become converts to the abominations of the Catholic religion. Only 
sixty returned, the fate of the rest was an impenetrable mystery. This 
colossal calamity marked the climax of the Indian wars. Deerfield chastened, 
sorrowful, but not hopeless,, survived. Northfield was rebuilt again in 1714 
and suffered occasional attacks. Forty years and more passed before the 
last blood was shed, or the last settler hurried into captivity. 

An era like this is not to be forgotten. The courage of those simple yeo- 
men, now in the ranks of the hastily summoned soldiery, now within the stock- 
ade, beset by hosts of savages incapable of. pity and delighting in fiendish 
cruelty, now defending the solitary log house, with only wife and children to 
load the guns and guard the weakest spot, the heroism of the women, fit com- 
panions of the men, the crushing grief of mothers whose babes were snatched 
from their arms, dashed against some tree or ledge, and then thrown aside to 
be devoured by the beasts of the forest, the sorrows of the little children who 
were able to survive the wintry march, the grand religious faith that supported 
and comforted when all human help failed, these are a precious heritage. Gen- 
ius might well find its inspiration here for a romance, or poem, which should 
live forever. 

Beside the narrative of Quentin Stockwell, the tale of the wintry march and 
the eventual return, which Rev. John Williams wrote and published, entitled 
The Redeemed Captive, was the principal literary memorial of that thrilling 
period. The plain stone which had been reared at Bloody Brook at an 
early period was replaced in 1835 by a more fitting memorial. In that 
year, a marble monument suitably inscribed was dedicated with great 
ceremony, the oration being delivered by Edward Everett. Another genera- 
tion passed and these historic moments still failed of worthy remembrance. 
But in 1869, three or four men, meeting by chance in Greenfield "talking about 



128 THE MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 

the dark and bloody memories of Feb. 29, 1704, commiserating the fate of the 
Deerfleld captives and the tragic death of Mrs. Williams, resolved that in some 
way the place where she fell should be permanently marked." The owner of 
the spot where she was slain happened along at that moment, and when the 
subject of their conversation was told him, he agreed at once to give it to any 
party, who should hold it for such use. 

Encouraged by such an auspicious beginning, these men proceeded to or- 
ganize The Pocumtuck Valley Memorial Association, choosing the Indian title 
of the Deerfleld valley to indicate the nature of the memorial. The moving 
spirit in the enterprize was the Hon. George Sheldon, a native of Deerneld, 
whose homelot, on which the house was built before 1743, had passed from 
generation to generation without a break from the year 1708. The life cur- 
rent of sixteen of his kindred crimsoned the snow on that fatal night and twice 
that number of the captives were included in his family line. His pride of 
ancestry, his poetic temperament, his antiquarian tastes, his enthusiastic ap- 
preciation of every thrilling, every tender episode, fitted him in pre-eminent 
fashion for the new memorial work. He was elected President and has held 
the office to the present day. Congenial companions, alert and enterprizing, 
stood with him. It was agreed that a winter meeting in old Deerfleld and a 
summer field day at some historic spot should be the regular order for every 
year. 

The first field meeting was held at Turner's Falls, in Sept., 1870, in com- 
memoration of the battle of May, 1676, and aroused gratifying enthusiasm. 
The first winter meeting of a literary character was held at Deerfleld on 
Feb. 28th, 1871, the anniversary of the night attack. Miss C. Alice Baker, an 
officer of the Association, read a paper on Eunice Williams, the captive 
daughter of the Deerfleld minister. Accurate and painstaking in her habit 
of scholarly investigation, thoroughly familiar with the French language, and 
the history of the French in Canada, singularly gifted in her power of pic- 
turesque and thrilling description, Miss Baker made a notable contribution, 
not merely to local history, but to the history of New England, by her loving 
study of the Puritan maiden, torn from her home, who became an Indian 
wife and mother. 

The field meeting of 1871 was at Charlemont. A stately procession 
marched with martial music to the little burial place where a monument was 
dedicated to Capt. Moses Rice, the first settler of Charlemont, who was killed 
by the Indians on June 11, 1755, and Phineas Arms, a Deerfleld man, who was 
slain at the same time and buried beside Captain Rice. In a neighboring 
grove addresses were made and original odes sung. The history of the town 



IDYLLS OF FRANKLIN COUNTY 129 

was sketched, the building of the stockade forts and their location was de- 
scribed. The expense of the monument was borne by a great-great-grandson 
of Moses Rice. At the winter meeting in 1S72, Mr. Sheldon read Biographical 
Sketches of the Settlers at Pocumtuck before Philip's War, and Miss Baker 
presented an historical paper of great interest. In September, the Association 
met at West Northfield to dedicate a monument to Nathaniel Dickinson, 
killed by the Indians in 1747, erected by his great-grandchildren. 

This annual field-day had now become an established institution, which 
roused great enthusiasm, and was attended by hundreds and thousands from 
the country-side. Sunderland was visited and ancient sites marked and 
studied. The centennial of the incorporation of Leverett was celebrated by the 
Town and the Memorial Association in 1874. The Bi-Centennial of the massa- 
cre at Bloody Brook was commemorated in 1875. The poem was read by Wil- 
liam Everett, the eminent son of the orator at the dedication of the monument. 
The anniversary of the Fall's Fight was observed, and in 1884, the field meet- 
ing was at the spot made forever memorable by the tragic death of the beloved 
Mrs. Williams. A monument erected by the association was dedicated, and 
the tributes to her memory were singularly tender and inspiring. Ashfieid was 
visited and a thousand people assembled on the site of the ancient Fort Ellis. 
George William Curtis presided and Prof. J. Stanley Hall gave the historical 
address. 

Colrain was visited in 1887, the fiftieth anniversary of Erving was cele- 
brated in 1888, as well as the unveiling of the boulder-monument at Whately, 
on the site of the stockade of 1754, and in 1889, a meeting of rare interest com- 
memorated the anniversary of the attack on Hatfield. Shelburne Falls, the 
Northwest Pasture of old Deerfield, to which an annual expedition was made 
for the year's supply of salmon, Bernardston, Gill, the old Xorth-East Dis- 
trict of Greenfield, the site of the first meeting house built in Greenfield, Mon- 
tague, Brattleboro. Vt., on the site of old Fort Dummer, and Xorthfield, 
received the Memorial Association most hospitably. Anniversaries were cele- 
brated, monuments dedicated, historical addresses delivered. Every nook and 
corner of old Franklin County was searched, its legends and traditions recited- 
its local heroes and heroines recalled and honored, and every stirring event 
faithfully portrayed. 

The activities of the Memorial Association seemed inexhaustible. The great 
History of Deerfield by Mr. Sheldon, and the History of Xorthfield, of which he 
was an associate editor, were published. The antiquarian collection enlarged 
rapidly. Finally, the Memorial building, which had been in mind from the 
beginning, became a glorious reality. The substantial brick edifice used by the 



130 THE MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 

Deerfield Academy for many years was purchased and remodelled for the anti- 
quarian museum, which has made the town famous. Here a unique but pathe- 
tic memorial has been reared. On slabs of marble the names of the slain and 
the captives whose fate was never known, men, women and children, have been 
inscribed. Here. too. most -notable of all, preserved with pious care, is the door 
of John Sheldon's house, hacked by Indian tomahawks, which was saved from 
destruction when the old Indian house was torn down in 1848. Perhaps, the 
one object of tenderest sentiment, is the little shoe worn by the four year old 
Sarah Coleman in her eight months' captivity in 1677-78. 

The climax of this memorial work was reached in the Old Home Week of 
1901, which was celebrated in Deerfield with unique exercises and prolonged 
enthusiasm. The beautiful Deerfield Street, without a rival in all Xew Eng- 
land, with its grand elms and venerable dwellings, became an historic wonder- 
land. A placard attached to almost every house gave an epitome of its history. 
Flags, of various colors, marked the sites of houses burned by Indians and the 
dwellings of soldiers in many wars. Substantial granite markers had been 
erected on the site of the.old Indian House, built by Ensign John Sheldon, the 
site of Benoni Stebbins's dwelling, which was defended by seven men, besides 
women and children, for three hours against the assault of 200 French soldiers 
and 140 Indians, the John Williams homestead, the site of the palisaded house 
of Capt. Jonathan Wells, the "Boy Hero of the Connecticut Valley," erected 
by the children of Deerfield, the home of Capt. Joseph Stebbins and others. In 
the ancient burying ground, a grassy mound had been reared, topped by a 
simple stone marking the grave of forty-eight men, women and children, the 
victims of that night attack. No other town was ever adorned with so many 
reminders of an heroic Past. The very air was fragrant with beautiful and 
tender memories. 

Thus, for many years, the story of these ancient times has been told with 
frequent repetition, though ever fresh variety, throughout the towns and villages 
of Franklin County. Mr. Sheldon has gathered from many sources and written 
with felicitous grace on many themes. Rarely has a meeting been held, with- 
out a spirited address by him or a paper of characteristic insight and bril- 
liance. He has been the ingenious originator of this multitude of excursions, 
field-meetings and anniversaries. His enthusiasm has inspired the building 
of beautiful memorial structures and the rearing of innumerable monuments of 
humbler order. With amazing patience and skill, aided by his devoted wife. 
he has put the collections of the Library and Museum in perfect order and 
published a comprehensive catalogue of the latter. The traditional regicide 
at Hadley has suffered sorely at his hands, and every other mythic hero 












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IDYLLS OF FRANKLIN COUNTY 131 

and unhistoric legend. But he has opened a veritable wonderland of Truth. 
The ancient records have yielded unsuspected treasures to his trained and 
discerning eye. By his deft touch the old things have become new ; the for- 
gotten have been brought to mind ; the ancient dwellings have been repeopled 
with their olden inmates. < 

He has been ably seconded. Miss C. Alice Baker, moved by a great desire 
to learn if possible the story of the captives who never returned, made 
repeated visits to Canada and sought in the records of old French convents for 
traces of the lost. Her labors were crowned with great success. Under the 
guise of the new baptismal names bestowed by the French priests, she traced 
the record of not a few, and was entertained in the homes of some who were de- 
scended from this Deerfleld ancestry. The record of these journeys is as fascin- 
ating as an explorer's narrative. She has told the story of Thankful Stebbins, 
"an unredeemed captive." "The Adventures of Baptiste," "Two Captives" and 
many another exquisite bit of biography, drawn from her studies in this field 
of research. 

Mrs. Mary P. Wells Smith's tribute to her ancestress, Mehitable Hins- 
dale, under the caption "A Puritan Foremother," has admirable grace and 
power. She was the first woman settler in Deerfleld. Her husband, Samuel 
Hinsdale, fell at Bloody Brook, leaving her with five little children. She 
soon married John Root, who was killed by the Indians just two years after the 
death of her first husband. On that same day, Deacon John Coleman's wife 
had been slain at Hatfield, and a year and a half later, the twice widowed 
Mehitable became the wife of Deacon Coleman with whom she lived until her 
death. The heavy sorrows of this pioneer mother attest the hardness of 
woman's lot in those days of bloodshed. A singular and sad parallel is found 
in the epitaph of Mrs. Jemima Tute in the little burying ground at Vernon, 
Vt., whose two husbands, William Phipps and Caleb Howe were killed by 
the Indians. She and her seven children were carried into captivity. Her 
oldest daughter was carried to France where she married. Her youngest was 
torn from her breast and perished with hunger. She recovered the rest of 
her children, secured her release and married Mr. Amos Tute. She Outlived 
him and the two children born of this marriage, and died in 1S05 at the age 
of eighty- two. 

" Having passed through more vicissitudes and endured more hardships, 

Than any of her Contemporaries. 

No more can savage foes annoy 

Nor aught her wide spread fame destroy." 

No wonder that the mother of Benoni Stebbins named her babe, Benoni, 
son of my sorrow, in such times as these. 

These simple but thrilling tales, these memorial stones, these scholarly and 
valuable histories, these field-meetings which still flourish, the great museum. 
the four substantial volumes, published by the Association, have surely ac- 
complished for Franklin County in large degree, the picturesque and romantic 
work which Sir Walter Scott did for Scotland. 



^hc Hmcrtcan frontier 




HAVE often thought that a book which told the story of the American frontier 
would be of intense interest. As one thinks of it in what seems to me the true 
fashion, one comes to personify it. to feel as if it were a sentient being, struggling 
forward through darkness and light, through peace and war. planting itself :n a 
new spot, clinging there desperately until its hold is firm and then plunging for- 
ward again into the dim unknown to live over the old conflict. Frontiers such as 
ours have been do not go slowly forward building one house next another in the rr.ar.- 
nerof agrowingcity. The Puritan Englishmenof Massachusetts Bay had scarcely 
fastened their grip upon the rugged shore where they had landed before Pyn he HJ 
_ c . had pushed out from the coast and established his outpost on the Connecticut. 

rrom bprmgneld the little settlements spread slowly up and down the river and thus the new fron- 
tier was formed. The older plantations along the coast were then no longer outposts and the space 
between them and the western line lay ready to be rilled in. Gradually the villages planted them- 
selves and crept .northward up the river subduing the wilderness and reaping the harvest of the 
nC ^ \f -*• They were just beginning here when the red man came to the aid of the yielding forest 
and the savage war known by the name of Philip broke upon them and went raging and burning, 
hither and tnither along the river, thrusting itself down between the towns to the eastward and 
T ki ver ^" heart of the coast settlements. Many were the rights close by here, most conspicuous 
the bloody defeat at the Brook and the shining victory at the Falls, which still bear the victor's 
name For weary months and years the war blazed red and wild, then it began to flicker, flaring 
up only to sink down again into smoldering embers until it finallv died away leaving ashes and deso- 
lation as its monuments. 

Again the pioneers worked their way up the river, again the houses rose and the meadows smiled 
and the forest was cleared. This time the settlers took a firmer grip .... again the French and 
Indians poured down upon the valleys and hillsides of New England. Here the worst blow fell . 
Deerfield was almost swept from the map already so deeply scarred. It was such a long war too. 
It went on for some ten years after the sack of Deerfield. Men's hearts began to fail. They were 
ready almost to'think that this was an accursed spot, dogged by misfortune 'and haunted by 
slaughter and pillage. But the stout hearts did not fail entirely. The men made their way back 
again after all. They held on to this beautiful vallev and over the ruined homesteads they finally 
planted themselves more conclusively than ever. War was not over by any means. There was 
peace in Europe, but the Jesuit missionaries had not made peace and Father Rasle's War. as it was 
called, led to sharp and bloody fighting in Xew England, chiefly to the eastward, but with enough 
of ambush and murder and sudden death in these valleys to make the people realize the hard tenure 
by which they held their lands. When the war of the Austrian succession came, Deerfield was still 
on the edge, but the fighting frontier had moved forward and the little hill towns, each with its 
fort, formed a line of outworks. Before the "old French war" as we have been wont to call it. 
broke out ten years later, Greenfield had been born and the line of frontier swung to the north and 
ceased to be a frontier when Canada passed into English hands. Xow, too. it stretched away west- 
ward until it joined that other advance guard of settlements which had crept up the Hudson and 
then turned to the west along the Mohawk. The frontier days of the Connecticut valley were over 
and it had taken half a century to do it. Children had been born and had grown to be elderly men 
and women who had known nothing but more or less constant war. They had passed their lives 
in fighting to hold their own here among their peaceful hills facing the wilderness, listening nightly 
for the war whoop and watching daily for signs of a lurking fee. What a splendid story it is and 
have we not the right to be proud of the men who made it possible? 

But the unresting frontier sprang forward, much lengthened now and running north and south 
along the Alleghanies when the Revolution began. Then George Rogers Clarke carried the coun- 
try's boundary to the Mississippi and after peace came, the frontier moved slowly and pain:u..v 
after it across the "Dark and Bloody Ground." along the Great Lakes at the north and the Gull at 
the south. Then there was a pause while all that vast region was taken into possession and then 
the frontier leaped onwards again in the southwest and pushed the boundary before it far down to 
the Rio Grande. Another pause while the settlements slowly shot out beyond the Mississippi and 
then came the war with Mexico, the Pacific coast was ours and a second frontier began to move 
eastward toward that which had been travelling westward for more than two hundred^ears. In 
our time we have seen them meet. It is only a few years aero and the meeting was hardly noticed. 
Men scarcely realized that there had ceased to be a frontier in the United States, that there was no 
longer a line where the hardv pioneers stood face to face with an untamed wilderness, ever pressm r 
forward against it. Indian wars had ended, the red man was finally submerged by the all-err.crac- 
ing tide of the white civilization. Those wars had lasted for more than two hundred and fifty 
years, thev sank into a final peace and silence and the hurrying American world did n at stop to 
note it. But historv will note it well and ponder upon it. for it marked the ending of a long struggle 
and the beginning of a new epoch. The American frontier had ceased to be, the conquest ot the 
continent was complete, the work which the men of Greenfield and Deerfield had earned on for 
fifty hard fighting years was finished at last far out upon the western plains. 

HENRY CABOT LODGE. 



THE PAUL REVERE HOUSE 

Built in 1663. 



By Harriet Caryl Cox. 



Until recently, the interested visitor to historic Boston, in passing through 
the North End — teeming with its congested life of an entirely foreign popula- 
tion, but in pre-Revolutionary Days the "court end" of the town — would have 
overlooked, probably, a small, three story building in North Square, the home 
of Paul Revere. A tenement house itself, not unlike its neighbors, crowding 
it on either side, there was nothing to mark it in any way as a very old house, 
to say nothing of its being the home of a famous patriot, save one thing, the 
overhanging second story, a common characteristic of houses of ante- Revolu- 
tionary times. 

But since the spring of 190S, Boston has looked with amazement on this 
relic of the ancient times in such strange environment. Here is the genuine 
Paul Revere house, its over hanging second story, made more conspicuous 
than ever, by the lines of the restored roof, with its narrow eaves just above 
the second story windows. 

The massive oaken door, thick-studded with hand-wrought iron spikes, 
the diamond-paned windows, high set in *the walls so that no inquisitive 
passer-by may peer within, the clapboarded sides, the tall old chimney — lost 
before — all indicate the house, which was already more than a hundred years 
old when it came into the possession of Paul Revere and which is claimed by 
some to be the oldest house in its entirety, standing in Boston today. 

The stupendous change is due to the untiring efforts of the Paul Revere 
Memorial Association, which, after years of struggle to secure the necessary 
funds, has finally restored it as far as possible to its original condition and has 
now opened it to the public. 

Rapping with the old-fashioned knocker, placed high out of reach of the 
mischievous Italian youngsters, the heavy door swings open. As it closes 
silently behind us, we give a little gasp of mingled relief and astonishment. 
The world of today has been shut out. We have gone backward two hundred 
years. 



134 



THE MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 




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THE PAUL REVERE HOUSE 135 

From the tiny entry in which we stand, we enter the great living room. 
It is not the feeling of intruding into one's home that we had, when we entered 
the living room of John and Dorothy 0. ; nor that which came to us when we 
visited the charming old Whipple house at Ipswich, so complete in every de- 
tail ; nor yet that which inspired us when we went through the Hancock-Clark 
house at Lexington where John Hancock and Samuel Adams were sleeping, 
to which mine host Paul Revere made his famous ride on the night of the 18th 
of April, '75 to bring word of the probable approach of the British. 

These old mansions were homes, where the home feeling still lingers, but 
there is absolutly no feeling of home in this great room that we have entered. 
It is dark and bare and vet there is such soliditv, di^nitv, strength, an illu- 
sive something that we cannot name, that we would not have it otherwise. 

Perhaps it is the wall paper, of which some remnants of an ancient pattern 
still cling to the wall, protected by heavy glass from vandal hands, which gives 
the room its strange keynote. It is a church we see, looking through an 
arched vista — a church with steeple of most beautiful proportions, the 
design of Sir Christopher Wren. This is repeated twice from the floor to the 
hugh square timbered ceiling and the contrast of its soft greys with the dark 
stain of the wood is very striking. 

The great open fire place at the right, over which hangs Revere 's powder 
horn and gun, is of course the principal feature of the room. So large is it, 
one can easily imagine silver-haired Paul Revere, seated within its ample 
enclosure, surrounded by all that are living of his kin, telling them yet again 
the stories they never tire of hearing. 

Beyond the living room, in the ell, is the kitchen with its fireplace of less 
generous proportions, but with all the ovens known to the housewives of the 
17th' century. 

The second story duplicates the first in the arrangement of the rooms 
The large one we may imagine was occupied by Paul Revere and his wife. 
The smaller room over the kitchen was used probably for the children, though 
some of the boys may have climbed to the higher regions of the attic, to which 
the visitor is not at present admitted. 

So stands the Revere house today. As one passes from it into the sunlight 
of the busy street, his mind still dwelling on the past, he tries to shut out the 
hubbub of the present scene, and to see again the garden, blooming around 
the home of Revere, and a little distance off, the Hutchinson mansion which 
was sacked by a mob during the Stamp Act disturbance in 1705. Surely, 
Revere had neighbors of goodly standing, for Sir Wm. Phipps, the first gover- 
nor under the Province, charter, lived close at hand and beyond the Hutchin- 



136 THE MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 

son house, at the corner of Prince Street, was the house of Sir Harry Frank- 
land. From the steps of his house, it is said, Revere could have witnessed the 
Boston Massacre, and but a step or two away, was the house in which the 
Charter was hidden, in Andros's day. 

So we come to reflect for a moment on Paul Revere himself, the man and 
the patriot. That he was both is patent. By his poem, "The Midnight Ride 
of Paul Revere" which Longfellow put into the mouth of the Landlord as the 
opening story of "The Tales of a Wayside Inn," Revere has been made world- 
famous. Not that he needed fame, for his work along many different lines 
during the days of British oppression gave him that, but the poet's words are 
stirring, and though inaccurate as to detail, are true to the spirit and action of 
the man. It matters not that Revere never reached Concord but fell into the 
hands of British soldiers by the way. He made the ride, he was ready to do 
that or anything else that the welfare of his country demanded. His career 
has been admirably summarized by Thomas Went worth Higginson. 

"But few, remember his varied titles to honor — that he was at the out- 
break of the Revolution one of the four engravers of this country ; that he 
left a record by this art, of the Boston Massacre, and the landing of the Brit- 
ish troops in Boston ; that he engraved the plates and printed the bills of the 
paper money ordered by the Massachusetts Provincial Congress ; that he 
learned the art of making powder for their service and set up a mill in Boston ; 
that he was concerned in the destruction of tea in Boston harbor ; that he cast 
church bells ; that he established copper mills ; that he was Grand Master of 
the Free Masons ; first president of the Massachusetts Charitable Association — 
in short that he left behind him materials of ample and varied fame even had 
he never taken his famous ride." 

Paul Revere died in 1818 and is buried in the "Granary Burying Ground." 
in Boston. 



HON. JOHN N. COLE. 



By John N. McClintock. 



John N. Cole is a direct descendant of Job Tyler, who was one of the origi- 
nal settlers of Essex County. While a boy he went to the local school in Ando- 
ver but at an early age was obliged to earn his own living. With characteristic 
enterprise he found a place for himself in the Marland Woolen Mill, where he 
remained five years. He was promoted from one position to another and 
was pay-master when he left the employ of the mill. 

He soon became prominent in the town affairs of Andover. He was elected 
to the school committee and held the office for ten years ; he was on the finance 
committee of the town for five years ; he has served for six years as park com- 
missioner, and is a trustee of the Andover Savings Bank. 

Mr. Cole became proprietor of the Lawrence Telegram and founded the 
Andover Townsman, both of which hold a very high rank among the news- 
papers of Massachusetts. He was first elected to the House in 1902. Since 
1903 he has served continuously and only once during this period has there 
been a candidate opposing him. He took a prominent part in deb,ate at once 
and soon became known as one of the most gifted speakers on the floor. As 
member and chairman of the committee on rules, chairman of the committee 
on Public Lighting, and member of the Committee on Relations between 
Employer and Employee, he laid the foundation of a notable legislative record. 
It is due in large part to the efforts of Speaker Cole that the gas question in 
Boston was settled through the reduction of the capitalization of the Boston 
Consolidated Gas Company, and the introduction of the sliding scale gas bill 
which resulted in eighty-cent gas for the city. His Committee on the Relations 
between Employer and Employee became conspicuous through its favorable 
report upon the workmen's compensation act, which provided for a scale of 
compensation for men injured in the course of their employment. The report 
of that committee has been widely referred to ever since and was made the 
basis of the permissive act which the Legislature passed this year. 

Mr. Cole has been deeply interested in a system of old age pensions for 
railroad and street railway employees and his plan is now being considered 
favorably by a number of prominent employers in the state. A year ago when 
the Legislature was in a hopeless deadlock over the vexed merger question it 



13S 



THE MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 



was the Cole bill that made possible a safe and reasonable postponement of 
the question so that Attorney General Malone could proceed in .ne courts and 
the present Legislature could also take any action. Eventually the Legisla- 




u Hox. John X. Cole 

ture left the merger question where the Cole bill had placed it, in the hands of 
the judiciary of the Commonwealth. 






; '%^r' v ^ 



HON. JOHN N. COLE 139 

When local self government was at stake this year. Speaker Cole was the 
one man in ^e Legislature tccome forward in the midst of great confusion 
with a definite proposition that would conserve to the citizens of Chelsea the 
ancient right of every Massachusetts municipality. His plan was incorpo- 
rated in the bill passed, and by it Chelsea will eventually return to a control 
of her own affairs. 

As proprietor of the Lawrence Telegram, proprietor of the Andover Towns- 
man, House leader and Speaker of the House, Mr. Cole has grown to be a po- 
tent factor in our political life. 

Always cheerful and courteous, always attentive, always painstaking, 
dealing promptly with every question on its merits, Mr. Cole rivals in close 
application to his duty, William H. Taft, whom he greatly admires. 

Mr. Cole married, in early life, Miss Minnie White Poor, a member of one 
of the oldest Newburyport families, and still makes his home in Andover. His 
oldest daughter is a senior in Mount Holyoke College ; his only son is a junior 
in Phillips Academy ; one daughter is studying music in Boston, and a little 
girl of seven has just begun to attend the home school. 

He is a member of many fraternal organizations, including the Masons, 
Knights of Pythias, Odd Fellows, A. O. U. W., the Royal Arcanum and the 
Grange. 



HON. LOUIS A. FROTHINGHAM 



By John N. McClixtock. 



One of the highest offices of trust and responsibility in the Commonwealth 
is that of Speaker of the House of Representatives. Election to this office at 
the early age of thirty-three years reveals confidence in the tact, the judgment, 
the popularity, and the executive ability of the man thus honored. Reelec- 
tion to this office, filled in the past by so many men eminent in Massachusetts 
affairs, is evidence of conspicuous success. A life which has attained so early 
eminence is of general interest to the public. 

Hon. Louis A. Frothingham, elected Speaker of the House of Representa- 
tives in 1904, and reelected in 1905, was born in Jamaica Plain, July 13, 1871, 
of good old New England stock, long noted for its sturdy honesty and good 
citizenship. 

As a boy he received his education in the public schools of Boston, supple- 
menting this by a course at the Adams Academy in Quincy. He entered Har- 
vard in 18S9 and almost immediately became a popular figure in the univer- 
sity. He was a scholar in the best sense of the word, but he was more than 
that ; he took part in all the social activities in the college, and soon gained a 
prominent place in athletics. He made the 'varsity ball nine early in his 
career, and became one of the best captains and ball players ever turned out 
in Cambridge. He played foot ball, also, and was conspicuous in other ath- 
letic pursuits. He is still remembered at Harvard as a first-class all-round 
athlete, and a good fellow. He graduated in 1893. 

Mr. Frothingham studied law at the Harvard Law School, graduating from 
that institution in 1896. He immediately began the practice of his profession 
in Boston ; and it was not long before his ability and force were felt at the bar. 

When war with Spain was declared, he offered his services to the govern- 
ment, and was commissioned as Second Lieutenant in the United States 
Marine Corps. He served through the war on the United States Steamer Yan- 
kee, leaving behind him when he resigned the record of a good officer and a 
popular comrade. 

Soon after the Spanish War, politics began to appeal to the young lawyer. 
and at the age of thirty, in 1901, he was elected to the Massachusetts legisla- 



HON. LOUIS A. FROTHINGHAM 



141 



ture. There, as elsewhere, his native ability and energy soon made him a 
marked figure. In 1902, his second year, he was made House chairman of the 
committee on taxation as well as a member of the committee on banks and 



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Hon. Louis'; A. Frothixgham 

banking. In 1903, he was chairman of the street railways committee. In 
1904 he was elected to the Speakership and was re-elected unanimously in 1905. 
No speaker was ever more popular or highly respected. Mr. Frothingham 



142 THE MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 

displayed great energy in the chair ; and under his administration business was 
expedited as it had not been for decades. In his second term the session lasted 
but 143 days ; the shortest term for twenty years five. 

Mr. Frothingham's record as a law maker was admirable. He offered the 
resolve which led to the revision of the corporation laws, a much needed and 
useful reform, and was the first to introduce a bill providing for laws governing 
the conduct of trust companies. He was a constant advocate of general in- 
stead of special or class legislation. 

As a citizen apart from the practice of politics, Mr. Frothingham stands 
high in many walks of life. He is a member of the board of Overseers of Har- 
vard University, being the youngest man in that body. He is President of 
the Blackstone Savings Bank, and amidst all his wide variety of duties he 
practises law with conspicuous success. Socially he is extremely popular. He 
makes friends quickly and retains them. ■ He is tolerant, broad minded and 
considerate of the view r s and feelings of others. He is a typical Massachusetts 
citizen of the best and most highly respected kind. 



ROBERT LUCE. 



By John N. McClintock. 



The man who devotes his energies to the affairs of the State is a public ser- 
vant: if his chief aims are selfish, he is a politician: if he seeks the greatest 
good for the greatest number, he is a statesman. 







WP 



Robert Luce 

Robert Luce is a statesman in the broadest sense ; he has served the State 
long and well, and has added to the dignity and renown of the Commonwealth. 
His name is the synonym for honor, integrity and ability in public affairs 
throughout Massachusetts. He has been a potent factor in the making of 



144 THE MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 

recent Massachusetts history; and his biography and public record have be- 
come matters of general interest. 

Robert Luce, the son of Enos Thompson and Phoebe (Learned) Luce, was 
born December 2, 1S62, in Auburn, Maine. His father, who is now judge of 
the district court at Waltham, was then Lieutenant-Colonel of the Twenty- 
third Maine regiment in front of Washington. 

On his father's side, Robert Luce is descended from Edward Doty, one of 
the two men-servants or apprentices that came over in the Mayflower. The 
first Luce in this country landed at Martha's Vineyard about 1675. The 
branch from which Robert Luce sprang went to Maine about one hundred 
years ago, and settled in the northwestern part of the province. For many 
generations most of his ancestors were tillers of the soil. His grandfather 
Luce w r as a stone mason. His grandmother was of the famous Washburn 
family which has furnished so many statesmen to the country. Both of his 
parents were born in Wilton, Maine. 

The family resided in Auburn, wmere the father was probate judge, until 
1869, then in Lewiston, where they remained until 1874, when they became 
residents of Somerville. Robert at once entered the Somerville high school 
from which he was graduated in 1877, and, taking another year in the school, 
was graduated again in 1878, being the youngest member of his class. He held 
the same unique place in his college class. 

Entering Harvard college in the fall of 1878, Mr. Luce devoted a large part 
of his time to the study of history, political economy, and English. At gradua- 
tion he received honorable mention in all three studies. He was one of the 
founders of the first Harvard daily paper, the Harvard Echo, which was started 
by six sophomores and one freshman. It was doubtless his connection with 
the college paper that turned - him toward journalism as a profession. His 
first newspaper work was in writing the Harvard news for the Boston Traveler. 
He also wrote for the Boston Journal, and during his junior year became the 
Harvard reporter for the Globe. 

He received the degree of A. B. in 1882, and the next year his A. M. Dur- 
ing his post-graduate year he did considerable work on the census of 1880, 
under George E. Waring, and wrote the historical sketches of about one hun- 
dred cities of the United States. In the year 1883-84 he taught in the Wal- 
tham high school. 

At the same time he was teaching, he still worked for the Boston Globe as 
a reporter. He continued with that paper till 1888, filling the various positions 
from time to time, of exchange editor, news editor, special writer, editorial 
writer, etc. With William H. Hills he started the literary magazine known 



ROBERT LUCE 145 

as the Writer, in 1SS7, but sold out his interest to Mr. Hills a year or so later.. 

In the spring of 1SS8 Mr. Luce, who was then the exchange editor of the 
Globe, suggested to his brother, Linn Luce, that newspapers might be read for 
many people as well as for one employer, and thus not only could they do simul- 
taneously the exchange reading for such trade and class papers as might be 
glad to be relieved of the work, but also make the contents of the press more 
generally accessible and useful. The idea had been applied in London and 
New York to the reading of papers for public and professional men, but in 
Boston, it had its first considerable development in editorial and commercial 
lines. 

Permission was forthwith secured from the manager of the Globe to use 
its exchanges for business purposes after the editors were through with them ; 
desk room was hired and the Press Clipping Bureau was started. 

Busy with his newspaper work and the publication of the Writer. Mr. Luce 
put little thought, at first, into the bureau. Six months later he had given up 
everything else in order to~ devote his whole time to the clipping business and 
since then its development has been his chief concern. 

The Press Clipping Bureau reads papers from every region of the United 
States and Canada, including all the dailies of large cities, most of the dailies 
of small cities, and thousands of weeklies. In all about 5,000 papers are han- 
dled by about ninety persons, and as manyas forty miles of columns are scanned 
each working day. Five million clippings are turned out in a single year. 
The largest service for any one regular customer is about 10,000 a month. 

Contrary to a prevailing opinion, the business does not all appeal to the 
vanity of public men or of other individuals who desire to see what is said of them 
in print. Mr. Luce says that 95 per cent, of the income of the bureau comes 
from the use of clippings for commerce. The largest group of topics is that 
of the trade and class papers, and the bureau serves about 200 publications 
of this sort. Next in volume of clippings come the construction orders ; there 
is hardly a scrap of building news that is not utilized to help dealers in mater- 
ials, furnishings, fixtures, or machinery. Politics and campaigns furnish 
many orders, and. of course, the greater part of the orders for "personal men- 
tion" come from people in public life or prominent before the public. But 
the* commercial customers are the chief reliance, and these include many of 
the heaviest advertisers in the country seeking for news that will aid them to 
business. 

Mr. Luce is the author of several successful books, including "Writing for 
the Press," the fifth edition of which, in greatly enlarged form, has recently been 
published; "Electric Railways;" "Going Abroad?", of which five editions have 



146 THE MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 

been published. An important contribution to political science is his article 
on "Elections," written for the new "Encyclopedia Americana." 

Lecturing and public speaking have been an important phase of his career, 
especially during the last dozen years, and he is one of the best known and at 
the same time most eloquent and learned speakers in Massachusetts. On 
various sociological subjects he has given many lectures, besides his scores of 
addresses delivered throughout the state on election reform and in no-license 
campaigns. As a political speaker he has been in great demand. 

Altogether he has spent about one year abroad, including an eight-months' 
trip to Europe in 1S95, and a shorter one in 1899. He has also seen a good 
deal of this continent, from Cape Breton to Los Angeles. He has made many 
trips into the woods, and is fond of canoeing, camping, bicycling, and other 
out-door sports. The results of these experiences have been seen in his illus- 
trated lectures on travel. 

In 1SS5 Mr. Luce married Miss Mabelle Clifton Farnham, daughter of 
Hiram L. and Elizabeth A. Farnham, of Somerville. 

He is a member of John Abbot Lodge of Masons ; the Central club ; the 
Somerville Sons of Maine club, of which he has been president ; the Exchange 
club, of Boston, the Republican club^of Massachusetts ; and the First Unitarian 
church. He is one of the vice-presidents of the Anti-Saloon league and is a 
member of the executive council of the Massachusetts State Board of Trade 
as a delegate from the Somerville Board. 

Naturally, the thing in which Mr. Luce feels his greatest pride is that he 
has been elected nine times to the Massachusetts House of Representatives. 
His love of politics was inherited from his father, who, while in Maine, was very 
active in public affairs. He greatly enjoys public life and always had an ambi- 
tion in this direction. The first year in the House, 1899, he served on the com- 
mittee on taxation, a science to which he had devoted much study, and the 
committee on insurance, a position due to his interest in, and intimate acquaint- 
ance with, the workings of the fraternal orders, acquired while editor of the 
Mystic order department of the Globe. He was able to secure the passage of 
several measures greatly desired by the societies. 

Mr. Luce was defeated for renomination in the Republican caucus by the 
participation of Democrats. In consequence, he ran independently on the 
written request of about 1,000 Republican voters of the district, but failed of 
reelection by a narrow margin. The defeat of Mr. Luce in the caucus turned 
his attention from the questions of taxation to those of caucus and election 
reforms, and was largely responsible for the important caucus legislation in 
recent years. 



ROBERT LUCE 147 

In the fall of 1900 Mr. Luce was unanimously endorsed for a second term 
by the Ward 3 Republican club. After a spirited contest he received the 
nomination. He was elected to the legislature of 1901, and served as house 
chairman of the committee on taxation. He was reelected for 1902, 1903, 
1904, 1905, 1906, 1907, and 1908. For six years he was house chairman of the 
committee on election laws. In 1908 he was assigned to the most importaat 
position in the house, which is that of chairman of the committee on ways and 
means. In addition Mr. Luce has served on the committees on federal rela- 
tions, constitutional amendments, and counties. 

In 1895 a law had got well under way toward enactment permitting the 
merging of steam and electric roads of the State, which seemed to Robert Luce 
to threaten the liberties of the people ; and war was declared. At first he was 
almost alone ; and he was opposed by the ablest railroad attorneys in the coun- 
try. His order of inquiry to the Attorney General started the contest that 
ended three years later in the unanimous support of his contentions by the 
Supreme Court of the State. 

As a result electric transportation has unhampered chance to grow in 
competition with steam ; the new system is not throttled by the old. One 
outcome was the interurban law, intended to give speedier communication 
between centres than before, and to develop the trolley freight and express 
business. 

Robert Luce has been active in much legislation for the public welfare 
aimed against selfish interests eager to exploit the weaknesses of humanity. 
He was conspicuous in the fight for the law requiring the labeling of patent 
medicines, and preventing the sale of such as produce the terrible drug habit. 
He presented and saw to the passage of a bill asked for by the chiefs of police 
to stop gambling in public places and the demoralization of boys. He was a 
supporter of the legislation that crushed out the great public evil of the bucket- 
shop. He fathered the One-day-of-rest-in-seven legislation, a measure for the 
benefit of labor and the economic advantage of the community, noteworthy 
for the principle it established, which even in its amended form as finally en- 
acted added to the happiness in many humble homes. He fought hard to 
better regulate the lobby and to cut out "strike bills — blackmailing devices — 
but strong corporation influences have left much yet to be done in that line. 

He helped in the passage of the Savings Bank Insurance Bill, which per- 
mits industrial insurance to wage earners at cost ; he secured an important 
revision of the fraternal insurance law desired by those interested in fraternal 
insurance ; he helped to get through his committee on ways and means an ap- 
propriation large enough to let the commission on old age pensions do its work 
of investigation thoroughly. 



148 THE MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 

Besides writing the law against corporations contributing to campaign 
expenses of candidates for public office, Robert Luce took an active part in the 
struggle ending in the law prohibiting legislators from putting themselves under 
obligations to public service corporations by getting jobs from them for con- 
stituants. 

As one of the ablest debators and best-informed members on all subjects 
of legislation Robert Luce for years has been recognized as one of the leaders 
of the house. While familiar with the political problems of the Nation he has 
maintained the importance to the State of problems to be determined by State 
legislation, especially those of city and state government. The two classes 
of these problems to which he has devoted the most study and effort are those 
of taxation and the suffrage. 

As a leader of the temperance interests Robert Luce has also been an active 
worker in the house. He has spoken at many no-license rallies in different 
parts of the State. He is a firm believer in restricting the liquor traffic along 
local option lines as far as public sentiment will permit. In the house, also, 
he has stood for an orderly observance of the Sabbath, free from commercial- 
ism or turmoil. 



COLONEL WILLIAiM PRESCOTT'S 

REGIMENT 



„ Colonel William Prescott's Minute-Men's Regiment. 1775. 
Tenth Regiment Army of the United Colonies, 1775. 
Seventh Regiment Continental Army, 1776. 



By Frank A. Gardner, M. D. 

This regiment, composed largely of Middlesex County men, is one of the 
few organizations entitled to the name "Minute Men's Regiment." Many 
companies of Minute Men joined the regiments which made up the army of the 
United Colonies, but the name was applied to only a few regimental commands. 
When the enrollment of Minute Men commenced in November, 1774, it was 
quite natural that the authorities should look to the veterans of the French 
War in choosing the commanders. Hence William Prescott was selected to 
lead the patriots in his section of the county, just as his comrades in the earlier 
conflict were chosen in other parts of the colony. 

Groton, Pepperell and the surrounding towns had sent forth good fighting 
men to all the Indian wars and the call for men for the patriot army met with a 
ready response. The Minute Men's Regiment,, the first command of Colonel 
William Prescott in the Revolution, which responded to the Lexington Alarm, 
was made up of six companies, as follows: 
Colonel, William Prescott, of Pepperell. 
Lieut. Colonel, John Robinson, of Westford. 
Major, Henry Woods, of Pepperell. 

Townsend Company. Captain, James Hosley; First Lieutenant, Richard 
Wyer; Second Lieutenant, James Lock. Commissioned officers 3, non-com- 
missioned officers and men, or>, total 58. 

'Groton Company. Captain, Henry Farwell; First Lieutenant. Zachariah 
Fitch; Second Lieutenant, Amaziah Fassett. Commissioned officers 3, non- 
commissioned officers and men 52, total 55. 

Pepperell Company. Captain, John Xutting ; First Lieutenant, Nathaniel 
Lakin; Second Lieutenant, Abijah Boynton. Commissioned officers 3, non- 
commissioned officers and men 79, total 82. 



150 THE MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 

Littleton Company. Captain, Samuel Reed ; First Lieutenant, Aaron 
Jewett ; Second Lieutenant, Eliphalet Dunsmore. Commissioned officers 3, 
non-commissioned officers and men 43, total 46. 

Ashby Company. Captain, Samuel Stone ; First Lieutenant, Jonas Barret ; 
Second Lieutenant, James Bennet. Commissioned officers 3, non-commis- 
sioned officers and men 43. total 46. 

Westford Company. Captain, Timothy Underwood; First Lieutenant, 
Thomas Cummings ; Second Lieutenant, Philip Robbins. Commissioned offi- 
cers 3, non-commissioned officers and men 54, total 57.* 

The regiment marched to Lexington, on the alarm, April 19th, but the 
British under Major Pitcairn had retreated before they arrived. Colonel Pres- 
cott followed up the retreat with his men and joined the patriot army at Cam- 
bridge. During the next few weeks the officers were actively engaged in 
recruiting. A list found in the Massachusetts Archives gives the following com- 
pany commanders, May 26th with the total number of men in each company 
at that time: Henry Farwell, 69 ; Hugh Maxwell, 52 ; John Nutting, 61 ; Joshua 
Parker, 63; Asa Lawrence, 55; Eliphalet Densmore, 51; Samuel Patch, 26; 
Oliver Parker, 26 ; Abijah Wyman, 29 ; Reuben Dow, 51 ; and Timothy Under- 
wood, 1. Total 483. 

The following record of the Committee of Safety is found under date of May 
27th. "Colonels Patterson and William Prescott having satisfied this com- 
mittee, that their respective regiments are nearly full, a certificate was given 
to them of the same ; and it was recommended to the Provincial Congress, that 
said regiments be commissioned accordingly." 

An interesting document dated two days later, reads as follows : 

"This may certifie that the Names here after mentioned are Captains and 
Lieutenants in Col° W m Prescott's Regiment. 
Henry Farwell Capt. Levi Whittney his Lieut. 
Hugh Maxwell Capt. Joseph Stebings his Lieut. 
John Nutting Capt. Nathaniel Lakin his Lieut. 
Joshua Parker Capt. Amaziah Fasset his Lieut. 
Asa Lawrence Capt. Joseph Spaulding his Lieut. 
Eliphilet Densmore Capt. Joseph Gilbert his Lieut. 

W m Green Adjut." 

*Two other officers who later were company commanders in Colonel William Pres- 
cott's Regiment, commanded companies of minute-men, April 19 ,1775, namely, Captain 
Asa Lawrence of Groton, and Captain Reuben Dow of Hollis, X. H. These minute- 
men's companies were not connected with Colonel Prescott's Minute-Men's Regiment 
on the 19th of April, 1775. They joined the regiment in May 



COLONEL WILLIAM PRESCOTT'S REGIMENT 151 

The number of companies was increased later until we find the regiment 
made up of the following companies, raised in the towns named. 

Captain Henry Farwell. Groton, Townsend, Chelmsford, Pepperell. 

Captain Asa Lawrence. Groton, Pepperell, Littleton, Raby, N. H. 

Captain Samuel Gilbert. Littleton etc, 

Captain Reuben Dow. Hollis, N. H. 

Captain Ephraim Corey. Groton, Londonderry etc., etc. 

Captain Joseph Moors. Groton, Merrimac etc., etc. 

Captain Abijah Wyman. Ashby, Westford etc., etc. 

Captain John Nutting. Pepperell etc. 

Captain Hugh Maxwell Charlemont, Deerfield, Nottingham etc. 

Captain Samuel Patch. Stow, Sudbury, Winchendon etc. 

Captain Joshua Parker. Westford etc. 

Through May and the early part of June, the regiments were being assigned 
to their positions in the fortifications in Dorchester, Roxbury, Brookline, Cam- 
bridge, Medford and Chelsea. General Gage waited all through this period 
of the greatest weakness of the American army, not daring to sally forth until 
the arrival of re-inforcements from Great Britain. The American lines were 
kept especially strong in and about Cambridge, where General Ward's head- 
quarters had been established. The men in this large camp soon grew restless 
and several officers urged the building of fortifications on the hills of Charles- 
town, thus making the men more contented by being employed. About the 
14th of June, word came to the American headquarters that General Gage had 
issued orders to his men to fortify Bunker Hill. The Military Authorities at 
Cambridge by advice of the Committee of Safety, thereupon determined to 
forestall this movement and on June 16th General Ward issued orders to Col. 
William Prescott to proceed that evening to Bunker Hill, build fortifications 
according to plans to be made by Colonel Gridley, and defend these works until 
relieved. The force which he was to take with him, according to Frothingham, 
consisted of about twelve hundred men, three hundred being from Colonel 
Prescott's Regiment, a part of Colonel Frye's, under Lieut. -Colonel Brickett, 
a part of Colonel Bridge's, the artillery, and two hundred Connecticut troops. 
The force thus made up assembled at the hour appointed and paraded on Cam- 
bridge Common, where prayer was offered by President Langdon of Harvard 
College. 

A little before nine o'clock they started on the march, Colonel Prescott rid- 
ing at the head wearing a blue coat with a three cornered hat. At Charlestown 
Neck, Major Brooks and probably some others joined them. Authorities differ 
as to whether General Putnam joined the troops before they reached Bunker 



152 THE MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 

Hill. Judge Prescott states that he did not. Upon arriving at Bunker Hill, 
a consultation of some length was held, Colonel Prescott, Colonel Gridley and 
two generals, one of whom was General Putnam, taking part. The final de- 
cision was to fortify the hill nearer Boston, since known as Breed's Hill. Judge 
Prescott states that it was "Colonel Gridley 's opinion and the other field-offi- 
cers who were consulted" that this was the best position. He further adds 
that "they thought it came within his (Prescott's ) orders. There was not then 
the distinction between Bunker Hill and Breed's Hill that has since been made." 

The report of the battle drawn up by the Committee of Safety refers to the 
work as follows: "Many things being necessary to be done preparatory to the 
intrenchments being thrown up (which could not be done before lest the enemy 
should discover and defeat the design) it was nearly twelve o'clock before the 
w r orks were entered upon ; they were then carried on with the utmost diligence 
and alacrity, so that by the dawn of the day they had thrown up a small re- 
doubt, about eight rods square." 

In order to prevent a surprise by the British, Colonel Prescott, before 
marching on to Bunker Hill in the early part of the night, had sent Captain 
Nutting with his company and ten Connecticut men to the lower part of the 
town, to keep watch of the enemy. It is stated that Colonel Prescott with 
Major Brooks went down to the shore twice in the night to assure themselves 
that their operations were undiscovered. They could distinctly hear the call 
"All's well" on board the ships. 

The report of the Committee of Safety narrates that at dawn "a heavy fire 
began from the enemy's ships, a number of floating-batteries, and from a forti- 
fication of the enemy's upon Copp's Hill in Boston, directly opposite to our 
little redoubt. An incessant shower of shot and bombs was rained by these 
upon our works, by which only one man fell ; the Provincials continued to 
labour indefatigably till they had thrown up a small breastwork, extending 
from the east side of the redoubt to the bottom of the hill, but were prevented 
completing it by the intolerable fire of the enemy." Frothingham quotes a 
British writer, as stating that "The Americans bore this severe fire with wonder- 
ful firmness, and seemed to go on with their business as if no enemy had been 
near." Some idea of the fury of this bombardment can be gained when we 
state that no less than six ships, with a total armament of nearly two hundred 
guns, took part in it, besides the guns on Copp's Hill and on the floating bat- 
teries. This terrific gun fire proved in the end to be of value to the patriots, 
for they became accustomed to the din of battle before the more trying ex- 
periences of the day came. 

The day was very hot and the men, many of them without food since the 



COLONEL WILLIAM PRESCOTTS REGIMENT 153 

day before, soon began to feel the effects of the constant labor. When urged 
by the officers to send a request to General Ward to be relieved, Colonel Pres- 
cott told them that "the men who had raised the works were the best able to 
defend them ; already they had learned to despise the fire of the enemy ; they 
had the merit of the labor, and should have the honor of the victorv." 

Judge Prescott, in his Memoir, tells us that "Colonel Prescott was 
often heard to say, that his great anxiety that night was to have a screen 
raised, however slight, for his men before they were attacked, which he 
expected would be early in the morning, as he knew it would be difficult, if not 
quite impossible, to make raw troops, however full of patriotism, to stand in 
an open field against artillery and well-armed and well-disciplined soldiers. He 
therefore strenuously urged on the work, and every subaltern and private 
labored with spade and pickaxe, without intermission, through the night, and 
until they resumed their muskets near the middle of the next day. Never were 
men in worse condition for action, — exhausted by watching, fatigue, and hun- 
ger, — and never did soldiers behave better.," 

After a consultation of war with his officers, Colonel Prescott sent Major 
Brooks about 9 o'clock to headquarters, requesting General Ward to send re- 
inforcements. The major reached there an hour later. Early in the morning 
General Putnam had urged the Commander-in-chief to send additional men, 
but General Ward was so impressed with the idea that Cambridge was the 
ultimate goal of the Brisith, that even after the double request, the only 
troops sent were about one-third of Colonel Stark's Regiment. The Com- 
mittee of Safety being then in session, was consulted. As a result the whole 
of Colonel Reed's Regiment and the remainder of Colonel Stark's were sent 
ahead about 11 o'clock. 

As our story is concerned particularly with the history of the Prescott Re- 
giment, we will return to the men in the redoubt. After the completion of the 
breastworks the intrenching tools were piled in the rear. General Heath nar- 
rates that General Putnam, seeing them "told Colonel Prescott that they must 
be sent off or they would be lost." The Colonel replied, that if he sent any of 
his men away with tools, not one of them would return. A large party was 
then sent off with the tools, and not one of them returned. In this instance 
the Colonel was the best judge of human nature." It is stated that later most 
of the tools fell into the hands of the British. Frothingham considers that 
General Heath is too severe on those who carried off the tools, for some of them 
stated that they went back and fought at the rail fence, and others that they 
returned to the redoubt. 

The British landed at Moulton's Point about 1 o'clock, after the vessels in 



154 THE MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 

the harbor had swept the low ground near the shore, lest some of the patriot 
troops might be there to hinder the landing. The men in the redoubt watched 
the landing and while they waited were cheered by the arrival of volunteers, 
notably General Warren who came gun in hand. When he arrived, Judge 
Prescott states that "Colonel Prescott went to him, and proposed that he 
should take the command; observing that he (Prescott) understood that he 
(Warren) had been appointed a major-general, a day or two before, by the 
Provincial Congress. General Warren replied, 'I shall take no command here. 
I have not yet received my commission. I came as a volunteer, with my mus- 
ket, to serve under you, and shall be happy to learn from a soldier of your ex- 
perience."' 

Colonel Prescott, after watching the movements of the British along the 
shore, became suspicious, fearing that they might be intending to flank him. 
He accordingly ordered the Connecticut troops under Captain Knowlton and 
the artillery with two field pieces, to descend and take a position behind a fence 
near the foot of Bunker Hill where they could oppose the enemy's right wing. 
The rest of the original detachment under Prescott, remained at the redoubt 
and breastwork, and were joined just before the battle by portions of the Mas- 
sachusetts regiments commanded by Colonels Brewer, Nixon, Woodbridge, 
Little and Major Moore. Callender's Company of artillery also joined them. 
Captain Nutting's Company having been recalled from the town after the 
British landed, held a position on the cart-way on the right of the redoubt. 
When the British began to advance, Colonel Prescott detached Lieut. Colonel 
Robinson and Major Woods, each with a party to endeavor to flank the enemy f 
Both are said to have "behaved with courage and prudence." 

The British advanced in two divisions. General Howe, on the right, at- 
tempted to dislodge the force at the rail fence and prevent any retreat from 
the redoubt, while General Pigot on the left charged the redoubt. Frothing- 
ham, in his account of the battle says: "When Prescott saw the enemy in 
motion, he went round the works to encourage the men, and assured them that 
the red-coats would never reach the redoubt if they would observe his direc- 
tions. The advancing columns, however, having got within gun-shot, a few 
of the Americans could not resist the temptation to return their fire, without 
waiting for orders. Prescott indignantly remonstrated at this disobedience, 
and appealed to their often-expressed confidence in him as their leader ; while 
his officers seconded his exertions, and some ran round the top of the parapet 
and kicked up the guns. At length the British troops reached the prescribed 
distance, and the order was given to fire ; when there was a simultaneous dis- 
charge from the redoubt and the breastwork, that did terrible execution on the 



COLONEL WILLIAM PRESCOTT'S REGIMENT 155 

British ranks. But it was received with veteran firmness, and for a few min- 
utes was sharply returned. The Americans, being protected by their works, 
suffered but little ; but their murderous balls literally strewed the ground with 
the dead and wounded of the enemy. General Pigot was obliged to order a 
retreat, when the exulting. shout of victory rose from the American lines. 'On 
the left,' a British writer says, Tigot was staggered, and actually retreated by 
orders. Great pains have been taken to huddle* up this matter.' " 

The Americans on the left, at the rail fence, did similar execution on Howe's 
men. General Putnam performed heroic service here in encouraging the men 
and directing their fire. The aim of the patriots was so true that one British 
writer wrote ,"Most of our grenadiers and light infantry, the moment of pre- 
senting themselves, lost three-fourths and many nine-tenths, of their men. 
Some had only eight and nine men a Company left ; some only three, four, and 
five." Frothingham quotes another as saying "It was found to be the strong- 
est post that was ever occupied by any set of men." 

The joy of the Americans was unbounded when they saw the enemy re- 
treat. Frothingham writes that "Colonel Prescott mingled freely among his 
troops, praised their good conduct, and congratulated them on their success. 
He felt confident that another attack would soon be made, and he renewed his 
caution to reserve the fire until he gave the command. He found his men in 
high spirits and elated by the retreat. In their eyes the regulars were no longer 
invincible." Captain Chester states: "The men that went to intrenching 
overnight were in the warmest of the battle, and by all accounts they fought 
most manfully. They had got hardened to the noise of cannon ; but those that 
came up as recruits were evidently most terribly frightened, many of them, 
and did not march up with that true courage that their cause ought to have 
inspired them with." 

The British soon rallied for a second charge and this time the Americans 
waited until they were within five of six rods before firing. When they did 
open, the battle waged even hotter than before. General Burgoyne spoke of 
it as "The most incessant discharge of guns that ever was heard by mortal 
ears." Judge Prescott, referring to it, says: "The discharge was simultaneous 
the whole length of the line, and though more destructive, as Colonel Prescott 
thought, than on the former assault, the enemy stood the first shock, and con- 
tinued to advance and fire with great spirit ; but before reaching the redoubt, 
the continuous, well- directed fire of the Americans compelled them to give 
way, and they retreated a second time, in greater disorder than before. Their 

* Hush (Old English). 



156 THE MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 

officers were seen remonstrating, threatening, and even pricking and striking 
the soldiers, to urge them on, but in vain. Colonel Prescott spoke of it as a 
continued stream of fire from his whole line, from the first discharge until the 
retreat." 

During the comparatively long interval between the second and final charge 
of the British, strenuous efforts were being made on the American side to hurry 
along fresh troops, and General Putnam was particularly active in this. Many 
important details of the battle, such as General Putnam's efforts to fortify Bun- 
ker Hill for a reserve position, Major Scarborough Gridley's failure to obey 
orders to advance to the hill, Captain Trevett's heroic advance to the rail fence 
in the face of said Gridley's orders to remain behind. Colonel Scamman's and 
Mansfields' entire misunderstanding of orders, Colonel Gerrish's failure to lead 
his men to the hill and the heroic work of his Adjutant, Christian Febiger, in 
taking the command and leading the regiment to the hill, in time for gallant 
service, can only be mentioned in this history of Prescott's Regiment. 

Frothingham graphically tells us that "Colonel Prescott remained at his 
post, determined in his purpose, undaunted in his bearing, inspiring his men 
with hope and confidence, and yet chagrined, that, in this hour of peril and 
glory, adequate support had not reached him. He passed round the lines to 
encourage his men, and assured them that if the British were once more driven 
back they could not be rallied again. His men cheered him as they replied, 
'We are ready for the red-coats again !' But his worst apprehensions, as to 
ammunition, were realized as the report was made to him that a few artillery 
cartridges constituted the whole stock of powder on hand. He ordered them 
to be opened, and the powder to be distributed. He charged his soldiers 'not 
to waste a kernel of it, but to make it certain that every shot should tell.' He 
directed the few who had bayonets to be stationed at the points most likely to 
be scaled. These were the only preparations it was in his power to make to 
meet his powerful antagonist." 

In the mean time the British force had been augmented by the addition of 
five or six hundred fresh troops under General Clinton. General Howe ordered 
the third charge soon after their arrival. Testimony is abundant that he had 
a difficult, task in keeping the men away from the boats and inducing them to 
advance. Howe, profiting by his experiences, handled his troops differently 
in this final charge, and its success was due largely to the field artillery. The 
guns were brought well around to the right where, in the words of Frothing- 
ham, they "enfiladed the line of the breastwork, drove its defenders into the 
redoubt for protection, and did much execution within it by sending its balls 
through the passage way. All this did not escape the keen and anxious eye of 



COLONEL WILLIAM PRESCOTT'S REGIMENT 157 

Prescott. When he saw the new disposition of his antagonist, the artillery 
wheeling into its murderous position, and the columns withholding their fire, 
he well understood his intention to concentrate his whole force on the redoubt 
and believed that it must inevitably be carried. He thought, however, that 
duty, honor, and the interest of the country, required that it should be de- 
fended to the last extremity, although at a certain sacrifice of many lives. In 
this trying moment, he continued to give his orders coolly. Most of his men 
had remaining only one round of ammunition, and few, more than three rounds ; 
and he directed them to reserve their fire until the British were within twenty 
yards. At this distance a deadly volly was poured upon the advancing col- 
umns, which made them waver for an instant, but they sprang forward with- 
out returning it. . . . Prescott ordered those who had no bayonets to retire to 
the back part of it, and fire on the enemy as they showed themselves on the 
parapet. A soldier of noble bearing mounted the southern side, and had barely 
shouted, 'The day is ours !' when he was shot down, and the whole front rank 
shared his fate." The remains of the 63d Regiment were the first that entered 
the redoubt. The "defenders had spent their ammunition, another cannon 
cartridge furnishing the powder for the last muskets that were fired. The 
stones, to which they resorted, revealed their weakness and filled the enemy 
with hope. The redoubt was soon successfully scaled. General Pigot, by the 
aid of a tree, mounted a corner of it, and was closely followed by his men, 
though one side of it literally bristled with bayonets. The conflict was now 
carried on hand to hand. Many stood and received wounds with swords and 
bayonets. But the British continued to enter, and were advancing towards 
the Americans, when Prescott gave the order to retreat." It is stated in the 
account of the Committee of Safety that some of the provincials confronted the 
enemy with the butt end of their muskets, and that "the retreat of this little 
handful of brave men- would have been effectually cut off, had it not happened 
that the flanking party of the enemy, which was to have come upon the back 
of the redoubt, was checked by a party of the provincials, who fought with the 
utmost bravery, and kept them from advancing further than the beach : the 
engagement of these two parties was kept up with the utmost vigor. 

... All their efforts, however, were insufficient to compel the provincials 
to retreat till their main body had left the hill." 

All narrators pay tribute to Prescott's heroism in remaining within the re- 
doubt until the British swarmed about him. Frothingham states that he was 
"among the last to leave," and that the enemy "made passes at him with the 
bayonet, which he skilfully parried with his sword." He did not run, but 
stepped along, with his sword up, "escaping unharmed, though his banyan and 



158 THE MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 

waistcoat were pierced in several places." Bancroft describes him as walking 
"quietly through the tumult, parrying thrusts with his sword, much as his 
grandson '.s narrative describes Hernando Cortes on a certain day in the Great 
Square of Mexico." 

In this last stage of the battle the losses of the Americans in killed and 
wounded were severe. The brave and able General Warren was killed, Colo- 
nel Gardner received a mortal wound, Gridley was wounded and Bridge 
wounded the second time. General Putnam bravely endeavored to make the 
men take a stand on Bunker Hill but to no purpose. The Colonials retreated 
to Cambridge, Prospect Hill and Winter Hill. General Ward still fearful of 
the attack upon Cambridge, which had all along been his great dread, was as- 
sured by Prescott that the "confidence of the British would not be increased 
by the result of the battle." Prescott realized that the bull-headed persis- 
tency and over confidence of the British commander had received a severe 
shock. The redoubt had been stormed, it is true, but the hillside had been 
strewn thick with the best -soldiers the British could produce. This result 
was due largely to the fact that the stronger wills of Howe and Gage, narrowed 
by a close adherence to military precedents, had controlled the movements of 
the day, rather than the broader and wiser mind of Clinton, as General Charles 
Francis Adams has shown in his article upon "The Battle of Bunker Hill." He 
observes that Clinton in the early part of the day had "urged Gage to pay no 
attention to the patriot front, but to seize the causeway in the rear." He also 
states that later in the afternoon, Clinton advised Howe to follow up the re- 
treat, cross the neck, and smite the patriot army. General Adams comment- 
ing upon these and other mistakes upon both sides, writes as follows: "The 
singular thing, however, in all these operations, as already pointed out, is that, 
from beginning to end, if the patriot army had been commanded by a military 
genius of the highest order, and gifted with absolute prescience, — having, 
moreover, the power to issue commands to both sides, — he could not. so far as 
the Americans were concerned, have bettered the course of events. The whole 
purpose of the move was to forestall the' proposed operations of the British, 
who planned on the 18th, only a day later, to occupy Bunker Hill and Dor- 
chester Heights, preliminary to an advance on the patriot lines at Cambridge. 
It was intended to draw their fire. If, in doing this, Prescott had, in obedience 
to orders, and as technically he unquestionably should have done, contented 
himself with seizing Bunker Hill and there intrenching, it can hardly be ques- 
tioned that the British would then have landed on Charlestown Xeck, imme- 
diately in his rear, and forced him to retreat prescipitately as the alternative 



COLONEL WILLIAM PRESCOTT'S REGIMENT 159 

to surrender.. His very reckless audacity in moving forward to Breed's Hill 
led to their attacking him squarely in front. 

"Had Prescott directed the assaulting column, he would have ordered it to 
do just that. But his good fortune did not stop here. Twice he repulsed the 
attacking force, inflicting terrible loss upon it ; and this is his great claim for 
credit on that memorable day. Prescott was evidently a fighter. He showed 
this by his forward midnight move from Bunker to Breed's Hill ; and he showed 
it still more by the way in which he kept a levy of raw ploughmen steady there 
during the trying hours that preceded conflict ; and then, in the face of the ad- 
vancing line of regulars, made them hold their fire until he gave the word. 
This was superb, — it deserves unstinted praise. Again the luck of the Ameri- 
cans soared in the ascendant. Under the exact conditions in which they then 
found themselves, they had chanced on the right man in the right place, — and 
it was one chance in a thousand. 

"And then followed yet more good luck, — indeed, a crowning stroke. Twice 
did Prescott repulse his enemy. Had he done so a third time, he would have 
won a victory, held his position, and the next day, in all human probability, 
the force which relieved him would have been compelled to surrender, because 
of properly conducted operations in its rear under cover of the British fleet. 
For it is impossible to suppose that Clinton's advice would not then have been 
followed ; and had it been followed, with Clinton in charge of operations in the 
field, a result not unusual in warfare would no doubt have been witnessed, — 
the temporary and partial success of one day would have been converted into 
the irretrievable disaster of the succeeding day. It w r as so with Napoleon him- 
self at Ligny and Waterloo. 

"Fortunately for Prescott and the patriot cause, the ammunition within 
the redoubt was pretty much consumed before the third assault was made ; and 
so his adversaries drove the patriot commander out of the trap and into the 
arms of his own friends. In spiteof himself Prescott wassavedfromultimatedis- 
aster. Yet, curiously enough, he does not even then seem to have realized his 
luck; for, instead of going back to the headquarters of General Ward, as well 
he might have gone, in a towering rage over the incompetence which had put 
him and his command in such a position, without reason or support, — a posi- 
tion from which he had escaped only by a chance in a thousand ; — in place of 
taking this view of the matter, he actually offered, if a fresh force of 1500 were 
put under his command, to recross Charlestown Neck and recapture Bunker 
Hill the next day, — in other words, to go back into the trap from which the 
stupidity of his opponents had forcibly driven him." 



160 THE MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 

Bancroft, after commenting upon Prescott's desire to endeavor to retake 
the hill, writes: "But for himself he sought neither advancement, nor reward, 
nor praise, and having performed the best service, never thought that he had 
done more than his duty." Continuing, he writes: "It is the contemporary 
record, that during the battle 'no one appeared to have any command but Colo- 
nel Prescott,' and that 'his bravery could never be enough acknowledged and 
applauded.' The camp long repeated the story of his self-collected valor, and 
a historian of the war, who best knew the judgements of the army, has rightly 
awarded the 'highest prize of glory to Prescott and his companions.' " Froth- 
ingham states that Ward, in response to Prescott's request to be permitted to 
attempt to retake the hill, "wisely decided that the condition of his army 
would not justify so bold a measure. Nor was it needed to fill the measure of 
Prescott's fame. 'He had not done enough to satisfy himself, though he had 
done enough to satisfy his country. He had not, indeed, secured final victory, 
but he had secured a glorious immortality.'" 

Bancroft's assertion, that "no one appeared to have any command but 
Colonel Prescott," brings us to an old and often repeated question: Who com- 
manded in the (so called) Battle of Bunker Hill? The writer has endeavored 
to glean from the whole field of historic evidence, and has read the words of the 
ablest exponents of both sides of the controversy. The results of this research 
may be epitomized as follows: 

The known facts about Prescott and his connection with the battle are that 
General Ward the Commander-in-chief, at his headquarters at Cambridge, 
issued an order on June 16th to Colonel Prescott to march with a party of about 
a thousand men to Charlestown, throw up works, and defend them until re- 
lieved ; that Prescott obeyed this order, sent to General Ward for re-inforce- 
ments, held councils of war, sent out guards and detour parties, and held the 
works against the repeated onslaughts of trained troops, until his ammunition 
was exhausted and he was forced to retire before overwhelming numbers ; that 
he withdrew in an honorable manner, defending himself in a hand to hand com- 
bat with the soldiers of the enemy ; that he then proceeded to headquarters, 
reported the issue of the battle as the commander of an expedition should, 
asked that he might try to retake the works with fresh troops, and received 
the thanks of General Ward the Commander-in-chief, the only man whose au- 
thority he seems to have recognized. 

Many definite facts are known regarding the part which General Israel Put- 
nam, the other officer whose name has been prominently mentioned in connec- 
tion with the command, played in this battle. He had favored the occupation 



COLONEL WILLIAM PRESCOTT'S REGIMENT 161 

of Charlestown, two days or more before the battle. He was in conference, we 
believe, with Gridley, Prescott and probably others, when the decision as to the 
place to be fortified was made. He went to Cambridge early on the 17th to 
secure provisions and reinforcements, and probably went there again on a simi- 
lar errand. He saw the importance of Bunker Hill and ordered various bodies 
of men to fortify it. He did all in his power to hurry along reinforcements as 
they arrived on Charlestown Peninsula and encouraged the men at the rail 
fence. When the retreat was begun he tried to rally the men to cover it and 
succeeded wonderfully well, considering the green soldiers with whom he had 
to deal. From affidavits brought forward, he must have been in various parts 
of the field. He certainly displayed great activity and energy in the battle. 
It is not to be wondered at, that the men seeing him thus actively engaged were 
willing to testify that he was in command. 

All such testimonies, however, while they show how actively he participated 
in the engagement, do not determine that he was the authorized commander 
of the battle. In the absence of more authoritative evidence upon the subject, 
these affidavits might indeed be used as a basis for the settlement of this ques- 
tion, but, as the case stands, too great reliance has been placed upon them by 
the champions of General Putnam. One of these writers goes so far as to 
state that: "Not Prescott, but Putnam, was hailed far and near as the hero of 
the hour. At home and abroad toasts were drunk to his honor, and engrav- 
ings and other pictures of him appeared in American and European cities, repre- 
senting him as chief; and as such, he passed into history." 

The testimony of eye witnesses to the events of that day do not however 
show the remarkable unanimity which the above lines would lead us to imagine 
existed. In justice to Colonel Prescott, the story of whose achievements we 
are telling, it should be noted that Rev. John Martin, who was in the thickest 
of the fight, stated to President Stiles, June 30, 1775, that the Americans took 
possession "under the command of Colonel Prescott," and that application to 
General Ward for aid "brought Colonel Putnam and a large reinforcement 
about noon." 

J. Pitts, in a letter to Samuel Adams, dated July 20, 1775, wrote "that no 
one appeared to have any command but Colonel Prescott, and that General 
Putnam was employed in collecting the men," Colonel James Scamman, 
in notes upon the report of his court martial, published Feb. 29, 1776, made 
the statement that, "There was no general officer who commanded at Bunker 
Hill." Rev. William Gordon in "The History of the American War," Oct. 23, 
1788, gave Colonel Prescott the credit of commanding the entrenching party. 



162 THE MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 

T.Maxwell, later Major, stated: "Colonel Prescott seemed to have the sole com- 
mand. Colonel Reed and I returned to our command on the neck about eleven 
o'clock, P. M. At day in the morning, we again went on to the Hill, found Put- 
nam and Prescott there: Prescott still appeared to have command," etc. 
General Heath, in his "Memoirs" printed in 179S, states that Colonel Prescott, 
notwithstanding anything that may have been said, "was the proper com- 
manding officer at the redoubt." Captain Bancroft, who was in the redoubt 
said of Colonel Prescott: "He continued through the hottest of the fight to dis- 
play admirable coolness, and a self-possession that would do honor to the 
greatest hero of any age. He gave his orders deliberately, and how effectually 
they were obeyed I need not tell." 

Other quotations of a similar nature could be given from early writers, along 
with the opinions of prominent historians of later days, testifying to their be- 
lief that Colonel Prescott was the commanding officer in Charlestown on that 
day. It would be interesting, if space would permit, to bring together all the 
evidence from all sides, bearing upon this question. Even then the contro- 
versy would have to be decided according to military rules and usages, as this 
is distinctly a military problem. 

General Charles Francis Adams, one of the best of our modern historical 
writers upon war topics, in his "plea for Military History," has carefully re- 
viewed this particular question and stated the points clearly and squarely in 
the following words: — "Recurring to Bunker Hill, the mistakes and contro- 
versies which have arisen among historians and critics in regard to that engage- 
ment have well-nigh partaken of the ludicrous. There has, in the first Place, 
been an almost endless discussion as to who was in command, — a discussion 
which would have caused no man of military training a moment's pause. It 
has been elaborately contended that General Putnam must have been in com- 
mand, because he was the officer of the highest grade upon the ground, ob- 
viously outranking Colonel Prescott. The proposition is simply absurd, as 
being contrary to the first and elementary principles of military subordination. 
General Putnam was, it is true, on the ground ; but he was on the ground as an 
officer having a Connecticut commission only, and in command of a detach- 
ment from that province. He held no commission from Massachusetts, much 
less* any Continental commission. Colonel Prescott, commanding a Massa- 
chusetts' regiment, had received his orders from his military superior, Major- 
General Ward, an officer also in the Massachusetts service. Ward thus was 
Prescott's superior officer; Putnam was not. During the operations which 
ensued, it was open for Putnam to make to Prescott any suggestion he saw fit, 



COLONEL WILLIAM PRESCOTT'S REGIMENT 163 

and Prescott, acting always on his own responsibility, might give to such sug- 
gestions the degree of weight he deemed proper; but he could report only to 
his superior in the same service as himself, — his military commander. Pres- 
cott, therefore, showed perfectly well that he knew what he was about when 
he offered the command to Warren, who had been commissioned by the Massa- 
chusetts authorities as a major-general, when Warren appeared upon the field. 
Warren, very properly, declined the command, remaining purely as a volun- 
teer. But, so far as Putnam was concerned, he was in command merely of such 
Connecticut troops as were cooperating with the Massachusetts detachment; 
and for a Massachusetts officer to have received an order as such from him 
would have subjected that officer to a court-martial. All this is elementary, — 
the very alphabet of the military organization, — and yet the lay historians 
who have written upon the battle have contended over the question for years." 

It is a matter of sincere regret that the original record of orders given at 
headquarters on the 16th and 17th of June, if made at all, has been lost. This 
deficiency has, however, been made up in large degree by the personal corre- 
spondence of the only man who could speak with authority upon the subject. 
In all the discussions occasioned by this long drawn out controversy, no one 
upon either side has had any doubt as to the identity of the commander-in- 
chief. General Artemus Ward was appointed to that position in May and 
served until the arrival of General Washington, who took command, July 3d. 
All expeditions sent out from the headquarters at Cambridge up to this date 
were under General Ward's orders. As Dr. A. P. Putnam truly says: "It was 
not a mere hap-hazard aggregation of heterogeneous, allied forces, all serving 
in some way the same general cause, but each bound to fight on its own hook 
and to acknowledge no common supreme authority. They all acknowledged 
General Ward as their supreme head, and as Tarbox says, 'It was one army, 
not so well organized and compacted as it might have been, and as it was des- 
tined to be, but still one army.' " 

This point being absolutely settled in the minds of all, General Artemus 
W r ard was the one man who could declare, who did or did not command at this 
battle. This officer, in a private letter to John Adams, written October 30th, 
1775, has recorded a direct statement bearing upon this subject, which is of 
more value than all the affidavits or testimonies which have been advanced by 
either side. In this letter he expressed regret that recruiting for the new army 
had not been commenced sooner, and feared that the enemy might take ad- 
vantage of any weakness which this delay might occasion in the army. He 
then wrote : "I wish Gen. Frye might be provided for. I think him a good man 
for the service, and am very sorry he has not been provided for by the Conti- 



164 THE MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 

nental Congress before this time. Some have said hard things of the officers be- 
longing to this colony, and despised them; but I think, as mean as they have repre- 
sented them to be, there has been no action with the enemy which has not been con- 
ducted by an officer of this colony, except that at Chelsea * which was conducted by 
General Putnam. 

It is certain that the commander-in-chief, who possessed such definite 
knowledge of the fact that General Putnam commanded at Chelsea, would sure- 
ly have known and mentioned the fact if he had also been commander at the 
vastly more important battle of June 17th on the Charlestown peninsula. 
Surely he had no prejudice against General Putnam for his name is the only 
one which appears in the above quotation. 

We know then, upon the very best authority, that the commander of the 
battle on June 17th was an officer of the Massachusetts Bay Colony. This 
certainly eliminates General Putnam, Colonel Stark and every other officer out- 
side of Massachusetts. The writers who have favored the contention that 
General Putnam was commander, have almost without exception, placed Colo- 
nel Prescott, second only to General Putnam, and have nearly all agreed that 
Colonel Prescott commanded at the redoubt. In fact many of them have dis- 
tinctly stated that Colonel Prescott was in the redoubt all or nearly all the time, 
and have even used this as an argument against his being commander of the 
battle, because he confined himself so closely to this particular place. This is, 
however, just where he should have been. He was ordered to erect a fortifi- 
cation and hold it until relieved, and it was without doubt the place for him to 
stay. Furthermore, we have the best of authority that the main body of the 
party was here on the hill. This authority is the account of the Committee of 
Safety, which was drawn up and approved soon after the battle, and which we 
have already quoted at length. 

The only other officer who has been at all prominently mentioned as com- 
mander in this battle is General Warren, and we have good evidence that when 
offered the command by Colonel Prescott, he declined it. 

* The affair at Chelsea occurred on May 27th. and Frothingham tells us that it was 
" dwelt upon with great exultation throughout the colonies." A detachment had been 
ordered to drive the live stock off from Hog and Noddle's Islands, near Chelsea. The 
men attempting to do it were discovered by the British, who fired upon them from the 
vessels and landed a party of marines. The Americans sent for reinforcements and 
about 300 men and two pieces of cannon arrived, General Putnam was placed in com- 
mand. A full account of this affair in which the Americans were victorious, is given in 
Frothingham's "Siege of Boston," pp. 109 and 110. The closing sentences of this 
account are as follows; "The Americans captured, besides clothes and money, twelve 
swivels, and four-pound cannon. This affair was magnified into a battle, and the gal- 
lantry of the men engaged in it, elicited general praise. The news of it, arriving in 
Congress, just at the choosing of general officers, influenced the vote for Putnam for 
major-general, which was unanimous. Putnam's election took place June 19." 



COLONEL WILLIAM PRESCOTT'S REGIMENT 165 

The losses of the Prescott Regiment in this battle, as Frothingham states, 
were 42 killed and 2S wounded. The following list of killed and prisoners, is 
to be found in the Massachusetts Archives: Captain Farwell's Company, 1 
died June 17th. Captain Lawrence's Company, (J killed or taken. Captain 
Gilbert's Company, 4 killed. Captain Dow's Company, 7 killed. Captain 
Ephraim Corey's Company, 1 killed, 1 prisoner. Captain Moor's Company, 
3 killed. Captain Wyman's Company, 3 killed. Captain Xutting's Company, 
6 killed. Captain Maxwell's Company, 1 died June 17th, and 1, June 18th. 
Captain Patch's Company, 2 killed. Captain Parker's Company, 4 killed, 2 
taken prisoners. 

Historians unite in emphasizing the importance of this battle. General 
Devens eloquently stated that it consolidated the Revolution, and continuing 
said, "Had the result been different ; had it been shown that the hasty, ill-dis- 
ciplined levies of Xew England could not stand before the troops of the King 
(or the ministerial troops as our official documents call them) ; had the easy 
victory over them, which had been foolishly promised been weakly conceded, — 
the cause of independence might have been indefinitely postponed." -He 
quoted Count Vergennes as saying: "If it won two or more such victories as it 
had won at Bunker Hill, there would be no more British Army in America." 

Bancroft wrote: "The battle of Quebec, which won half a continent, did 
not cost the lives of so many officers as the battle of Bunker Hill, which gained 
nothing but a place of encampment." Trevelyan, commenting upon the 
battle in his admirable history, writes as follows: "But the result of the en- 
gagement was small in comparison to the slaughter. General Gage was still 
on the wrong side of Charlestown Xeck, looking across at a range of heights 
stronger by nature, and much more elaborately fortified, than the grass-grown 
upland which was strewn so thickly with the flower of the army. It was a poor 
consolation to know that, as Nathaniel Greene put it, colonists were always 
ready to sell him another hill at the same price. Burgoyne told the ministers, 
plainly and at once, that the main position held by the enemy could not be 
carried by assault, and that, if the Britishjgarrison was ever to leave Boston, 
it must go by water." 

General Gage, in a letter to Dartmouth, wrote: "The trials we have had. 
show the rebels are not the despicable rabble too many have supposed them 
to be, and I find it owing to a military spirit encouraged among them for a few 
years past, joined with uncommon zeal and enthusiasm. They entrench, and 
raise batteries ; they have engineers. They have fortified all the heights and 
passes around the town ; which it is not impossible for them to annoy. The 
conquest of this country is not easy ; you have to cope with vast numbers. In 



166 THE MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 

all their wars against the French, they never showed so much conduct, atten- 
tion, and perseverence, as they do now. I think it my duty to let your lord- 
ship know the true situation of affairs." General John Coffin of the British 
Army, a prominent loyalist, in refering to this battle wrote: "You could not 
have succeeded without it: , Something in the then state of parties was inde- 
spensable to fix men somewhere, and to show the planters of the South that 
the Northern people were in earnest. That, that did the business for you." 

General Charles Francis Adams writes: "Through the chances of war, — 
the pure luck of the patriots, — every oversight of which they were guilty, 
every blunder they committed, worked to their advantage, and contributed 
to the success of their operations ! They completely drew the British fire and 
forestalled the contemplated offensive operations, throwing the enemy on the 
defensive ; they inspired the American militia with confidence in themselves, 
filling them with an aggressive spirit; they fired the continental ardor; and, 
finally, the force was extricated from a false and impossible position, after in- 
flicting severe punishment on their opponents. For that particular occasion 
and under the circumstances, Cromwell or Frederick or Napoleon in command 
would probably have accomplished less ; for, with the means at disposal, they 
never would have dared to take such risks, nor would they ever have thrust 
themselves into such an utterly untenable position. . . . Yet in one respect the 
battle of Bunker Hill was, in reality, epochal. Prescott did not occupy Breed's 
Hill and begin to throw up his intrenchments until nearly midnight on the 
16th-17th of June. Thus his men had about four hours in which to work be- 
fore the break of day disclosed their whereabouts. Yet when, less than twelve 
hours later, the British stormed the field-works, they were amazed at their 
extent and completeness, and could not believe that they had all been thrown 
up in a single summer's night. It was something new in warfare. . . . Judging 
by the record of Bunker Hill, and recollections of what was habitually done 
ninety years later in Virginia, if an army of either Federals or Confederates. 
as developed in 1S65, had held the ground of the British at Waterloo or the 
French at Sedan, the lines and intrenchments which on the days of battle 
would have confronted Napoleon and Von Moltke could hardly have failed to 
give them pause. Before these temporary works they would have seen their 
advancing columns melt away, as did Gage at Bunker Hill, Pakenham at New 
Orleans, and Lee at Gettysburg. The simple fact seems to have been, that, 
until the modern magazine gun made it an absolute necessity, digging was 
never considered a part of a soldier's training. Indeed, it was looked upon as 
demoralizing. In the same way, the art of designing temporary field-works 
and camp intrenchments was not regarded as belonging to the regimental orfi- 



COLONEL WILLIAM PRESCOTT'S REGIMENT 167 

cer's functions. . . . Breastworks are in battle handy to the assailed ; and . . . 
admit of rapid and easy construction to men accustomed to the use of shovel 
and pick. Prescott taught that lesson on the 17th of June, 1775. He did not 
realize it, and apparently it took almost a century for the professional soldier 
to master the fact thoroughly ; but those light, temporary earthworks scientifi- 
cally thrown up on Bunker Hill in the closing hours of a single June night in" 
troduced a new element into defensive tactics of the battlefield. Its final de- 
monstration was at Plevna, a whole century later." 



THE OLD ROY ALL HOUSE 



By Helen Tilden Wild. 



Nine years ago, the Sarah Bradlee Fulton Chapter, Daughters of the Ameri- 
can Revolution, of Medford, Massachusetts, conceived the idea of preserving 
the old Roy all House for the sake of its history and aesthetic worth. 

For years the members of the chapter had been familiar with the outside 
of the building, but few had seen the interior. After holding a loan exhibition 
in the house and being in it more or less for a month in early spring, the charm 
of the place took possession of them and they resolved to influence public opin- 
ion to save it. 

Two years later, in April, 1901, the chapter rented the house and opened it 
for the benefit and pleasure of the public. Becoming convinced that a larger 
organization with more far-reaching acquaintance was necessary, the chapter 
interested a group of patriotic men and women to form a corporation to pur- 
chase the building. As a result, the Royall House Association was incorpor- 
ated in 1905. In April, 1907, an option upon the mansion, outbuildings and 
about three-quarters of an acre of land was obtained, and the Association began 
raising money for the purchase. Little by little the fund grew until, April 16, 
1908, the one hundred thirty-third anniversary of the day when Colonel Isaac 
Royall left his beautiful residence never to return, the deed was obtained. 

It is now proposed to open the house as a museum for ancient furniture, 
household utensils, relics, etc., all arranged to enhance the beauty of its archi- 
tecture and to preserve its dignity. As time goes on, the house and slave 
quarters will be improved and the grounds laid out in the quaint old fashioned 
way. No mortgage encumbers the property, and it is fortunate that the build- 
ings are in such a state that all the changes contemplated need not be made at 
once. The annual income from membership fees in the association and con- 
tributions to the fund by visitors and others will determine the yearly improve- 
ment. 

The mansion stands on Main Street, Medford, about midway between Win- 
ter^Hill and Medford Square. It is the only building standing on land known 
as Ten Hills Farm, granted to Governor Winthrop in 1631, which dates back 
to the time when the holding retained its original boundaries. As early as 
1637, the homestead lot was walled and cleared although on a map of that date 
no house is shown there. Very soon after, tenants and employees of Governor 
Winthrop were located at Ten Hills, but the places of their abodes are un- 
known. Probably part of the Royall House was one of them, the original 




. |» 



-J 







r 5 



THE OLD ROYALL HOUSE 1G9 

building having been much plainer and smaller than it is at present. The 
heirs of Gov. John Winthrop, of Connecticut (who became the owner of the 
property between 1641 and 1645) sold it to Mrs. Elizabeth Lidgett who sub- 
sequently made it over to her son Charles. 

The latter was an adherent of Andros, and when the unpopluar governor 
was forced to leave the province, Colonel Lidgett was ordered to go with him. 
Because he had not carried out the terms of his mother's will, Lidgett became 
entangled in lawsuits brought by his brother-in-law, John Usher, and David 
Jeffries, the husband of Usher's daughter. Being unable to return to Massa- 
chusetts to conduct his affairs personally, the cases went by default; Jeffries 
took possession of the southerly part of the farm and Usher of the portion north 
of Winter Hill. Until 1754, the whole of the farm was in Charlestown; the 
present boundary between Medford and Somerville practically marks the line 
between the two estates as divided in 1692. In the correspondence of Lidgett 
and his agent we first find reference to the so-called Royall House. It was oc- 
cupied at that time by Thomas Marrable, or Marble, who in 1690 had been a 
tenant there for several years. 

The house was then a two story and a half one with dormer windows in the 
attics. There were two rooms on each floor and the dimensions, over all, were 
eighteen by forty-five feet. The west, north and south walls were of brick. 
After Usher came into possession, he enlarged it by building a leanto on the 
west side, leaving the original brick wall to form the partition between the east 
and west rooms. A careful inspection of the brick work on the south wall of 
the building shows the outline of the original gable end. A little window which 
was in the leanto is different in finish from two others above, but not in line with 
it, and directs the attention to the second period in the evolution of the man- 
sion. Usher made the estate his home until his death, in 1726, except when 
he was serving as lieutenant governor of New Hampshire and had his head- 
quarters at Portsmouth. He, as well as Lidgett, was a follower of Andros; 
much personal animosity on the part of his neighbors was a consequence. In 
his young manhood he was very wealthy, having succeeded his father who made 
a fortune as a book-seller. . To him were entrusted negotiations for the pur- 
chase of Maine by the province of Massachusetts from the heirs of Gorges. His 
success in this venture made him very popular until the advent of Andros. He 
married first the daughter of Mr. Peter Lidgett, a wealthy Boston merchant, 
and second, the daughter of George Allen, who bought the Xew Hampshire 
grants from the heirs of Mason. Allen was made governor of his province with 
Usher as his lieutenant. 

Usher's home on the Mystic was a favorite tarrying place for the tories of 
the seventeenth century. The last of the governor's life was harrassed by busi- 
ness troubles and many lawsuits, most of which he lost. Some seem to have 
been brought about by his arrogant temper, but, whatever the rights of the 
case, the people had little liking for his principles and the juries may have been 
prejudiced. Just before his death he put his farm at Ten Hills out of his hands, 
but it was returned to his widow soon after he died. 

Nine years later, in 1732, the estate was sold to Isaac Royall and since then 
it has borne his name. He immediately set about remodeling it. The house 



170 THE MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 

was made three story throughout; gardens were laid out; the slave quarters 
and summer house were built; a high wall enclosed the grounds on the high- 
way, broken by a low wall and fence directly in front of the house. An elm 
shaded driveway led from the road to a paved court-yard on the west side of 
the house, and flower-bordered walks were made from the mansion to the sum- 
mer-house on the west, and to the road on the east. The north side of the 
house was clapboarded and the garden front was paneled and embellished with 
hand carving. The street front does not seem to have been greatly changed 
from the facade built by Usher. 

The interior was almost entirely rebuilt. On the garden side is the "best 
room," with paneled walls, carved pilasters and recessed windows. The slid- 
ing doors between this room and the east parlor were put in many years later, 
probably about 1S45. The east parlor and the dining room, on the other side 
of- the hall, are much plainer, some of the woodwork having been removed. 
The hall extends through the house and is finished with a high wainscot. The 
stairway is paneled and the bannisters are carved in three patterns; the newel 
post combines all three and is extremely graceful. At the foot of the stairs is 
an arch with carved ornaments. The original wainscot is seen in the kitchen, 
but the great fireplace has been bricked up. To restore this room is one of the 
cherished desires of the present owners. 

Upstairs, over the west parlor is the "marble chamber," so called on ac- 
count of the carving representing Corinthian columns. In its prime, this room 
was beautifully furnished; its walls were hung with embossed leather and it 
was furnished with a crimson silk damask bed with counterpane, and easy 
chair and cushion to match, "three walnut chairs, a Turkey carpet, one pair 
brass^arms, a "blew" hair trunk and a sconse. The whole, with the bedfurnish- 
ings, was valued, in 1739, at three hundred pounds. All the chambers had 
tiled fireplaces and were designated, according to the color of the tiles, the 
blue room, the green room, etc. 

In the third story are two paneled rooms and two roughly plastered ones 
with beams across the ceiling; the larger one was called the spinning garret. 
This room seems to be unchanged, except the loss of the tiles; the twenty-four 
paned windows, wide floor boards, H and L hinges and heavy beams make 
these rooms seem older than any other part of the house. Over all, the great 
open attic could well be supposed to be the home of the spooks which the fas- 
tidious General Lee conjured up when he named the mansion "Hobgoblin Hall." 

Isaac Royall lived seven years after he bought the estate, but the altera- 
tions were so elaborate that five years were consumed in rebuilding, and he 
lived in the house only two years. At his death the place came into the pos- 
session of his son, Isaac. 

The Royalls were descendants of ^ William Royall, cooper and cleaver of 
timber, who came to Salem under the^patronage of Governor Cradock. Isaac, 
Senior, became a planter in Antigua, one of the Leeward Islands, and en- 
larged his business by trading. His summer home was in Dorchester, and it 
is a tradition there that the importation of slaves contributed to his wealth. 
After he came to Ten Hills, he gave up this business and brought to his new- 
home only tried and faithful family servants. About twenty-rive came with 



THE OLD ROYALL HOUSE 171 

him and were presumably, except the body servants, housed in the building 
known as the slave quarters. The brick part of this building was called the 
"out kitchen;" the basement was used as a dairy after 1800 and was probably 
built for that purpose. 

The summer house, at the end of the garden, was octagonal with carved 
pilasters, bell shaped roof- and cupola surmounted by a winged Mercury, which 
swung as a weather vane. The figure was a fine piece of carving nearly five 
feet high. The building stood on an artificial mound, within which was a 
walled cellar entered by a trap door, which added great mystery to the struc- 
ture. They used to tell us that the dark hole was a prison for slaves, but the 
use ofit for storage purposes was much more practical, though less romantic. 
The arched windows of the garden house made it a pleasant place in all weath- 
ers except the most severe, and the tender sentiments scratched upon them 
suggest tales of love. But during the siege of Boston lovers were displaced by 
stern soldiers who held councils of war there. 

For nearly forty years the home of Royall was a rallying place of social life. 
The house stood on the highroad from Boston to Salem and no one of import- 
ance was expected to pass by without alighting. Colonel Royall's sister, 
Penelope, married Henry Vassall ; his niece, Elizabeth Oliver, was the wife of 
John Vassall, who built the Longfellow house in Cambridge. His daughters 
married Sir William (Sparhawk) Pepperell and George Erving. All were 
staunch loyalists, and Royall's close connection with these families had much 
to do with his subsequent unfortunate history; but his benevolence and public 
services before the Revolution can now be viewed unobstructed by the war 
clouds of his day. 

From 1743 to 1752, Royall served as deputy to the General Court and 
regularly returned his salary to the treasury of the town of Charlestown. He 
presented to the colony the chandelier which adorned the legislative chamber. 
For sixteen years he was chairman of the Board of Selectmen in Charlestown. 
and when his estate was set off to Medford, he served there in the same ofhces. 
He was moderator of town meeting when resolutions against the stamp act 
were passed and used his influence toward the repeal of the law. From 1752 
to 1774, he was a member of the Governor's Council. With Hancock. Otis. 
Bowdoin and Lady Temple, he was owner of a large tract of land in Worcester 
County, which was later called Royalston in his honor. He subscribed twenty- 
five pounds toward building a meeting-house there and presented the pulpit 
Bible. He gave generously for the benefit of church and schools in Charles- 
town and Medford, and when Harvard Hall was burned, in 1764. and with it 
the entire college library, he contributed a large sum to make good the loss. 
He bequeathed a large tract of land to Harvard College. The property was 
sold, according to the provisions of the will, and, in 1815, Harvard established 
the Royall Professorship of Law, which was followed two yearsjater by the 
Harvard Law School. 

When the troubles of 1775 were at hand. Colonel Royall and his sister, 
Penelope Vassall thought it best to retire to their West Indian estates until the 
storm had blown over. They accordingly made plans to that effect, but were 
deterred by the sudden blow struck at Lexington. The Sunday before the 



172 THE MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 

battle, Royall rode to Boston in his chariot, to attend service at King's Chapel 
and to bid his friends goodby. He unfortunately staid too long and was caught 
a prisoner in the town when the order of General Gage forbade any one to leave. 
His desire to quit the province could only be carried out by boarding an Eng- 
lish ship for Halifax. Taking lodgings at Windsor, Nova Scotia, he waited in 
vain for a vessel bound for Antigua; finally, when his daughter, Mrs. Erving, 
and her husband arrived after the evacuation of Boston, they persuaded him 
to go with them to England. On account of failing health, he never left Ken- 
sington where he made his home, dying there in 1781. His sister, being a non- 
combatant, was allowed to go south, taking any of her personal belongings ex- 
cept her medicine chest, which was reserved for the use of the surgeons in the 
Continental Army. 

In Medford, the members of the first Committee of Safety were friends of 
Colonel Royall and probably he would never have been disturbed if he had re- 
mained at home. His estate, "one of the Grandest in Xorth America," was 
left unprotected, but Dr. Simon Tufts, of Medford, exerted himself to care for 
it. General Stark, the commander of the New Hampshire troops, was detailed 
to occupy it as headquarters. Lee and Sullivan, whose commands were at 
Winter Will, were there for a short time, but were ordered by Washington to 
make their headquarters nearer their brigades. For a short time "Mollie" 
Stark presided as mistress of the house. On the day of the evacuation of Bos- 
ton, she watched from a little outlook built against the south chimney to dis- 
cover any movement of the enemy toward crossing the river and proceeding 
around Boston to attack the Americans in the rear. Her orders were to send 
messengers to alarm the country if she saw anything to arouse suspicion. The 
short flight of stairs by which she climbed to the roof are to be seen today, but 
the little watch tower disappeared years ago. 

In less than a week after the evacuation, Stark was in New York and the 
Royall House was empty. As the war progressed, laws were made in regard 
to the property of absentees which scattered Colonel Royall's household goods 
beyond hope of recovery. Two auctions were held for the benefit of the govern- 
ment. A set of candlesticks, owned and valued in a Boston family, are the 
only authentic relics known of the furnishings of his home. The real estate 
was confiscated but not sold, being occupied by wealthy tenants, who were able 
to take care of the estate, until 1792, when the government surrendered the 
title to Elizabeth Hutton a daughter of Elizabeth (Royall) Pepperell. 

In 1804, a syndicate began negotiations for the property, but all formali- 
ties were not completed till two years later Some of the outlying portions were 
sold, a few houses were built and streets laid out. William Welch, a Boston 
manufacturer, owned the homestead for about four years previous to 1S10. 
when he sold to Francis Cabot Lowell, the founder of cotton manufacturing in 
America. In the summer of the same year, he sold the house and garden and 
about two acres on either side to Jacob Tidd, who eventually acquired the 
greater part of the Royall real estate. He occupied the place as a summer resi- 
dence and made a specialty of fruit and flower culture. After his death, Mrs. 
Tidd made the farm her permanent home and resided there for titty years. 
She was a sister of William Dawes, who rode from Boston to Concord "on the 



THE OLD ROYALL HOUSE 173 

eighteenth of April, seventy- five," to spread the news of the coming of the 
British. 

Mrs. Tidd enlarged her mansion by building the north wing for the accom- 
modation of her youngest daughter when she married in 1823. The outside 
shows that it was built for utility rather than beauty, but the inside is more 
in keeping with the rest of the house and is hardly more modern. With the 
death of Mrs. Tidd. the glory of the estate departed, but even today, great 
trees, children of those planted by the Royall's shade the roof ; vines clamber 
over the weather stained walls ; the peonies bloom in the flower borders, and 
even in decay the old house is beautiful. It is a monument to its former pro- 
prietors and the times they represent. Few houses can boast such a succession 
of eminent owners and few have stood for nearly two centuries with so few 
changes in architecture. It is bequeathed to the people of Massachusetts by 
those who had a part in the making of the Commonwealth, and to the men and 
women of today is given the duty and privilege of preserving it for future 
generations. 



PERSONAL DIARY OF ASHLEY BOWEN OF 

MARBLEHEAD.* 



I. 

(Diary kept on a voyage from Boston to Halifax, in April, 1759, to join the 
British fleet to go on the Expedition to Quebec. Ed.) 

Sunday April ye 15 1759 this 2-1 hours first part Close Weather at 2 p m 
Saw Cape Sable at 4 Ditto Saw Cape Neagurf middl much Rain Later Ditto 
Rain no bosor 

Monday April ye 16 1759 this 24 hours first parte fogy at 5pm Saw Ash- 
metogin Bareing N W Difstence 4 L at Sunsett Saw Cape Samborerf Middle 
Clear and Cold Littel winds or Calm. 

Monday Aprill ye 16 1759 this morning at Doming we found our Self in the 
Choops of Hallof (ax) and the wind out a head at Nin A M Capt Goaram and 
an other Genteleman went on Shore in a barge at noon we gott faft at Hallafax 
at 3 p m I whent on Shore and wated on Admerel Darrell and he was Quite 
well Plesed and gave me a very kind Resephtion and Disierd me to Wate on 
him on the morow. 

Tuesday ye 17 1759 this morning at Nine I with my People went on Shore 
to the Admerell and he Sent us all on board his Ship and then Sixteen of us Sent 
on board ye Pembrok and the other 16 on board ye Squerele this day I wrote 
a Small Letter to my wife &c 

Wednesday April ye 18 1759 the Last night I Lodged on board His Majesty's 
Ship Pembrok — This morning at Eight I turned out and gott Brakefast Xote 
I mefs with Mr Buckels & Mr Crisp I mefs on the Starboard Side Jest abaft the 
Pump well in the Hollope & Logg in the Bestbower tear on the Same Side 

Note this Is a List of the People that Came on board this Ship With me 
from Marblehead 

WiUiam Horn Robert Tompson 

Edward Arkis Tho m Woodfine 

Jonathan Welch Miles (?) Dolton 

RobBartlit Edward Kinfly 

Garret Farrell . Benj Nicholl 

John Bateman Artha Loyd 

Isaac Worren D D Edward Sovering 

Fre d Sawyer Zach Pain 

* The original diary is owned at present by Mr. John Robinson, of Salem, who has 
kindly loaned it to the Massachusetts Magazine for publication. — [F. A. G.] 
t Cape Xegro, about 16 miles X. E. of Cape Sable. 
X Cape Sambro. 



DIARY OF ASHLEY BOWEN 175 

Thursday April ye 19 1759 this morning at 8 Turned out and found the 
wind to ye N W & Blows very Harde Cold Aire — Sailed ye Brig Biscon Capt 
MackXeel for Cape Britten — at 2pm Sailed a Ditto and a Snow for Phillidelp 
out Pinis & In Cutter fair weather 



A List of our People on Board ye Squrell 

John Melzard Tho m Dove 

William Mathews : William Uncals 

Sam 11 Corferin m John Steetman 

John Gooldsmith ' - Thom Walpy 

Sam Look Frances McSotte 

Roper Linsteed . Will™ Corkering 

Charles Jacobs Waltor Stoer 

Samul Lines . Tho m Peech 16 the Total. 

II. 

(Diary kept on a voyage from Quebec to Boston, October-November, 1759, 
in a British war vessel, after the capture of Quebec. Ed.) 

Monday ye 22 at Noon Cape Gaspey* BoreW S W 5 Leagues Wind Northerly 

Tuesday ye 23 Soft Weather — the wind Southerly may hold One 

Wednesday ye 24 this morning at 2 woar Ship a fine fair Wind to the West 
Ward Latt in 48.45 N 

Thursday ye 25 at 7 this morning the North Capef Bore S 1-2 W 5 Legues 
at noon Came past ye Is of S PollJ meny Ships a Starn and a Schooner Horum 
Itoo for Tom Marten Cours steard along this Shore is about E S E 

Friday ye 26 at 3 this Morning Came Past Scattere§ We fear Some ship Hath 
Gott a Shore By Reson of her fiering so many Guns wind N W 

Satterday ye 27 Spook a Sloop from Quebeck W Monde for Boston hoom 
we Suployed with a tarse of Bread mainy Sail in Sight — We have Run along 
Shore with In about 10 Leagues of Cape Sambore|| Wind Westerly 

Sunday ye 28 this morning Pased By us His Majesty's Ship Pembrok Close 
weather a fowl wind mainy People Sick I Pray GOD alist them at Eight this 
Evening Stood to the Southward small winds to the westward 

Monday ye 29 this Day Mordate at Noon Spook Capt french in a Sloop from 

* Cape Gaspe. P. Q. 
f Northern point of Magdalen Islands. 

X St Paul's Island. It lies about 15 miles N. E. of the northern extremity of Cape 
Breton Island. 

§ Scatari Island, lying to the eastward of Cape Breton Island. 
U Cape Sambro. 



176 THE MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 

Queback for Boston Littel winds or Calm gott ground in about 90 fathoms Cott 
one Cusk and Won hake at 2 this after noon a Small Brees from the South ward 
No Obs (ervation) 

Tuesday ye 30 this morning a fine Prospect of a fair wind But Backened to 
the Westward again Blows- harde Latt in 43° -43"'N 

Wednesday ye 31 this Day Blowing hard wind at N W a greate Sea Pased 
By us two Schooners ' 

Thursday November ye 1 1759 this day wind at N W Blows hard now Cold 
under our Corses — 

Friday ye 2 this morning we Buried the Corpes of Simon Diges a Seaman 
Belonging to this Ship Latt in 42-35 N Small winds to the westward 

Satterday ye 3 this day a fair wind to the South ward Smoth Sea Close 
weather at night much wind and Rain wind at the South ward. 

Sunday ye 4 this morning a Smarte gail at about W N W Splitt Some of our 
Sails Latt by Obs 43 d 17 m N this Evening moderate Clear 

Monday ye 5 this morning we on bent our fore topsail and Bent a other and 
on bent ye main Sail and Bent an Other moderate and Clear No Obs wind to 
the S W ward 

Tuesday ye 6 this Day the wind to the Wesward Stood in to the Northward 
and at 10 Saw the Land at 3 Stood of again found the Land to be about Pen- 
opescott Hills* wind Still to the Westward 

Wednesday ye 7 this Day a head wind Stood in maid the Land again this 
Evening the wind Sum watt to the Northward Small Brees all night. 

Thursday ye 8 this day Small Brees to the South East ward at 11 Saw 
Edamtycusf at noon Saw Piggen hillj Run a Long Sd 

Friday ye 9 this day had the Good fortune to Run a ground at Long Worf 
Boston "Finis" 

* Penobscot. 

t Mount Agamenticus. 

X Pigeon Hill on the northern part of Cape Ann peninsula. 

(To be continued.) 




tkrimsami §?lantcT 

*** 16 2 0-1630 o} V -^ 

Lucie M. Gardner. A. 3.. Editor. 



5 



Roger Conant. 

In a complete list of biographies of those 
men who came before 1630, it is necessary 
to include that of Roger Conant, who was 
one of the most eminent of those earlier 
settlers and the one to whom, more than 
to any other, belongs the credit of suc- 
cess. His persistent refusal to give up 
the attempt and his success in proving that 
a permanent settlement could be made 
here, led other and larger parties to come 
and assist in making what later proved to 
be England's strongest colony., 

Roger Conant, the son of Richard and 
Agnes (Clarke) Conant, was baptized at 
East Budleigh, Devonshire, England. April 
9, 1592. He was born of good family and 
we find that his father was church warden 
as his grandfather had been before him. 
He came to Plymouth as early as the Fall 
of 1622 or the next Spring, but the place 
was not congenial and he left there volun- 
tarily after Oldham and Lyford had been 
expelled. 

The Pilgrims were Separatists but Co- 
nant and some others held more moderate 
views. He was a Puritan, belonging to the 
body of believers who considered that re- 
form in the church and not separation 
from it was the proper course. Thornton 
says that Roger Conant, by his correspond- 
ence, helped to spread the fame of Xew 
Plymouth throughout the western parts 
of England, especially in the counties which 
Smith had visited a few years before. 

From Plymouth he went to Xantasket 
and while there he probably owned Co- 
nant's Island (later Governor's Island) in 
Boston harbor. We find mention of Co- 
nant's Island in the Massachusetts Bay 
records under the date July 5, 1631. On 
April 3, 1632, the island was granted to 
Governor Winthrop for 40 shillings and an 
annual rental of 12d, he further agreeing 
"to plant a vineyard and an orchard in the 
same." A part of the fruit was to go to 
the Governor "for the time being." The 
island was to be called the Governor's 



Garden." Later the rent was changed to 
2 hogsheads of wine and still later to 2 
barrels of apples. 

The Cape Ann settlement was made in 
1624 by the Dorchester Co. with Thomas 
Gardner as overseer of the Plantation and 
John Tilly as overseer of fisheries. Their 
lack of success was doubtless due to the 
poor soil. Smith in his Generall historic : 
1624, states "There hath been' a fishing 
this year upon the coast about 50 English 
ships. And by Cape Ann there is a planta- 
tion a-beginning by the Dorchester men, 
which they hold by these of Xew Plymouth 
who also by them have set up a fishing- 
work." 

Palfrey states that Rev. William Hub- 
bard, the historian, a contemporary of 
Conant, must have conversed much with 
Roger Conant. Hubbard states that Rev. 
John White heard of Roger Conant through 
Mr. Conant, a brother of Roger, and Mr. 
White engaged Mr. Humphrey, the treas- 
urer of the joint adventure, to write to 
Roger Conant and invite him to go to Cape 
Ann. Roger Conant was chosen governor 
of Cape Ann in 1625. Felt says, "As Cape 
Ann is in what has been long called Massa- 
chusetts and Roger Conant was Governor 
for the Dorchester merchants, then he may 
be truly said to have preceded both Messers 
Endicott and Winthrop in such office for a 
part of this commonwealth." 

The conflict between the Plymouth 
neople and the Planters in regard to a fish- 
ing stage, which had been erected at Cape 
Ann, was the most important occurence 
during his control at that place. "In one 
of the fishing voyages about the year 1625," 
under the charge and command of one Mr. 
Hewes, employed by some of the west 
country merchants, there arose a sharp 
contest between the said Hewes and the 
people of Xew Plymouth, about a hshing 
stage., built the year before about Cape 
Ann by Plymouth men, but was now, in 
the absence of the builders, made use of by 
Mr. Hewes' company, which the other, 
under the conduct of Capt. Standish. very 
eagerly and peremptorily demanded: for 
the company of Xew Plymouth having 



178 



THE MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 



themselves obtained a useless patent for 
Cape Anne about the year 1623, sent some 
of the ships, which their adventurers em- 
ployed, to transport passengers over to 
them to make fish there; for which end 
they had built a stage there, in the year 
1624. The dispute grew to *be very hot, 
and high words passed between them which 
might have ended in blows, if not in blood 
and slaughter, had not the prudence and 
moderation of Roger Conant, at that time 
there present, "and Mr. Peirse's interposi- 
tion, that lay just by with his ships, timely 
prevented. For Mr. Hewes had barri- 
cadoed his company with hogsheads on 
the stage head, while the defendants stood 
upon land, and might easily have been cut 
off; but the ship's crew, by advice, promis- 
ing to help them to build another, the dif- 
ference was thereby ended. Capt. Stand- 
ish had been bred a soldier in the Low 
Countries, and never entered the school of 
our Saviour Christ, or of John -Baptist, his 
harbinger, or, if he was ever there, had 
forgot his first lessons, to otter violence to 
no man and to part with the cloak rather 
than needlessly contend for the coat, 
though taken away without order. A little 
chimney is soon fired; so was the Plymouth 
captain, a man of very little stature, yet 
of a very hot and angry temper. The fire 
of his passion soon kindled and blown up 
into a flame by hot words, might easily 
have consumed all, had it not been season- 
ably quenched." Felt speaks of Conant 
as the "judicious Conant." He seemed to 
dislike the place as much as the adven- 
turers disliked the business and conse- 
quently left Cape Ann in the Fall of 1626. 
"Meanwhile Conant had made some 
inquiries into a more commodious place 
near adjoining on the other side of a creek 
called Naumkeag, a little to the westward, 
where was much better encouragement as 
to the design of a plantation, than that 
which they had attempted upon before at 
Cape Ann; secretly conceiving in his mind 
that in following times it might prove a 
receptacle for such as upon the account of 
religion would be willing to begin a foreign 
plantation in this part of the world, of 
which he gave some intimation to his 
friends in England. Wherefore, that rev- 
erend person, Mr. White, (under God one 
of the chief founders of the Massachusetts 
Colony in New'^ England) being grieved in 
his spirit that so good a work should be 
suffered to fall to the ground by the ad- 



venturers thus abruptly breaking off did 
write to Mr. Conant, not so to desert his 
business, faithfully promising that if him- 
self with three others, (whom he knew to 
be honest and prudent men) viz., John 
Woodbury, John Balch and Peter Palfrey 
employed by the adventurers would stay 
at Naumkeag and give timely notice there- 
of, he would provide a patent for them and 
likewise send them whatever they should 
write for, either men or provisions or goods 
wherewith to trade with the Indians. 
Answer was returned that they would all 
stay on these terms, entreating that they 
might be encouraged accordingly; but it 
seems, before they received any returns 
according to their desires the 3 last mer- 
chants began to recoil and repenting of 
their engagement to stay at Naumkeag, 
for fear of the Indians and other incon- 
veniences, resolved rather to go to Vir- 
ginia especially because Mr. Lyford, their 
minister, upon a loving invitation was 
thither bound. But Mr. Conant as one 
inspired by some superior instinct, though 
never so earnestly pressed to go along with 
them, peremptorily declared his mind to 
wait the Providence of God in that place, 
where now they were, yea, though all the 
rest should forsake him; not doubting, as 
he said, but if they departed, he should 
soon have company. 

The other 3 observing his confident reso- 
lution, at last concurred with him and 
soon after sent back John Woodberry for 
England to procure necessaries for a planta- 
tion. But that God who is ready to an- 
swer his people before they call, as he had 
filled the heart of that good man. Mr. 
Conant, in New England with courage and 
resolution to abide fixed in his purpose, 
notwithstanding all opposition and per- 
suasion he met with to the contrary, had 
also inclined the hearts of several others in 
England to be at work about the same 
design." Hubbard speaks of the strange 
impression on the mind of Mr. Roger Co- 
nant to pitch upon Naumkeag as a site for 
a Plantation, and his confidence and con- 
stancy there to stay with intent to carry 
on the same, notwithstanding the many 
cross providences that seemed at the first 
view to thwart the design: so that in the 
conclusion it may truly be said in this or 
in any other of like nature: "the hand of 
the Lord hast done this." 

The promised aid came in an unexpected 
form for with it came John Endicott as the 



PILGRIMS AND PLANTERS 



179 



new governor. A controversy soon arose 
between the Planters and Endicott's men 
regarding the raising of tobacco. The 
Planters believed that, as they had been 
on the soil for 2 years prior to Endicott's 
arrival, they had the right to raise such 
crops as they saw fit. This privilege was 
granted to the Planters for a certain time 
which was later extended. It was natural 
that the controversy should have arisen, 
as Conant had evidently understood that 
these later arrivals would come under his 
superintendence. Hubbard gives Conant 
the credit of settling the dispute amicably. 
It is generally believed that Mr. Conant 
built inland fortifications on the occupa- 
tion of Salem 1626, as well as the first 
house in Salem. Unfortunately the loca- 
tion of his dwelling is not known. 

It has been supposed that the house was 
located on Essex Street the present Five 
Cents Savings Bank Building. This was 
based upon the following note in the 
town records: "Its ordered that the house 
of Mr. Connonts situated next unto Jn° 
frisk with 1/2 acre ground with the home 
now standing thereon is appointed by this 
meeting for the use of William Plase and 
his wife yet now is to them for the term 
of ther life what costs the said William 
Plase shall be att for his use and behoufe 
the Town at the end of ther life shalbe 
willing to allow his eyers executors or as- 
signs the' value that the same shall be 
worth (more than it shall stand the towne 
for) "Voted 21-6 m- 1637. 

Under the same date is recorded the 
following: "Its ordered yt Mr Connont's 
house, ground, and 1/2 acre corn standing 
on the same, joyning next unto M r . Jno. 
fnsk, shalbe bought by the Towne for 
ould M r William Plase Towne to mak pay- 
ment therof." 

Mr. Sidney Perley in his careful and 
exhaustive studies of the land holdings in 
Salem has been unable to confirm this state- 
ment that his house was located here and be- 
lievesthat the claim wasmade on insufficient 
grounds. William Place died in 1646 and 
his inventory includes only tools. Thomas 
Weeks had charges against the estate of 
£3 during his sickness and was his admin- 
istrator. The fact that Weeks afterward 
lived on this site has therefore no bearing 
on the location of the house which the 
town purchased of Roger Conant in 1637. 
Another point in opposition to the belief 
that this was the location is that the lot 



sold by Roger Conant measured 1/2 acre 
while the lots on this part of the main 
street were smaller. Most of the half acre 
grants were around Cat Cove (the 
west of Winter Island). 

In 1630, with four others he formed a 
company to carry on the fur trade to the 
eastward. They sold it to Richard Fox- 
mel at Blue Point near Saco. Foxmel did 
not comply with the agreements and was 
arrested when he came back about 1654. 
The men who were associated with him 
were Peter Palfrey. Xathan Pickman and 
Francis Johnson. In 1638, the court or- 
dered that all canoes be brought "Unto the 
cove of the common landing place of the 
North river by George Harris' house and 
those of the south side before the store- 
house in South river under penalty there to 
be viewed by Roger Conant and 4 others. " 

11 mo. 21d. 1639, 20 acres were granted 
to Roger Conant. son of Roger Conant, 
being the first born child in Salem. 

Mr. Conant was a member of a commit- 
tee to Gen'l court to confer regarding 
raising a general stock. He was one of 
five to sign an agreement with John Picker- 
ing in regard to building the new meeting 
house December 4. 1638. It is recorded 
under the date 20d of 4th mo., that be was 
one of twelve selectmen and on 3 Id of 9 mo., 
1638 he was chosen one of seven. 

On 16d of 8th mo., 1635, he was one of 
the overseers and surveyed fiats. His 
name was affixed to grants of land to 
Thomas Scruggs and Townsen Bishoo 
1635, 17th d of 11th mo. 18th d. of 2nd 
mo., 1636, he was one of six men to view 
Some lands beyond Forest River. "Least 
it should hinder the building of a colledge." 
27th d. of 1 mo., 1643. he served on the 
committee to determine the boundary 
between Salem and Ipswich. 13d. of 4 
mo., 1644, he was one of the Surveyors of 
highways toward Wenham. He also 
served as tax rater, being chosen to make 
the County rates on lid. 7 mo., 1637 and 
also on 22nd d. of 7th mo., 1645. 

We find he was deputy to the General 
court in 1634 and in 1637. 

Under the date May 18, 1631. he prom- 
ised to deliver to Mr. Thomas Dudley. 
9 bushels of Indian corn before the last 
day of October next. On May 9, 1632. he 
was appointed on the committee for "rais- 
ing of a publique stocke." and on Xov. 7th 
of the same year, he was chosen on com- 
mittee to settle bounds between Dorchester 



180 



THE MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 



and "Rocksbury." May 17, 1637, he was 
appointed to assist in the "perticuler courts 
at Salem." 

He served on trial iury in 1630, 27 of 
10 mo. 1642, 27 d of 10 mo. 1644. 16 d of 
10 mo. 1645, 5 d S mo. 1646, 30 d 5 mo. 
1653, 29 d 9 mo. 1646, 29 d 4 mo. 1654, 
28 d 1 mo. 1S57, 18 d. 9 mo. 

He also served on the grand Jurv, 1643, 

4 d. 10 mo. 1644, 9 d. 5 mo. 1647. 6 d. 

5 mo. 1649, 25 d. 4 mo. 1650, 25 d. 4 mo. 
1651, 25 d. 9 mo. 1652, 29 d. 9 mo. 1655, 
17 d. 6 mo. 

He was witness in many quarterly court 
cases. 26 d. 9 mo. 1649, he appeared 
before the Quarterly Cout with others in 
behalf of Wenham. 29 d. 4 mo. 1654, he 
was one of those appearing for the estate 
of Thomas Scruggs. 

In 1635, "25 of the 11 mo.," a thousand 
acres at the head of Bass River were di- 
vided between Roger Conant and four 
other old planters. Evidently he took up 
his residence on this plot soon after. His 
house has been located on Cabot St. near 
Balch St. in the present city of Beverly. 
The dwellers on the Cape Ann side were 
strongly attached to their church, but as 
the settlement grew, it became more and 
more difficult for them to attend the old 
First church in Salem, particularly when 
the condition of the river made it unsafe 
for them to use their canoes. The journey 
over the rough roads and through Danvers 
was long and tedious. Accordinglv on the 
9th of the 3d mo., 1659, Roger' Conant 
headed a list of 41 signers and presented 
the following petition: 

"9. 3d 59. To the Honoured the Generall 
Court, consisting of the honoured and 
"Worshipfull Magistrates, and Deputyes of 
the Country, Xow convened at Boston: 
the petition of the Inhabitants of that part 
of Salem upon the Xortherne side of the 
fferry toward Ipswich. 

Humbly Sheweth 

That whereas wee your petitioners (be- 
ing upwards of Sixty families who by reason 
of our inconveniency of meeting publiquely 
upon the Lord's dayes at Salem towne, it 
beeing very troublesome and dangerous to 
tranfport o r selves and families winter and 
summer over the fferry) whereas we have 
had Some years fince Liberty from the 
Towne &: Church of Salem (who we thanke 
them were sensible of o r burden,) to erect a 
meeting home and to call a minister among 
.us, they promifeing to free us from Such 



charges as these at Towne; unte which pur- 
pofe we have & did then Covenant among 
o r selves to contribute unto all charges con- 
cerning a publike ministry among us, which 
wee have through God's mercy enjoyed 
for five years and upwards: Vet yo r peti- 
tioners feareing if not for^eeing. that we 
cannot in all liklyhood. be able Long to Con- 
tinew in this way, much leffe settle the 
ordayneances of gods house amongst us 
(which o r hearts long forj by reason that 
if any should through dissaffection to us, 
or unsoundneffe in judgment, or other 
wife fall off from us and their Covenant, 
wee by this gapp, should be broken to 
pieces (and) we Cannot attaynre o r ends. 
without power farther from this honoured 
court, these and such like considerations 
move us yo r poor petitioners humbly to 
Crave and request of this worthyly hon- 
ouredCourt, that Your wor.wouldbepiealed, 
the Towne, having allready done so much 
for us, and not beeing able (as they con- 
ceive) to impower us: to take o r poore un- 
settled condition into yo r searious Con- 
sideration, So as to "be periwaded & 
moved to give, grant & enact by yo r 
authority, (it beeing noe prejudice as we 
conceive eyther to the towne o r country) 
that we may be a towneship or villedg of 
& by o r selves and be enabled to carry on 
the publiq charges requisite to a publiq 
gospell ministry which ells we cannot ex- 
pect to be ever settelled amongst us. We 
doe also humbly request you. if this may not 
bee, that however, we may be invested 
with power from this court, to act in all 
cafes amongst o r selves as a towne shippe, 
And whereas there are divers whole habi- 
tations & Lands ly in Salem bounds 
neare us, who doe not contribute to Salem, 
these may belong to us & Contribute to 
thee maintayneance of the ministry among 
us, & Lastly that according to o r humble 
petition formerly p r ferred to this Court Con- 
cerneing a military Cumpany, we humbly 
Conceiveing o r selves to be a competent 
member for a trayne-bande. according to 
law, we agayne begg freedom from trayne- 
ings at the towne and humbly Crave liberty 
to be a Company of o r selves. 

These things we leave to yo r wise Con- 
sideration hopeingthat yo r bo wells will move 
toward us, in grantering yo r poore peti- 
tioners requests: which we propofe we in- 
tend for Gods glory, & wee aiVure yee 
the granting o r desires. will be to the 
great welfare of the Soules & bodves of 



PILGRIMS AND PLANTERS 



181 



yo r humble petitioners and of their seed 
after them; 

The Lord and the mighty Conceller di- 
rect yee by setting p r sident among yee 
enableing yee to steer the shipp of this 
commonwealth aright; so as may be to the 
p r servation of gospell peace and order 
amongst us, and the perpetuating of his 
names glory." 

When that part of old Salem east of the 
river on the Cape Ann side was set off as a 
separate township in 1668, Roger Conant 
earnestly desired to have it named Bud- 
leigh after his old home in England. So 
great was this wish that he presented a 
petition and the names of many prominent 
citizens of that locality were appended to it. 

We find many references to Mr. Conant 
in the Beverly town records. 11 d. 9 mo. 
1667, he was one of a committee appointed 
to procure wood for the year. He was 
chosen selectman in 1669 and 1671. In 
1671 he was appointed to fix bounds be- 
tween Beverly and Salem. In the same year 
he did work on the highway and 8 d. 5 mo. 
1672, he was appointed to attend a town 
meeting of Salem to act in behalf of 
"ly mitts of our Towne." 

"In ans r to the petition of Roger Conant 
a very auntient planter, the court judgeth 
mete to grant the petitioner two hundred 
acres of land where it is to be found free 
from any former grant." This w T as laid 
out to him "on the eastern side of Merri- 
mack River . . . adjoining to the Webbs 
five hundred acres." The exact bounds 
are given on the Records of this colony,' 
under date of May 28. 1679. It was laid 
out 22 of 3 mo. 1674. He also owned land 
bordering on Collins Cove. This land was 
northwest of the present Fort Ave. and 
north of the railroad. It was owned later 
by Thomas Tuck who sold it to Francis 
Collins, 28-10-59. Francis Collins sold it 
to John Mason in 1660. 

This is the only record of land owned by 
him in Salem that has been identified up to 
the present time. 

Various items of interest are found in 
the ancient land records. Roger Conant 
as one of the executors of the estate of 
Thomas Scruggss old to Edmond Patch of 
Salem land of said Scruggs 2-10 mo. 1656. 

(E. R. D. 1-33.) 

Roger Conant, yeoman, gave to son Lot 
Conant his dwelling-house, land adjoining. 
an orchard, etc., on Bass river to extent of 
20 acres, bounded by bridge and highway, 



brook to the south, land of Edw. Bishop on 
north, Henry Herrick on the brook side to 
the east, together with some land of Roger 
on north end to the east and the highway 
to the west; also 12 acres, to the north 
end on the eastern side of the brook and 
further bounded by the land of Henry 
Herrick Sr. to the south and north with 
land of Benjamin Balch, etc. 

(E. R. D. 3-28) Nov. 20, 1666. 

Lot Conant transferred back to his 

father same homestead and 3 acres they 

*to pay during their life 1 Indian corn 

the 1st dav of January yearly "yf the same 

be lawfully demaynded." 

(same time) Nov 20, 1666. 

26-11 m. 1658. he witnessed the 

signature of Osmond Trask to Samuel 
Corning both of Salem. 

E. R. D. 3-78. 

June 7. 1664. 

Roger Conant, William Dodge, John 
Rayment, Benj. Balch. Peter Woodbury, 
all of Bass river and Salem, each gave an 
acre of land to Isaac Hall, also of Bass 
river, lying at south east corner of Great 
Pond on condition that he leave his "hab- 
bittation at Bass river & go elcewhere." 

"He and his heyres and assigns shall not 
sell or dispose of y e aforsaid five ackers, 
to any stranger or person butt y 1 y e afore 
named proprietters shall have theire liberty 
to redeem it if they please upon suchtearmes 
as shal be judged by indifferent men, 
chosen on both sides."' (E. R. D. 3-78.) 

Feb. 4, 1673. Roger Conant sold to John 
Conant of Beverly, house carpenter, a lot of 
land containing 20 acres near : 'grate pond " 
bounded by pond n-westerly ; by high way or 
county road on south so round to north east 
as land lies; northe -ly with land of said 
Roger Conant and westerlv bv land of 
Benjamin Balch. (E. R. D. 4-49) 

"Exercise Conant ag. 72 years swore that 
his Father M r Roger Conant late of Beverly 
. . . about 32 years past was Seized in his 
own right of fee, Dwelt upon and Improved 
a certain Farm and Tract of land lying 
Situate in Beverly aforesaid, therfor part 
of Town of Salem next adjoining and abut- 
ting on the farm and lands of Henry Her- 
rick the same now also deceased by all 
time past So Far as in the Memory of this 
Deponant and further and beyond as he 
has been Informed and died seized thereof 
in his own demenie of Fee which ffarm and 
lands were possessed and enjoyed after his 
said Father's death by his Eldest Son then 



182 



THE MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 



living named Lot Conant during his life, 
and is now pofsest by his son Lott Co- 
nant the Deponant lived many years with 
his said father upon said farm and the 
dividing line between Mr. Conant \s and 
Mr. Herrick's farms so always accounted 
and reputed was a certain brook sometimes 
denominated the brook which comes out 
of the new Close." 

March 28, 1710. . E. R. D. 21-180. 
Roger Conant married Sarah Horton in 
1618. She evidently died between 1660 
and 1679. He died' Nov. 19, 1679 aged 
about 88 years. His will is preserved and 
is a document of great interest. The in- 
ventory is as follows: 

Inventory of Estate of Roger Conant 
appraised by John Raymond 

William Raymond. 
24-9 m. 1679. 

200 acres of land at Dun- 
stable 60£s 
more land sold to Elizabeth Conant 

and not pd for 40£s 

more land, 10 acres more lOacres- 

20^ acres 40£s 

23 acres s 59£s 

2 acres of meadow 10£s 

swampy land 20s 

two acres of land 5£s 

more land l£s 

2 cows and 1 horse 10£s 

cattle lo£s 

4 sheep l£s 

a bed and furniture 5£s 

wearing clothes and linen 9£s 

1 chest, trunk and box 20ds. 

other things 20ds. 



total 



258£s 10ds 



Contemporaries and historians unite in 
saying that Roger Conant was the man of 
the hour. Rev. Wm. Hubbard, calls him a 
religious, sober and prudent gentleman. 
He possessed great firmness of character 
but was mild and conciliators'. From 
him have sprung many who have lived 
noble, earnest, and useful lives and him 
they delight to honor. The announcement 
that much progress is being made to- 
ward erecting a monument to his mem- 
ory in Salem will be hailed with delight by 
his numerous descendants and admirers. 
We hope that the work may speedily pro- 
gress so that ere long the boys and girls of 
Salem may find in his noble bearing and 
expression of lofty purpose, an inspiration 
to do and dare. 



Societies 



MAYFLOWER SOCIETY. 

Membership, Confined to Descendants of the Maj- 
flouer Passengers. 
Governor — Asa P. French. 
Deputy Governor — John Mason Little. 
Captain — Edwin S. Crand-jn. 
Eldf.r — Rev. George Hodges, D. D. 
Secretary — George Ernest Bowman. 
Treasurer— Arthur I. Nash. 
Historian — Stanley W. Smith. 
Surgeon — William H. Prescott, M. D. 
Assistants — Edward H. Whore. 

Mrs. Leslie C. Wead. 

Henry D. Forties. 

Mrs. Annie Quincy Emery. 

Lorenzo D. Baker, Jr. 

Miss Mary E. Wood. 

Miss Mary F. Edson. 



THE OLD PLANTERS SOCIETY, 

Incorporated. 

Membership Confined to Descendants of Settlers 

in New England prior to the. Transfer of the 

Chaiter to New England in 1630. 

President — Col. Thomas Wentworth Higginson, 

Cambridge 
Vice Pees. — Frank A. Gardner, M. D., Salem. 
Secretary — Lucie M. Gardner, Salem. 
Treasurer — Frank V. Wright, Salem. 
Registrar — Mrs. Lora A. W. Enderhill, 

Brighton. 
Councillors — Wm. Prescott Greenlaw, Boston. 
R. AY. Spraoue, M. D., Boston. 
Hon. A. P. Gardner, Hamilton. 
Nathaniel Conant, Brookline. 
Francis H. Lee, Salem. 
Col. J. Granville Leach, Phila.- 
Francis N. Balch, Jamaica Plain. 
Joseph A. Torrey, Manchester. 
Edward O. Skelton. Roxeury. 

A meeting of the society will be held in 
Marblehead on Monday, September 14th. 
The members and friends willjmeet at 2P.M. 
at the rooms of the Marblehead Historical 
Society, where an address upon "The Begin- 
nings of Marblehead" will be delivered by 
Mr. Xathan P. Sanborn, President of the 
local society. 

Abundant opportunity will be given all 
present to examine the interesting collec- 
tion of the society. A pilgrimage will then 
be made to the historic sites and buildings 
about the town. Among the places visited 
will be the Lee Mansion. Abbot Hall. 
Hooper Mansion, Gerry house. General 
John Glover house and old Town Hall. 

The ferry will then be taken across the 
harbor to the Xeck, where a basket lunch 
will be eaten at Castle Rock, A .cordial 
invitation to attend is extended to all who 
may be interested. 



PILGRIMS AND PLANTERS 



183 



ffamilp Bsscciattons 



BALCH FAMILY ASSOCIATION. 

Descendants of John Balch, Wessaausset 1623; 
Cape Ann, 1624; Salem, 1626; Beverly, 1638. 
President — Galcsfa B. Balch, M. D., 

Yonkers, N. Y. 
Vice Pres. — George W. Balch. Detroit. 

Joseph B. Balch, Dedham. 

Francis N. Balch, Jamaica Plain. 

Gardner P. Balch. We>t Roxbcry. 

Harry H. CoFFrx, Bkookline. 

Max. H. H. Clay, Galesburo, 111. 

John Balch, Milton. 

William H, Balch, Stoneham. 

Alfred C. Balch, Phila. 

E. T. Stone, Somkrville. 
Secretary — William Lincoln Balch, Boston. 

Among the delegates to the recent national 
convention of the Federation of Woman's 
Clubs at Boston were Mrs. Huntley Russell, 
wife of Senator Russell of Grand Rapids. 
Mich., and Mrs. A. J. Mills, of Kalamazoo, 
both members of the "Samuel" branch 
of the Balch Family Association. 

The Balch Family Association has sus- 
tained a notable loss in the demise of its 
first Vice-President, the Hon. George W. 
Balch, of Detroit, Mich., on March 2. 190S, 
at the age of 76. Mr. Balch was a repre- 
sentative of the younger, or "Freeborn" 
branch of the family. He was the first, 
and for a time the only, practical teleg- 
rapher in East Tennessee. From the 
Western Union Telegraph Company, of 
which he was one of the orncers, he re- 
turned to Detroit to engage in commercial 
pursuits, being occupied in railroad con- 
struction, and afterwards in the grain busi- 
ness, both in Detroit and Xew York for 
many years. He held many important 
business and civil offices, and was one of the 
incorporators, officers and patrons of the 
Detroit Museum of Art". 



THE GARDNER FAMILY ASSOCIATION. 

Descendants of Thomas Gardner, Cape Ann, 1624; 
Salem, 1626. 

President — Frank A. Gardner, M. D., Salem. 
V. Pres. — Hon. Augustcs P. Gardner, Hamilton 
Sec'y & Treas. — Lucie M. Gardner, Salem. 

Councillors — Rev. Chas. H. Pope, Cambridge. 

Hon. Geo. R. Gardner, Calais, Me. 
Robert YV. Gardner, N. Y. City. 
George Peabody Gardner, Boston 
Arthur H. Gardner, Nantucket. 
Joseph A. Torrey, Manchester. 

The second reunion of the Gardner 
Family Association was held in Salem, 
June 24th. In the forenoon the pilgrim- 



age to leading historical buildings and 
about the city, which had been carefully 
arranged, was abandoned on account of 
the rain in the early morning, which made 
*the company late in assembling. Toward 
noon electric cars were taken for the Salem 
Willows where lunch was enjoyed. At 
two o'clock the meeting was called to order 
by the president and the annual business 
of the association transacted. The report 
of the secretary and treasurer was read and 
accepted. The orncers for the ensuing 
year will be the same as given at the head 
of this article. 

Following the business meeting, an ad- 
dress was given by Frank A. Gardner. 
M_. D., President of the Association, on 
"Salem Merchants by the Name of Gard- 
ner." The paper was interesting and 
contained much valuable information con- 
cerning the members of the family who 
had been identified with Salem's early mer- 
cantile interests. After adjournment a 
motor boat excursion was enjoyed along 
the Xorth Shore and among the islands of 
Salem harbor. 

Owing to the uncertainty of the weather 
the attendance was not large but the 
various branches of the family were well 
represented and the enthusiasm manifested 
augured well for next year's meeting. 



The next in the series of biographical 
sketches of the old planters will be that of 
Thomas Gardner, Overseer at Cape Ann 
162-4-5 and inhabitant of Salem from 1626 
until his death in 1674. 



ROGER CONANT FAMILY ASSOCIATION. 

Descendants of Ror.er Conant. Plymouth, 1622; 
Xantasket, 1624—5: ("ape Ann. 1625; 
Salem, 1626; Beverly, 1636. 

President — Samuel Morris Conant. Pawtccket. 
Sec'y & Treas. — Charles Milton Conant, Boston. 
Chaplin — Rev. C. A. Conant, \V. Albany, N. ST. 
Executive Committee 

Hamilton S. Conant, Boston. Chairman. 

yV. E. Conant, Littleton. 

Nathaniel Conant, Brooki.ine. 

Dr. Wm. M. Conant, Boston. 

Cfiari.es A. Conant, New York.. 

Edward D. Conant, Newton. 

Frederick Odell Conant, Portland. Mf. 

Francis OaER Conant, Brookhaven, Miss. 

Henry E. Conant. Concord. N. II. 

Clarissa Conant. Dan vers. 

John A. Conant. Wilumantic. Conn. 

Charlotte H. Conant, N atick. 

Chas. Bancroft Conant, Newark. N. J. 



SOME xMASSACHUSETTS 
HISTORICAL WRITERS 

[Under this heading in each issue .we shall give concise biographical sketches of town historians, family 
genealogists, and writers on other historical subjects pertaining to Massachusetts.] 



CARPENTER, ROBERT WINTHROP, 

lawyer, born South Walpole, Mass., June 4, 
1853; son of James Edson and Rowena 
Augusta (Boyden) Carpenter: educated in 
Foxboro common and high schools. Mar- 
ried June 10, 1877, Etta M. Chandler, and 
has one son Frank C. Carpenter, aged 30. 
Republican in politics. Unitarian in reli- 
gion. 







%4 



Robert W. Carpenter. 



Editor of the Foxboro Journal, Foxboro 
Times, Foxboro Gazette, and general con- 
tributor to local and county papers for 
part of 35 years. Director, clerk or treas- 
urer of many manufacturing corporations. 
Trustee of Foxboro Savings Bank. Secre- 
tary or chairman of Republican Town 
committee over 25 years. 



Historical works: "Foxborough's Cen- 
tennial Record," 1878; and "Brief History 
of Foxborough" 1800; has made collection 
of many articles on Foxboro local history; 
taken much interest in the welfare of the 
Foxborough Historical Society, of which 
he is a Vice President. 

Address: Foxboro, Mass. 



WILSON, DANIEL MUNRO, clergyman, 
born Paisley, Scotland, 1848; son of Alex- 
ander W. Wilson; came to America with 
his father when two years old; was edu- 
cated in Boston public schools; graduated 
from Harvard Divinity School in 1873. 
Married Ella Calista Handy (author of 
"Pedagogues and Parents" and other 
books). Unitarian in religion. 

Was reporter on Boston newspapers 
when a young man, starting in with Sec- 
tary of State William L. Olin and Colonel 
Charles H. Taylor, of the Boston Globe. 
First settlement as minister was in Melrose. 
For many years pastor of the old First 
Church in Quincy. 

Historical works: On the occasion of the 
250th anniversary of the First Church in 
Quincy he wrote a memorial volume en- 
titled "The Chappel of Ease and Church 
of Statesmen" (159 pages) ; later wrote 
"Where Independence Began" (358 pages) ; 
and an illustrated sketch of "Quincy, old 
Braintree and Merry Mount;" an address 
on John Quincy, prepared in collaboration 
with Charles Francis Adams, and delivered 
on Feb. 23, 1908, will shortly come from 
the "press in book form. 

Address: Northfield, Mass. 



MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL WRITERS 



185 



LOUD, JOHN JACOB, lawyer and gen- 
ealogist, born Weymouth, Mass., Novem- 
ber 2, 1844; son of John White and Sarah 
H. (Blanchard) Loud; graduated from 
Harvard in 1866 with the degree A.B., and 
received the degree A.M. in 1869. Mar- 
ried Nov. 7, 1872, Emily Keith Vickery, at 
Braintree, Mass., and has had eight chil- 
dren, six living, John Hermann, Oliver 
Blanchard, Ralph White, Martha Alice, 
Helen Frances, Roger Perkins. Republican 
in politics. Congregational Trinitarian in 
religion. 

Studied law with Jewell, Gaston & Field, 
Boston, and admitted to the bar in 1871; 
Cashier of the Union National Bank of 
Weymouth from 1874 to 1895; Vice Presi- 
dent of Weymouth Savings Bank, 1887 to 
1895 ; Parish Treasurer and Choir master of 
Union Church, Weymouth and Braintree 
for twenty years. 

Historical work: Vice president of the 
Weymouth Historical Society at its incep- 
tion and President for the past 23 years; 
member of New England Historic Genealo- 
gical Society since 1867; life member since 
1874; honorary member Maine Genealogi- 
cal Society since 1889; corresponding mem- 
ber N. H. Genealogical Society, 1905; 
corresponding member Maine Genealogical 
and Biographical Society since 1876; has 
done a great deal of miscellaneous genealo- 
gical research by way of assistance to others : 
much interested in the "old home week" 



idea, and was chairman of Executive Com- 
mittee of the Weymouth Home Week in 
1903 and 1906. 

Author of patriotic hymns and melodies, 






1 . 



n 



/ 



V 



/ 






_„ . 



John J. Loud. 



occasional miscellaneous articles and poems 
for the press; wrote the New Hampshire 
Home song for the N. H. Daughters of 
Boston. 

Address: 87 Commercial street, Wey- 
mouth, Mass. 



[Continued from Vol. 1, No. 2.] 



MASSACHUSETTS PIONEERS. 
MICHIGAN SERIES. 



By C. A. Flagg 



Besides the abbreviations of book titles, (explained on pages 76, 77, 78 and 79 of April issue) the following 
are used: b. for born; d. for died; m. for married; set. for settled in. 



Babbitt, Ezra, b. Franklin Co:; set.. N. Y, 
O., Ind., 111., Mich.; d. 1880. Branch 
Port., 342. 

Levi, b. 1305; set. X. Y., 1830? Jack- 
son Port., 620. 

Uri, set. Vt., 1800? Washtenaw Port., 

299. 

Babcock, James L., b. Goshen, 1840 or 45; 
set. 111., Mich., I860 or '71, Washtenaw 
Hist., 961; Washtenaw Past, 340; Wash- 
tenaw Port., 628. 

Susan, m. 1825? Asa Crandall of X.Y. 

Newaygo, 393. 

William, b. Pittsfield, 1783; set. X.Y., 

Mich., 1836. Grand River, appendix 4. 

Bachelor, Catherine, b. 1776: m. Stephen 
Bathrick of X. Y. Berrien Hist.. 388. 

Consider, b. Ashfield; set. X. Y., 

' 1825? Oakland Port., 220. 

Hannah, m. 1830? Thomas Hosner 

of X. Y. and Mich. Oakland Port., 220. 

Backus, Anson, Sr., b. Lee, 1782; set. X.Y. 
1805? Lenawee Port., 1213. 

Bacox. Asaph, b. Xorthampton; set. N.Y., 

. Wis., Mich., 1845. Hillsdale Port., bob. 

Catherine, of Bedford; m. 1833 John 

M. Fitch of Mich. Clinton Port., 263. 

Joel W., b. Pittsfield'; set. X. Y., 1815? 

St. Clair, 720. 
Xancy, b. 1780; m. 1st, Mathew- 

son; m. 2d, 1817 Daniel S. Judd of Mich. 

Oakland Hist., 305. 



Bacon, Xancy, m. 1830? Bradley Adams of 
Vt., X. Y. and Mich. Gratiot, 355. 

Susan, m. 1805? Jotham Dyer of 

Vt., X. Y. and Mich. Jackson Hist., 621. 

Badger, Stephen, b. 1760? set. X. H., 1800? 
Clinton Port., 788. 

Bagg, Abner, of Lanesboro; set. X. Y., 
1810? Wayne Chron., 357. 

Joseph, b. Lanesboro. 1797; set. X.Y., 

1810? O., 1836, Mich.. 1838. Wayne 
Chron., 357. 

Bagley, Amasa. of Xorfolk Co.; set. Mich., 
1819. Oakland Hist., 319. 

Bailey, Dana. b. 1790 5 set. Vt., 1800. 

Kalamazoo Port., 200. 
Joseph. Revolutionary soldier; set. 

X. Y. Hillsdale Port., 299. 
Joseph S., b. Chesterfield, 1797; set. 

X. Y., Mich. Kent, 1294. 
Mehitable, m. 1800? Ralph Bailev of 

X.Y. Hillsdale Port., 299. 

Polly, of Bridgewater: m. 1820? 

Daniel Camp of X. Y. and Mich. Lena- 
wee Port., 1194. 

Ralph, b. Bridgewater. 1782: set. 

X. Y., 1822, Mich., 1830. Hillsdale 
Hist., 314, 326; Hillsdale Port.. 299. 

Baird, John A., b. 1827; set. O.. 1841, 
Mich., 1856. Kalamazoo Port.. 702. 

Robert H., b. 1794; set. O. Kala- 
mazoo Port., 702. 



FIVE ADDITIONAL WORKS INDEXED. 



Beaw Creek. The Bean Creek Valley. 
By J. J. Hogaboam. 1876. (L. C.) 

Homer. Homer and its pioneers. By W. 
A. Lane. 1883. (L. C.) 

Lenawee Hist. 

A copy of v. 2 has been located in the posses- 
sion of J. I. Knapp, of Adrian # Mich. 



Cass Rogers. Historv of Cass County from 
1825 to 1875'. By H. S. Rogers. 
Cassopolis, Mich., 1875. 406 p. 
(Univ. M.) 

Washtenaw Port. Portrait and biographi- 
cal album of Washtenaw Count}*, 
Chicago, Biographical publishing co., 
1891. 639 p. (Univ. M.) 



MICHIGAN PIONEERS 



187 



Baker, Abel, of Barnstable; set. N. Y., 
1800? Northern P., 191. 

Appolos, set. X. Y.; d. 1S23. Len- 
awee Port., 594. 

David, b. Adams, 1779; 



set. X. Y., 
1800? Lenawee Hist. II, 168. 

— David W., b. 1799; set. X. Y., 1820? 
Mich., 1833. Lenawee Illus.. 148. 

— Harvey X., b. 1803; set. Mich., 1836. 
Kalamazoo Port., 496. 

— Jesse, set. Mich., 1847. Monroe, 
appendix 49. 

John b. Adams, 11 



set. X. Y., 
1800, Mich., 1832. Lenawee Hist. I, 152; 
Lenawee Illus., 142. 

— John, b. Westhampton, 1814; set. 
Mich., 1839. St. Clair. 122. 

— Joseph M., b. Adams, 1780; set. Vt., 
1790? X. Y., 1800, Mich., 1S33. Len- 
awee Hist. I, 425, 465; Lenawee Hist. 
II, 267; Lenawee Ilius., 256; Lenawee 
Port., 303, 957. 

— Moses, b. Dartmouth, 1776; lived in 
Adams; set. X. Y., 1800? Mich., 1832. 
Lenawee Hist. I, 152, 165; Lenawee 
Illus., 142, 148. 

Samantha, m. 1835? Henry Turner 



of Mich. Midland, 294. 
Sarah, m. 1800? Eddy of Mass. 

and X. Y. Lenawee Port., 659. 
William, b. Berkshire Co., 1784; set. 

N-Y. Lenawee Port., 931. 

Balcom, Henry, b. 1742; set. Vt., 1775? 
X. Y., 1785? Detroit, 1186. 

Mercy J., m. 1840? Z. S. W. Richard- 
son of Canada and O. Xorthern P., 441. 

Baldwin, Charles M., b. Windsor, 1806; 

set. Mich., 1833. Lenawee Illus., 342. 
Esther E., b. Windsor, 1807; m. 1834 

Noah K. Green of Mass. and Mich. 

Lenawee Hist. I, 268; Lenawee Illus., 

412. 
George W., set. Wis., 1852; d. 1854. 

Berrien Port., 842. 
John, b. Palmer, 1770; set. R. I. 

Wayne Chron., 339. 

Mercy, m. 1860 Charles W. Stocum 

of Mich. Lenawee Port., 602. 
Millicent C, b. Windsor, 1804; m. 

1830 Simon D. Wilson of Conn, and Mich. 

Lenawee Hist. I, 339; Lenawee Port., 

568. 



Baldwin, O. A. E. 

set. Mich. Berrien Port., 812. 
Samuel C, b. Windsor, 1829; set. 

Mich, 1835. Lenawee Illus., 133. 

Ball, Charles, W. b. Goshen, 1819; set. 
Mich., 1867. Osceola, 242. 

George F., b. 1S19; set. Mich., L834? 

Clinton Port., 545. 
Lydia, m. 1805? Josiah Newton of 

Vt. Oakland Port., 935. 
Xathan, b. 1765 3 set. Vt., X. Y.; d. 

1826. Lenawee Port., 986. 

Sawyer, set. Mich., 1860. Berrien 

Port., 759. 
William H., b. Huntington, 1S58; 

set. Mich., I860. Berrien Port., 758. 

Ballard, Asa X., set. Mich., 1828; d. 1844. 

Washtenaw Port., 266. 
Daniel, soldier of 1812; set. X. Y. 

Berrien Port., 356. 
James, b. Charlemont, 1805; set. Vt., 

Mich., 1838. Grand Rapids Hist.. 186; 

Grand Rapids Lowell, 113; Kent, 206, 

261. 
Nancy, b. Roxbury, 1788; m. James 

Day of Conn. Lenawee Hist. I, 269. 

Ballou, set. X. Y., O., Mich.; d. 1860. 

Kalamazoo Port., 478. 
Bancroft, Joseph, b. Salem. 1781; set. 

X. Y., 1815? Mich., 1824. Oakland 

Biog., 112. 
Julia A., b. 1824; m. 1843' George F. 

Ball of Mich. Clinton Port., 545. 

Xelev, b. Auburn. 1799. set. X. Y., 

1827, Mich., 1835. Lenawee Hist. II, 
260; Lenawee Port., 738. 

Sallv A., m. 1815? Solomon Davis of 



X. Y. Hillsdale Port., 959. 

Bangs, Joshua, b. Hingham, 1764: set. 

X. Y. Berrien Hist., 392. 
Xathaniel. b. 17S9; set. Vt., X. Y. 

Berrien Hist., 392. 
Banks, Dr. F. A., b. 1S54; set. Mich.. 1877. 

Upper P., 242. 
Bannister, Clarissa, m. 1825? John Cran- 

son of X. Y. and Mich. Clinton Port.. 

987. 
Barber, John, b. Worcester Co.. 1775: set. 

X. Y., 1791. Lenawee Hist. II. 191. 
Barden, Sallv, m. 1810? John A. Johnson 

of N. Y. Midland, 243. 



188 



THE MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 



Bardwell, Jonathan, set. N. Y., 1815. 

Washtenaw Hist., 625. 
Barker, George W., b. Deerfield, 1S15; 

set. N. Y., 1835? Osceola. 214. 
Lucius B., b. 1801; set. X. Y., Mich., 

1836. Kalamazoo Port., 456/ 
Margaret, m. 1810? Israel Allen of 

Conn., Pa. and Mich. Lenawee Port., 

222. 

Mason, set. N. Y., 1815? Detroit, 

1044. 

Paul, set. N. Y., 1790? Clinton Port., 

752. 

Russel, set. N. Y., 1810? Kalama- 



zoo Port., 456. 
Barlow, Obed, set. N. Y., 1820? Ionia 
i Port., 544. 
Barnaby, Abigail B. M., b. 1812; m. 1836 

Thorndike P. Saunders of X. Y. and 

Mich. Washtenaw Past, 79. 
Barnard, Uriah, b. Xantucket, 1761; 

set, O. Berrien Port., 217. 
Barnes, Brigham, b. Hardwick, 1835; 

set. Mich., 1868. Ionia Port., 603. 
Charlotte, m. 1820' Jonathan H. 

Crosbv of X. Y. and Mich. Jackson 

Hist., '969. 
John B., b. Lowell; graduate of Am- 
herst college; set. Mich., 1842. Shia- 
wassee, 135. 
Lucy, b. 1797; m. William S. Austen, 

of N. Y. Branch Port., 542. 
Mary, b. W. Stockbridge; m. 1810? 

Silas Run van of X". Y. and O. Gratiot, 

381. 
N. H., b. Grafton, 1816; set. Mich. 

Jackson Hist., 788. 
Barney, Aaron, b. 1785; set. X. Y., Mich. 

Berrien Hist., opposite 467. 
Milton, b. Xew Marlborough, 1796; 

set. X. Y., Mich., 1832. Homer, 44. 
Barr, Lewis, b. 1792; set. Mich. Wash- 
tenaw Hist., 592. 
Barrett, Alexander, set. Mich., 1832. 

Ionia Port., 461. 
Benjamin, b. 1784; set. Vt. Lenawee 

Hist. I, 175. 

Emma, b. Barrington, 1808; m. 1st, 

1828 Granville Jones of Mass.; m. 2d, 

1845 Sam Hungerford of Mich. Detroit, 

1437. 
Erastus B., b. Hampden Co., 1836; 

set. Mich., 1865. Sanilac, 404. 



X. Y., 1810' Ber- 



183i 



set. 



Chelsea, 
149. 

1865? Xorth- 



Barrett, Sevmour, b. Williamstown, 1815; 

set. Vt.. 1818, Mich., 1832. Lenawee 

Hist. I, 175; Lenawee Port., 584. 
Barrows, David, set. X. Y., 1820? Wis. 

Macomb Hist., 690. 
Bartholomew, Almeda, m. 1805? Eben- 

ezer Rannev of X. Y. Kalamazoo Port., 

609. 
Bartlett, Azel E., b. Hinsdale, 1827; set. 

Mich. Kalamazoo Port., 829. 
Delphia C, m. 1846 John L. Andrews 

of Mich. Oakland Port., 888. 
Frances J., m. 1836 Hiram Graham of 

N. Y. and Mich. Hillsdale Port., 521. 
Martha, m. 1825? John Brodish of 

N.Y. Kent, 568. 
Priscilla, m. 1795? Asa Parks of Mass. 

and X. Y. Washtenaw Hist., 1309. 
W. W., b. 1834; set. X. Y., 1836, Pa.. 

1842, Mich., 1864. Traverse, 92. 
William L., set. 

rien Hist., 531. 
Bartley, George, b. 

X. Y. Xorthern P.. 
George B., set. Mich., 

ern P., 67. 
Barton, Hannah, m. 1825? Philetus Sweat- 
land of O. Gratiot, 423. 
Lucretia, of Charlton; b. 1800; m. 

1825? Harvev Dodge of Mass. and Mich. 

Clinton Past, 365. 
Bass, Polly, b. Pittsneld 1795; m. 1815 

Consider H. Stacy of X. Y. Lenawee 

Hist. I, 517; Lenawee Port., 630. 
Seth, of Pittsfield; set. X. Y., 1801. 

Lenawee Hist. I, 517. 
W. S., b. 1835; set. Mich., 1854. 

Kent, 1330. 
Bassett, Artemas, b. Uxbridge. 1782; set. 

X. H., Vt., 1823. Lenawee Hist. I, 156; 

Lenawee Port., 1147. 
John, b. Martha's Vinevard, 1793; 

set. X. Y., Mich., 1835. Branch Port., 

191; Branch Twent., 241. 
Xathan. b. 1770? set. Conn? Wash- 
tenaw Port., 197. 
Thankful, of Lee; m. 1810?' Timothy 

X. West of Mass. and Mich. Kalama- 
zoo Port., 557. 

William, of Uxbridge; set. X. H., 

1790? Lenawee Port., 1147. 
William, b. Marthas Vinevard, 1S10; 

set. O. Osceola, 289. 



MICHIGAN PIONEERS 



189 



Bates, Abner C, set. O., 1840? Kalama- 
zoo Port., 978. 

Caleb, b. 1791: set. O., Mich., 1835. 

Hillsdale Port., 875. 

Daniel D.. b. Springfield; set. Ga., 

X. Y., 1808, Mich., 18G5. Ingham Port., 
381. 

Fidelia, of Cummington; m. 1835 

Charles Ford of Mass. and O. Lena- 
wee Port., 1137. 



Martha J., b. Hampshire Co.; m. 1849 

Bradley Gilbert of O. and Mich. Kala- 
mazoo Port., 538. 

Stephen, b. Granville, 1773; set. X.Y., 

1790, Wis., 1844. Ionia Port., 357; 
Monroe, 158. 

Batherick, Susannah, m. 1800? Consider 
Bachelor of Mass. and X. Y. Oakland 
Port., 220. 

Bathrick, Esther, m. 1800? Samuel Bishop 
of X. Y. Jackson Hist., 884. 

Stephen, b. 1778; set. X. Y. Berrien 

Hist., 388. 

Bayard, Lvman, b. Washington, 1794; 
set. X. Y. Ionia Hist., 168. 

Beal, Amzi, b. 1801; set. X. Y 

1845? Lenawee Illus., 249. 
Elizabeth, of Conway; 

James Sloan of Mass. and Vt 

Hist. II, 241. 
Joseph, b. Cummington, 1778; set. 

X. Y., 1795, Mich., 1830. Lenawee 



1820? O., 

m. 1801 
Lenawee 



Hist., II, 174 

— Joseph, b. 1782; set. X. Y. 



1810, 
347; Ionia 



Mich., 1831. Ionia Hist 

Port., 457. 
Beals, Caleb, set. X. Y., 1816, Mich., 1835. 

Lenawee Port., 214. 
David S., b. X. Adams, 1824; set. 

Mich., 1830? Wavne Land, appendix, 

111. 
Kelly S., b. 1812; set. X. Y., 1816, 

Mich., 1835. Lenawee Port., 214. 
Mary, m. 1830' Ichabod Mason of 

Mass. Macomb Hist., 857. 
Thomas, b. Boston, 1783; set. N.Y., 

1800. Hillsdale Port., 717. 

Beaman, Joshua, b. Lancaster. 1769; set. 
Vt., 1787, X. Y., 1819. Berrien Port.. 
603; Lenawee Hist. 1,313; Lenawee Illus., 
73; Lenawee Port., 202. 

Beckers, Simeon, set. X. Y., 1810? Wash- 
tenaw Hist., 812. 



Beckwith, Justin W., b. Charlemont, 
1823; set. Mich., 1862. Clinton Port , 
820. 

Seth. set. X. Y., 1810' Kent, 1373. 

Beden, William, Revolutionarv soldier; 
set. Vt., 1789. Genesee Hist., 369. 

Beebe, Dennis, of Berkshire Co.; set. Mich., 
1869. Detroit, 1446. 

Horace, set. X. Y., 1820' Mich., 1834. 

Macomb Hist., 572. 

John, set. X. Y., 1810' Kalamazoo 



Port., 525. 

— Walter E., b. Berkshire Co., 1858; 

set. Mich., 1869. Detroit, 1446. 

Wilson M., b. Berkshire Co., 1861; 



set. Mich., 1869. Detroit, 1446. 

Belden, Sarah, b. Hatfield, 1682; m. Ben- 
jamin Burt of Conn. Lenawee Port., 
facing 186. 

BELDrxo., Asher. m. 1820' John Shaw of 
Mich. Ionia Port., 797. 

Belknap, Joseph J., b. Stafford, 1790; set. 

X. Y., 1810, Mich.. 1830. Lenawee 

Hist. II, 473. 
Justus H., b. Monson, 1819; set. X.Y., 

Mich. Lenawee Hist. II, 474. 

Bell, Aaron, b. Berkshire Co., 1820; set. 
O. Berrien Port., 698. 

George S., b. Chester, 1812; set. O.. 

1821, Mich., 1854. Gratiot, 682. 

— —Harmony, b. 1814; m. David Con- 
verse of O. Berrien Port., 854. 

John C, b. 1783; set. O., 1821. Gra- 
tiot, 682. 

Julia A., m. 1825? Chauncey Knapp 

of Mich. Washtenaw Hist., 1085. 

Bellows. Elizabeth, m. Bowman Dennis 
of Mass. and Mich. Clinton Port.. 506. 

Bemext, Edwin, b. Westfield, 1811: set. 
O., 1820, Mich.. 1869. Ingham Hist., 
189. 

Bemis. Amariah, b. 1785; set. Conn. Oak- 
land Port., 348. 

Charles L.. b. Hampden Co.. 1850; 

set. Mich., 1863. Ionia Port.. 787. 

Marquis D.. set. Mich.. 1863. Ionia 

Port., 787. 
Mary J., b. Springfield; m. 1S5S 

George Xewberrv of Mich. Oakland 

Biog., 83. 



190 



THE MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 



Bemis, Wallace C.,b. Hampden Co., 1852; 
set. O., I860? Mich., 1863. Ionia Port. 
796. 

Benedict, Aaron, b. Salem? Revolutionary 
soldier; set. X. Y. Ionia Hist., ISO. 

; m. Elijah. Carrier of 
Hillsdale Port., 5S2. 



— Ruth, b. ISO; 
Conn, and X. Y. 

— Washburn, b. 



1824; set. Mich., 1846. 
Cass Hist., 145; Cass Twent., 355. 

Benjamin, Cynthia, b. Martha's Vineyard, 
m. John Bassett of X". Y. Branch 



1793 
Port., 19i: 

— Eli, b. 1823; set 



Cass 



Mich., 1854. 
Hist., 146; Cass Twent., 358. 

— Harvey, set. X. Y. 1830? Saginaw 
Hist., 764. 

— Sallv. m. 1815? Daniel 
X. Y. Hillsdale Port., 266. 

— Samuel, b. Watertown, 1753; 



Childs of 



set. 



Me. Grand Rapids Lowell, 436. 
Bennett, Arabella, b. Worcester Co., 1799; 

m. 1824 Robert Shankland of Mich. 

Washtenaw Hist., 626. 
Jonas, b. Worcester Co., set. X. Y. ? 

1817. Branch Port., 310. 
Benton, Eli, b. 1800; set. Mich., 1827. 

Washtenaw Hist., 494. 
Elijah, set. X. Y., 1840, Mich., 1848. 

Washtenaw Port., 396. 
Ezra E., b. Pittsfield, 1798; set. X.Y. 

Branch Port., 561. 
Berrick, Francis H., b. Middlesex, 1823; 

set. Mich., 1869. Berrien Port., 308. 

Berry, Anna, b. Salem, 1801; m. Lewis 
Buckingham of X. Y. and Mich. Gene- 
see Port., 702. 

William, of Salem; set. X. Y., 1810? 

Mich. Genesee Port., 702. 

Best, Sally, m. 1810' David Wells of Vt. 
Washtenaw Hist., 1353. 

Bibeau, Eva, m. 1879 A. Desjardins of 
Mich. Upper P., 458. 

Bickford, Dearborn, set. X. Y., 1810? 
Genesee Port., 677. 

Bicknell, C. C, b. 1831; set. Mich., 1865. 
Kent, 1255. 

Lucy A., b. Berkshire Co.; m. 1857 

Charles Oldfield of la. and Mich. Kent, 
1223. 



Bidwell, Lydia, b. 1804; m. John B. 
Peebles of X. Y., O. and Mich. Lenawee 
Port., 637. 

Bigelow, Abel, set. Mich., 1825; d. 1848. 
Ingham Port., 813. 

Betsey, b. Waltham, 1783; m. 1800 

Simeon Dewey of X. H., X. Y. and Mich. 
Lenawee Hist. I, 375, 496; Lenawee 
Port., 1102. 

Margaret, m. 1800' Alexander Phelps 

of Conn. Washtenaw Hist., 864. 

Marlin, b. 1800; set. O. Kalamazoo 

Port., 851. 

Bill, Isaac, b. 1776; set. X. Y., 1800. Sag- 
inaw Port., 811. 

Billings, Phebe, m. 1830? Sullivan Jones 
of X. Y. Xewaygo, 193. 

William J., set. Vt., 1812. Jackson 

Port., 343. 

Bills, Lydia, b. Berkshire Co., 1795' m. 
Charles Bow of X. Y. and Mich. Hills- 
dale Port., 539. 

Bingham, Origen S. b. Shelburne, 1824; 
set. Mich, 1831. ' Branch Port., 424; 
Branch Twent., 241. 

Birchard, Matthew W., b. Becket. 1788; 
set. Vt., 1789, Mich., 1839. Wayne 
Chron., 337. 

Bird, Gardner, b. 1802; set. X. Y., Mich., 

1831. Oakland Port., 613. 

Melzer, b. Windsor? 1805; set. X. Y., 

Mich., 1833. Ingham Port., 769. 
Rowland, b. 1793: set. X. Y.. Mich., 

1832. Bean Creek, 126; Hillsdale Hist., 
285. 

Bisbee, Clarissa, b. Plainfield, 1788; m. 

William Mitchell of Mass. and Mich. 

Lenawee Port., 285. 
Julia A., m. 1835' Joshua X. Robinson 

of O. Gratiot, 378. 
Bishop, Isaac, b. 1758; Revolutionary 

soldier; set. X. Y. Cass Twent.. 747. 

Levi, b. Russell, 1815; set. Mich.. 

1835. Detroit, 1112; St. Clair, 119; 
Wayne Chron., 253. 

Luther, set. X. Y., 1815? Ionia Port., 

322. 

William, of Hampden Co.? set. X. Y., 

1840? Detroit, 1284. 



(To be continued.) 



(£>riim*tot $c (Jommntt 



an ^oo^ aub ^tlier ^uhjsctf? 



Between the Lines. 
To the Massachusetts Magazine: 

To the lover of old records, many an 
item is rich in its tender suggestion. 

The simple announcement that "Ephrem 
Clap of brigwater and hannah his wife were 
married Aprell ye first 1703," hints of a de- 
cided disregard of "All Fools Day, " and an 
immense faith and trust on the part of 
Hannah who was willing to lose her own 
identity and be simply " the wife of 
Ephrem Clap.' ' 

I have heard my Grandmother tell — I 
hope you all know the charm of those 
words — of some one of her people who 
had such a family of little ones growing 
up, that it was marvellous to see how easily 
the mother seemed to care for them all. 
Then I found them in the records. There 
were John and Abigail, Thomas, Ambrose, 
Rebecca, Joseph and Benjamin — and 
John and Abigail were but eight years old 
when Joseph and Benjamin arrived. 

Can you not imagine how full of sur- 
prises that mother's life must have been ? 
But while there is much, of joy expressed in 
many of the statistics, the deaths with their 
short lines which mean so much, are pa- 
thetic indeed. One wonders why Xathan 
should lose three sons on dates so near as 
May 17, June 8, and June 10, in the same 
year? Think of the sorrowing parents! 

Again; in one family I found a record 
which no doubt is but a duplicate of many 
another in those coast towns peopled by 
sea-faring men. It read "William, ship 
wrecked at the Vineyard December 26, 
1778 and perished with cold." 

"Gilbert, lost at sea March 1782. " 



"Isaac died at sea 1795." 

"Isaac jr. died at sea 1798 aged twenty 
one years." 

"William died at sea 1809, aged twenty 
one years." 

In another family was the death of 
Daniel aged twenty years, and as an ap- 
pendix the words "at Africa." Just a boy, 
and so far from home. 

There are too many to tell them all, but 
" Rose aged negro servant of John" sug- 
gests long years of faithful service. While 
"Miss Catherine aged 82 years" and "Mi=s 
Phebe aged 68 years, ' ' tell of two at least, 
who were not afraid to be known as maiden 
ladies, and who would probably have an- 
swered unswervingly, the questions of the 
census taker of the present day. 

Even among the baptismal records one 
may wonder what could have occurred to 
cause "Captain Nathaniel, one wife, two 
children, and ten servants" all to be bap : 
tized at the same time. I have merely 
suggested the outline of what one may read 
if he will. 

Mrs. E. O. Seabury. 

Yoxkebs, X. Y. 



A Porter Pedigree. 
A Porter Pedigree. An account of the 
ancestry and descendants of Samuel and 
Martha (Perley) Porter of Chester, X. H.. 
who were descendants of John Porter, of 
Salem, Mass., and Allan Perley, of Ipswich, 
Mass. Compiled by Miss Juliet Porter, 
of Worcester, Mass.. 161 pages. Price in 
stiff paper covers, $1.25, cloth SI. 75. The 
book may be obtained of Miss Juliet Porter. 
37 Dean St., Station A, Worcester, Massa- 
chusetts. 



192 



THE MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 



This carefully prepared family record is 
arranged on an unusual plan, in that it 
takes a Porter-Perley couple in the sixth 
generation and gives their descendants to 
the present time and their ancestors as far 
as the genealogical lines have been traced. 
To the descendants of this couple, the book 
will be of great interest and value, while to 
the genealogical student it will give inter- 
esting information regarding the fifteen 
families named. The work is much more 
thorough and exhaustive than such "in- 
clusive" books usually are. The careful 
reproduction of wills, inventories and other 
original documents is to be especially com- 
mended. The honest effort of the com- 
piler to give the truth is especially notice- 
able in her reference to the wayward son of 
the staunch and able John Porter. The 
adherence to the admirable genealogical 
arrangement advocated by the Xew Eng- 
land Historic-Genealogical Society shows 
wisdom, especially when so many writers 
seem to be vieing with each other in invent- 
ing intricate "systems." • Considering the 
amount of work involved the price is reason- 
able, and the book deserves a ready sale. 

F. A. G. 



Some interesting articles in recent Magazines. 

Colonial. An early Mass. broadside "The 
present state of the Xew-English affairs" 
pub. in Boston, 16S9. Reprint. (Ameri- 
can historical magazine. May, 1908. v. 3. 
p. 293-1:95). 

— Report of the Mass. state society of 

Mayflower descendants. (Mayflower de- 
scendant, Jan., 1908. v. 10, p. 60-61.) 

Roger Williams and the Pilgrims. 

By H. M. King. (The Nation, May 7, 
1908. v. 86, p. 421-422). 

Revolution. The Mass. D. A. R. Whit- 
tiermemorial service, f American monthlv 
magazine, May, 1908. v. 32, p. 604-605). 

Report of Mass state conference 

D. A. R. at Boston. Xov. 12, 1907. By 
M. H. Brazier assistant state historian 
(American monthly magazine, Mar., 
1908. v. 32, p. 275-276). 



Barnstable County. Abstracts of Barn- 
stable County probate records. By G. E. 
Bowman. (Mavflower descendant, Jan 
1908. v. 10, p. 6-8.; 

1683-89; 4 earlier instalments appeared July 
1900-July, J902. 

Bedford. Some records of Bedford. Com- 
municated by C. W. Jenks. .Xew Eng- 
land historical and genealogical register. 
April, 19.08. v. 62, p. 157-161;. 

Records kept by Jane Pollard Hater Mrs. Thomas 
Smith) 1808-1834, and by Mary Pollard, 18U8- 
1816. 

Boston. Boston as a world port. By 
T. F. Anderson. (Xew England maga- 
zine, June. 1908. new series, v. 38, p. 
393-409). 

The fascinations of Boston. By 

Jane D. Mills. (Xew England magazine', 
Feb., 1908. new series, v. 37, p. 765- 
767). 

Government by commissions. The 

finance commission of Boston. (Outlook, 
Feb. 8, 1908. v. 88, p. 288-289). 



Historic Boston. By T. F. Anderson. 

(Xew England magazine. July, 1908. 
new series, v. 38, p. 559-576). 

The practise of replanning; sugges- 
tions from Boston. A: A. Shurtleff. 
(Charities and The Commons. Feb. 1, 
1809. v. 19, p. 1529-1532.) 

Some Boston contemporaries of Earl 

Percy. By Sara A. Shafer. (The Dial, 
Chicago, March 1, 1908. v. 44, p. 124- 
125). 

State house of Mass. By J. E. 

Jones. (Xational magazine, May, 1908, 
appendix v. 28.) 

Bradford. Blockhouse built at Brad- 
ford, 1704. (Essex Institute. Historical 
collections, July, 1908. v. 44, p. 219- 
220.) 

From Mass. Archives, v. 71. p. 174. 

Bristol County. Abstracts from the 
first book of Bristol County probate 
records. Copied by Mrs. L. H. Greenlaw 
(Xew England historical and genealogi- 
cal register, April-Julv, 1908. "v. 62, p. 
179-1S4, 231-237). 

Continuation of a series 'Ahich appeared in the 
Genealogical advertiser, Dec, 1900-Dec, 1901. 
v. 3. p. 118-123; v. 4. p. 53-61, 123-125. 

Brockton. Report of the 11th anniver- 
sary of Deborah Sampson chapter, 
D. A. R. (American monthlv magazine, 
May, 1908. v. 32, p. 602-603). 



CRITICISM AND COMMENT 



193 



Brooklixe. The most inspiring estate 
in New England. By X. C. Greene. 
(New England magazine, April, 190S. 
v. 38, p. 137-143). 

Estate of Prof. Chas. S. Sargent, Brookline. 

Charlestowx. The second Battle of 
Bunker's Hill. (Medford historical regis- 
ter, April, 1908. v. 11, p. 43-45). 

An incursion made by Mai. Knowlton, Jan. 8, 
1776. 

Chatham. Gravestone inscriptions, from 
scattered grounds. Communicated by 
J. W. Hawes. (Xew England historical 
and genealogical register, April, 1908. 
v. 62, p. 203-204). 

Chelsea. The Chelsea fire. By Joseph 
Lee. (Charities and The Commons, 
May 2, 1908. v. 20, p. 149-151). 

Daxvers. Reminiscences of J. G. Whit- 
tier's life at Oak Knoll, Danvers. By 
Mrs. A. J. Woodman. (Essex Institute. 
Historical collections, April, 1908. v. 44, 
p. 97-122.) 

Dexxis. Dennis vital records. (May- 
flower descendant, Jan., 1908. v. 10, p. 
36-38). 

Part 9, ("births. 1799-1802); the earlier instal- 
ments appeared in this periodical. Jan., 1904-Jan., 
1906. 

Essex Couxty. Essex County notarial 
records, 1697-1768. (Essex Institute. 
Historical collections, jan.-April, 1908. 
v. 44, p. '89-92, 147-152). 

Series began v. 41 (1905), p. 183. This is part 
8, covering 1715-1719. 

Ipswich court records and files. 

(Essex Antiquarian, July, 1908. v. 12, 
p. 116-121). 

Part 8, 1656-1658; began in Jan., 1904, v. 8, 
P- 1- 

Salem court records and files. (Essex 

antiquarian, April, 1908. v. 12, p. 66- 
77). 

Covers 1653-1658. Series began in June, 1899. 
(v. 3). 

Soldiers and sailors of the Revolu- 
tion from Essex Countv. (Essex antiqua- 
rian, April-July, 1908. v. 12, p.' 86-89, 
130-135). 

Names Bradburv to Brigs. From state records. 
Began Jan.. 1897. v. 1. 

, Suffolk County deeds; abstracts of 

records relating to Essex County. (Essex 
antiquarian, Julv, 1908. v. 12, p. 122- 
124). 

Began in no. for July. 1905, v. 9. p. 97. This 
instalment gives deeds from v. 5 of "Suffolk deeds." 



Greexfield. Extracts from the diary of 
Rev. Roger Newton, D.D., of Greenfield. 
(Xew England historic geneal 
register, July, 1908. v. 62, p. 203-273 

Church members, admissions and baptisms 
1761-1812. 

Halifax. Gravestone records from the 
Cemetery in Halifax on the shore of 
Monponsett Lake. iMavrlower descend- 
ant, Jan., 1908. v. 10. p. S-ll). 

Part 2, (Pope-Sylvester); bega.i in July. 5 007. 

Harwich. Records of the First pariih in 

Brewster, formerly the first parish in 

Harwich. (Mayflower descendant. April 

1908. v. 10, p. 123-124;. 

Part 11, (1750-51); began Oct.. 1902. v 4 p 
242. V ' 

Haverhill. Haverhill inscriptions before 
1800: North parish burying ground. 
(Essex antiquarian, July, 1908. v 12 
p. 108-111). 



Haverhill inscriptions before 1800: 

West parish cemetery. (Essex anti- 
quarian, April, 1908. V. 12, p. 62-65.) 

Marblehead. Vital records. 1647-1849. 
Collected by J. W. Chapman. | Essex 
Institute. Historical collections, Juiy 
1908. v. 44, p. 250-289). 

Supplementing '"Vital records of Marblehead" 
published, 1903-04. 

Marlborough. Colonial records of Marl- 
borough. Copied by Miss M. E. Spalding 
and communicated "by F. P. Rice. Xew 
England historical and genealogical reg- 
ister, Julv. 1908. v. 62, p. 220-229) ° 
Years 1656-1660. 

Marshfield. Gravestone records from 
the Winslow cemetery at Marshfield. 
By J. W. Willard. (Mavflower descend- 
ant, Jan., 1908. v. 10, p. 47-51). 

Correcting numerous errors in Miss Thomas" list, 
pub. in the Xew England historica 1 and genealogi- 
cal register, Oct., 1850. 

Mashpee. Richard Bourne, missionary 
to the Mashpee Indians. By Mary F. 
Ayer. (Xew England histo'rical 'and 
genealogical register, April. 1908. v. 62 
p. 139-143). 

Medford. Earliest Mystic River ship- 
building. By J. H. Hooper. (Medford 
historical register, Julv, 1908. v. 11 
p. 71-72). 

Y e olde meting house of Meadford. 

By M. W. Mann. (Medford historical 
register, April-July, 190S. v. 11, p. 25-42 
62-67). 



194 



THE MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 



Middlesex County. The snow shoe 
scouts. An address by G. W. Browne. 
(Granite state magazine, Jan. -Mar., 
1908. v. 5, p. 5-22). 

A company under Capt. William Tyng, raised 
1703-04 in Chelmsford, Groton, Dunstable and 
Billerica. 

New Braintree. Deaths in New Brain- 
tree. Communicated by H. D. Woods. 
(New England historical and genealogi- 
cal register, April, 1908. v. 62, p. 128- 
136). 

This article, supplementing "Vital records." 
1904, was begun in the Register for Jan. This in- 
stalment covers 1843-1872. 

Norfolk County, Old. Old Norfolk 
Countv records. (Essex antiquarian, 
April, '1908. v. 12. p. 81- 86). 

1660-1674; began in v. 1 of this periodical in 
the number for Feb., 1897. This is not the present 
Norfolk County, but a county organized in 1643 
to include the towns north of the Merrimack 
River. Most of this region was awarded to N. H., 
1680 and the remainder annexed to Essex County. 

Pembroke. Gravestone records from the 
Cemetery at Pembroke Centre. Commu- 
nicated by J. W. Willard. (Mayflower 
descendant, April, 1908. v. 10, p. 97-100.) 
Part 4, (Heley-Lapham); began in Jan., 1907. v. 
9, p. 3. 

Plymouth Colony. Plymouth Colony 
deeds. (Mayflower descendant, Jan- 
Apr., 1908. v. 10, p. 16-19, 71-73). 

1647-1656; series began in v. 1, April, 1899. 

Plymouth Colony wills and inven- 
tories. (Mayflower descendant, Jan., 
1908. v. 10, p. 21-24). 

1650; series began in v. 1, Jan., 1899. 

Plympton. Gravestone records from the 
Old Cemetery at Plympton. Communi- 
cated by J. W. Willard. (Mavflower 
descendant April, 1908. v. 10, p. 111- 
116). 

Part 4, (Cushman-Fuller); began in Jan., 1906. 
v. 8. p. 150. 
Provixcetown. Gravestone records from 
Cemetery Number one, Provincetown. 
(Mayflower descendant, Jan. -Apr., 1908. 
v. 10, p. 29-32, 67-71). 

Parts 4 and 5, (Nicholson-Young); earlier instal- 
ments in Jan. and Oct., 19C6 and Oct., 1907. 

The wind-built hills. By Henry 

Chadwick. (Education, March, 1908. 
v. 28, p. 423-427). 

Salem. The Derbys of Salem. A study 
of 18th century commerce carried on by 
a family of typical New England mer- 
chants. By R. E. Peabody. (Essex 
Institute. Historical collections, July, 
1908. v. 44, p. 193-219). 



Old Salem ships and sailors. By 

R. D. Paine, parts IV— VI. (Outing, 
April-June. 1908. v. 52, p. 37-4-3, 193- 
206, 296-305). 

Series began in January no. 

Contents: — IV. Daring merchants and their 
ventures. — V. Jonathan Haraden. privateers rr.an. 
— VI. How the town built a fighting frigate. 

Rev. John Higginson's letter on 

drunkenness in Salem. (Essex Institute. 
Historical collections, April, 1908. v. 44, 
p. 192). 

From Essex County court files, v. 16. 

Salem. By C. H. White. (Harper's 

monthly magazine, June, 1908. v. 117, 
p. 20-28). 

Salem in 1700, nos. 31 and 32. By 

Sidney Perlev. (Essex antiquarian. April 
and July, 1908. v. 12, p. 59-61, 113-115;. 

Series began Nov., 1898; each number has a plan 
showing old streets and boundary lines of estates. 



Warnings to Negroes in Salem in 

1790. (Essex Institute. Historical col- 
lections, Jan., 1908. v. 44, p. 93-96). 

From the Salem MSS. at Essex Institute. 

Scituate. Gravestone records from the 
private burial ground of the James family 
at Greenbush. By Mrs. T. W. Thacher. 
(Mayflower decsendant. Jan., 1908. v. 
10, p. 27-2S). 

Records of the First church of Scit- 
uate. Transcribed by G. E. Bowman. 
Part I. (Mayflower descendant, April, 
1908. v. 10, p. 90-96). 

Period 1707-1723 . 

Scituate vital records, transcribed 

by G. E. Bowman. (Mavflower descend- 
ant, April, 1908. v. 10. p. 74-76^. 

Part 12, (Marriages, 1712-1719); began in Jan.. 
1899. 

Truro. Truro church records. Trans- 
cribed by G. E. Bowman. ^Mavflower 
descendant. Jan., 1908. v. 10. p. 41-43-. 

Part 5, (1731-1733); besan in number for Jan., 
1907. 
Wakefield. Report of Faneuil Hall chap- 
ter, D. A. R. By Ellen T. Brown, his- 
torian. (American monthlv magazine, 
May, 1908. v. 32, p. 603-604). 

Wellfleet. Records from the Old ceme- 
tery at Chequesset Neck, Wellfleet. By 
S. W. Smith. (Mavflower descendant. 
Jan., 1908. v. 10, p. 19-20). 

Yarmouth. Yarmouth vital records. 
(Mayflower descendant, Jan., 190S. v. 
10, p. 24-25). 

Part 8, (1681-1707); began in number for Oct., 
1905. 



* Pi 7 5-17S2 



Frank A.Gar.dner/M. D.Edit 



State Brigantine "Hazard." 

The reason for the construction of this 
famous vessel by the State authorities is 
given in the following extract from, the 
records of the General Court; dated Au- 
gust 6th, 1777: 

-"Whreas it appears to this Court that 
at the lowest Computation, the Armed 
Vefsels belonging to the State have neeted 
the Sum of Fifty five Thousand pounds, it 
is therefore, 

Resolved, That it is expedient that two 
Armed Vefsels to Mount Twenty-eight or 
Thirty two Guns each, fhould be pur- 
chased or built and fixed out for the 
Service on Account of this State — and 
that the Board of War be, & hereby are 
impowered & directed to carry this Resolve 
forewith into execution. 
In Council Read & Concurred 

Consented to by fifteen of the Council." 

Under date of August 12th we read: — 
"Resolved that the Armed Vefsel build- 
ing for this State on the Plan of M r Peck 
and to be commanded by Cap 1 Samfon, 
to be called the Hazard." - 

"In the House of Representatives. 

The House made Choice unanimously by 
Ballot of Capt. Simeon Sampson to cam- 
mand the Armed Vefsell building for this 
State on the Plan of M r Peck." 

Captain Simeon Samson, of Plymouth the 
first commander of the "Hazard," first 
served in the brigantine "Independence" 
of which he was commissioned Captain, 
April 17, 1776. His service dated until 
July 5, 1777. We find his name in a list of 
prisoners sent from Halifax, June 28, 1777, 
to be exchanged for British prisoners. He 
was chosen by ballot as above recorded, 
August 9, 1777, to command the "Hazard," 
said command to date from the loth of 
the same month. 



The First Lieutenant was Charles Dyer 
of Plymouth, who had served as Second 
Lieutenant under Captain Samson, in the 
"Independence" from September 19, 1770 
until captured. (Service allowed to July 
5, 1777.) His name appears on the list of 
prisoners sent from Halifax, June 28, 1777. 
He was engaged as First Lieutenant on 
the "Hazard," August 20, and commis- 
sioned November 15, 1777. 

Second Lieutenant Walter Hatchof Hing- 
ham was engaged August 20, 1777. He 
served as Master in the "Independence" 4 
months and 22 days to Sept. 22, 1776. Sept. 
26th he was commissioned commander of 
the schooner "Hope." and later was taken 
prisoner in her. His name was on a list of 
prisoners sent from Halifax, June 28, 
1777. He was commissioned Second Lieu- 
tenant of the "Hazard," November 15, 
1777. 

PeterCunningham of Boston was engaged 
as Master of the "Hazard" Aug. 20, 1778 
and commissioned November 17th. 

Lieutenant Justus Harrington was com- 
missioned Lieutenant of Marines, on the 
"Hazard," November 15, 1777. (A Justus 
Harrington of Brookline was a private in 
Captain Thomas White 's Company, Colo- 
nel William Heath's Regiment. April 19, 
1775, serving in June, 1776. at Nantasket, 
under Lieutenant James Morton.) 

Samuel Gilbert of Plymouth was Sur- 
geon's Mate on the "Independence," being 
engaged May 10th, 1776, and serving until 
March 25, 1777. He was commissioned 
Surgeon on the "Hazard," November 15, 
1777. 

A letter from the Board of War. dated 
November 17, 1777. to M r - Moris Pliame 
Penet et Cie, requested them to send by 
Captain Samson "in proportion" as he can 
"take them in," li 50 Chests New effective 
foldiers firearms with long bayonettes" . . . 
20 bales of blue and 5 bales of red cloth. 
2,000 pairs of stout largest size shoes. 2.000 
pieces of ravens duck. 2.000 Blanckets, 100 
pieces yard wide linen,'' etc. 

Captain Samson in the "Hazard" with 
Captain Harraden in the ''Tyrannicide*' 
was ordered November 17, 1777, to be 



196 



THE MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 



ready for sea and with the first fair wind 
to proceed "to the Coast of Spain & 
Portugal." thence to the southward of 
Madeira and return home by way of the 
West Indies. He was instructed as to the 
proper ports to which the various cargoes 
which he might capture should be sent, 
and informed that he was "at Liberty to 
touch at Xantz, Bourdeaux or Bilboa to 
refit." He was instructed to "by all 
means send or bring in as many prisoners as 
pofsible to the United States' for the pur- 
poses of redeeming our fuffering Seamen 
in the hands of the Enemy. " 

Before starting on the cruise he received 
a letter, dated at Boston, November 21, 
1777, stating that "an armed Schooner 
formerly a Marblehead fishing Schooner 
about 70 or 80 Tons, black Sides, Quarter 
& waiste Cloth, white Bottom, two square 
Topsails, said to be commanded by Capt n 
Callahan, from Halifax seen last Tuesday 
off Squirrell Island has spoke with several 
of the eastern wood Coasters all of whom 
she has let go, after speaking with them. It 
is apprehended she is coasting with another 
Schooner said to be the Halifax, for two 
Ships now laden & near ready to sail for 
France with Masts." He was ordered, 
with Captain Harraden in the "Tyran- 
nicide," to go to Townsend and investigate. 
The letter also stated that the enemy's 
ship had for some time rendezvoused at 
Squirrel Island at the mouth of Town- 
send Harbor. 

In a letter written from Boothbay, 
Townsend, December 3. 1777, Captain 
Samson announced his arrival, which had 
been hindered by the loss of the gripe 
of the consort, the "Tyrannicide." He had 
not seen the vessels mentioned but had 
heard of the one said to be commanded 
by Captain Callahan. It was rumored 
that he was not in command. He men- 
tioned the good sailing qualities of the 
"Hazard" and stated that she sailed "very 
well, much better that my Consort (Tyran- 
nicide) ... by Appearence she will be 
a Very good one she is Very Stiff & 
steers well." 

The "Hazard" and "Tyrannicide," sail- 
ing in conjunction, captured the brigantine 



"Alexander," Captain James Waddie, De- 
cember 13, 1777, the schooner "Good 
Intent," Captain William Dashpar, on the 
22nd, and the brigantine "Polly," Captain 
Walter Stevens, on the 23d of the ^ame 
month. These vessels have been described 
in the article upon the "Tyrannicide." 
The net proceeds of the " Polly " amounted 
to 74,257 livres, 2 sols. 

A letter from the agents at St. Pierre. 
Martinique, dated March 5, 1778, an- 
nounced that the ' ' Hazard " and " Tyranni- 
cide ".arrived there February 21, and that 
they were being given "the needfull assist- 
ance." A letter from Captain Samson, also 
written March 5th, told of the small success 
of the cruise. They had taken three prizes. 
The weather had been bad- they had met 
few vessels and the ships had become very 
foul. They had only seen one British 
flag flying during the cruise, "a Frigate 
that we fell in with a few days before 
we Arrived here w ch after we boar away 
for her and discovered her to be a Six & 
thirty Gun Frigate and we not thinking 
proper to engage her Sheard from her w* 11 
shee Perseving gave us Chase but we soon 
Run her out of sight we have since 
learnd she was the Deal Castle. The 
Hazard proves to be a very good Seaboat 
& is as Excellent Sailor and works kindly 
everyway. . . . We are now Preparing to 
heave down to clean & expect to be Ready 
for Sea next week. ... I do not think 
it proper to Acquaint you where we in- 
tend to Cruise for fear of my Letters being 
Intersepted." 

The "Hazard " and "Tyrannicide " sailed 
with the brig " Lion' ' of Salem from St. Pierre, 
March 30, 1777. After fitting the ships. 
a balance of 33,431 : 14 : 4 livres was due W. 
& G. Hutchinson, the agents. When they 
sailed they left the surgeon of the ship, 
Samuel Gilbert, sick on the island. His 
discharge was dated March 24, 1778. The 
above named agents in a letter to the Pre- 
sident of the Board of War, dated March 
31, 1778, stated that "Hazard" and "Tyran- 
nicide" sailed yesterdav with the brig "Lion" 
of Salem, 16 gu ns - They also wrote that 
"Capt. Samson has undoubtedly mentioned 
to you. that the Hazard answers every 
purpose she was intended for & may justly 
be called the finest VeL'sel of her Burthen 
ever Built." They also enclosed accounts 
of the cargo of the brig "Polly" a prize of 
the vessels named. 



DEPARTMENT OF THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION 



107 



In a letter written May 18, 1778, the 
Council ordered that on account of the re- 
port of a mutiny on board the "Hazard," 
Captain Samson ' be "directed to detain 
all wages & prize money as is now due. or 
may hereafter become due . . . untill he has 
Examined into the mutiny . . . and has 
found out the Ringleaders." On account 
of his supposed connection with this mu- 
tiny, Second Lieutenant Walter Hatch, 
of Hingham, was discharged May 20. 1778. 
The following document dated Boston, 
June 30, 1778. is preserved in the Massa- 
chusetts Archiv ss ; 

"To the Hon ble Council for 

the State of Massachusetts Bay. 

The Petition of Walter Hatch late 2nd 
Lieut of the Brigg Hazard, in the Service 
of this State; humbly Sheweth — That 
your Petitioner has been inform'd that 
Sundry Depositions has been taken rela- 
tive to his conduct on board said Brigg in 
her late Cruize; Your Petitioner having 
been confin'd by a fevere fitt of fickness, 
could not attend at the taking [aid Deposi- 
tions, neither was he ever notified for that 
purpose; but is informed your Honours 
have ordered his Prize Money & Wages to 
be Stopt." He declared that he was en- 
tirely innocent and asked that a committee 
be appointed to hear him. Affidavits 
from several of the men were presented 
at the hearing to show that Lieutenant 
Hatch encouraged them to present the 
round robin, the following being among 
them; 

"I, Samuel Myrick lately belonging to 
y* Brigantine of War called the Hazzard 
belonging to y e State of y e Massachufetts 
Bay in New England of Lawful age Mari- 
ner testify & declare y* I was on board y e 
s d Brigantine on or about y e twenty fecond 
of April last bound on a cruize y f there 
appeared an Uneafiness on board among 
y* men upon account of their long Abfence 
in Consequence of which a petition was 



wrote by one William Spear intended to 
have been presented to Cap 1 Sampson but 
was not, faid petition having been fhewn 
to Lieu' Hatch who disapproved of it fay- 
ing that would not do but they must have 
a Round Robbin. When faid Hatch told 
said Spear there must be a Round Robbin 
he Replied, he did not know what a Round 
Robbin was upon which faid Hatch under- 
took to inform him in manner following — 
You must draw a circle and write your 
names round it fo yt it may not be dif- 
covered who Signed first f oon after I heard 
there was one on foot which was offered 
to me to fign & I figned it accordingly — 
I further testify that I heard it faid that 
Tho 8 McCann then on board faid Brigantine 
wrote the above Round Robbin & further 
I fay not. 

Samuel Myrick. 
Boston, June 17, 1778." 

The committee found no "direct proof 
that the Said Walter Hatch was the Stirrer 
up or promoter of said mutiny" but sus- 
pected that "he did not do all that a good 
officer would or ought to have done to Dis- 
courage it." He was requested to attend 
the board and cautioned to behave with 
more circumspection. The order detain- 
ing his prize money and wages was /'re- 
versed & repealed." 

Captain Samson, in a letter to the Coun- 
cil in May, 1778, wrote that on his late 
cruise, when he took the brigantine "Eliza- 
beth/' Thomas How, Master, "which brig- 
antine not having arrived in port." he took 
out of her a boy, called James Pool, about 
twelve years old, and that he was now con- 
fined in the prison ship. He asked per- 
mission to have him liberated and become 
his servant, as said boy desired. The 
permission was granted, May 22nd. 

First Lieutenant Charles Dyer received 
his discharge from the "Hazard." May 20, 
1778. June 4. 1778, a gallon of West India 
rum was ordered to be delivered to Captain 



198 



THE MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 



Harraden, for use of the sick on board the 
"Hazard" and "Tyrannicide." 

The following letter explains itself: 
"Massachusetts) To the Hon b,e the Council 
State. { of said State. 

The Memorial of 
Simeon Samson 
Humbly Sheweth 

I have hitherto endeavored to serve my 
Country -with the best of my abilities, in 
that department in which I was most Capa- 
ble of Acting; and the testimonials I have 
received of your honors approbation of 
my Conduct gives me sensible pleasure — 
I should be happy to Continue in the same 
line of fervice, would the state of my health 
admit of it; but I have long had some 
fymptoms of a threatening disorder which 
were Increased by a Rigorous confinement 
with the Enemy, that oblige me reluc- 
tently to resign the Command of one of 
the best Vef sells in the world; and my 
Physicians and Friends unite in advising 
me to this measure — When I have Re- 
covered the Enjoyment of health I should 
wish to Return again to Buiiness. 

I am with great Respect Your Honors 
Most obed 1 Hum" 1 Serv*. 
Sim n Samson." 
Boston 10 June 1778. 

Captain Samson w r as engaged May 11, 
1780, to command the "Mars," and was 
commissioned on the 21st of July of that 
year. 

"State of Massachusetts Bay. 
Council Chamber, Watertown, June 16, 
1778. 

Ordered— That the Board of War be 
and they hereby are directed to deliver the 
Secretary of this State fourteen Rheams 
of good writing Paper, one thousand of 
Quills, Six pounds of Sealing Wax & three 
pounds of Wafers, for the Use of Said State 
out of the Cargo lately captured by Capt 
Simeon Sampson & Sent into the Port of 
Boston." 



The President of the Board of War wrote 
to the Council and House of Representa- 
tives, June — 1778, stating that the late 
commander of the "Hazard," Captain 
Samson had declined the service on account 
of ill health and asking that a new com- 
mander be appointed as soon as possible as 
"many of the Enemy's Vefsells, will early 
in the Year be at Sea." 

Captain John Fisk wrote from Salem, 
June 9, 1778, acknowledging the receipt 
of a letter announcing Captain Samson's 
ill health, and tendering to him the com- 
mand of the "Hazard." He declined and 
wrote, "I am sincerely obl d to your Hon- 
ours for your good opinnion of me. but am 
sorry to inform you that it will not be for 
interest I shall ever take the Command of 
any arm d Ship, but purposly to serve my 
Country — the Brig 1 Hazard is a very good 
Yesel to take prizes for gain but on the 
other hand she must run from every thing. 
I think not to go to sea untill I can get a 
ship that is able to make some defence 
against a British frigate, and if my Country 
Shall have such a ship and cannot find a 
better man to Command her I shall all- 
ways be ready to enter the service. 
I am your Honours, 

Most Oblidge Hum 1 Serv' 1 

Jno Fisk." 

"In the House of Representatives, June 
17, 1778. Order d that Cap f Williams, 
Mr Greenough and Mr Ward be a Com- 
mitte to confer with such as the Hon e 
Board shall appoint on the fubject of ap- 
pointing a Captain for the Brigantine 
Hazard, 
fent up for Concurrence 

Sam 1 Freeman, Spk, H R" 

"State of Massachusetts Bay. 
In the Houfe of Representatives. June 23, 
1778. 

The Houfe made choice by ballot of Capt 
John Fofter Williams to command the 
Brigantine Hazard." 



DEPARTMENT OF THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION 



199 



John Foster Williams was born in Boston 
Mass., October 12th, 1743. He followed 
the sea from earlv life and his first com- 
mand in the Revolution was the sloop" 
"Republic," in which he served as Captain 
from May 8, 1776' until October 1st of that 
year, and made an enviable record in her. 
From December 16, 1776 until February 
17, 1777, he commanded the brigantine 
• "Massachusetts." He was commissioned 
Captain of. the brigantine "Wilkes" June 23, 
1777, and the brigantine "Active" (priva- 
' teer) , October 14, 1777. He was taken pris- 
oner in the last named vessel and was re- 
turned from Newport, R. I. and landed at 
Bristol, March 7, 1778. 

His First Lieutenant, Peter Cunningham, 
had served as Master in the same vessel 
under Captain Samson. He was com- 
missioned First Lieutenant June 26th. On 
the same date Prize Master Daniel Turner, 
also of the "Hazard," was promoted to be 
Second Lieutenant. He was discharged 
October 14, 1778. 

In one of the short cruises out from 
Boston, Captain Perez Cushing, of Lieuten- 
ant Colonel Paul Revere' s Regiment, asked 
permission to go. He was allowed to sail 
with some of his men, not exceeding thirty 
in number. Captain Williams, in the 
"Hazard," captured a brig and a schooner, 
March 16, 1779. He captured also the brig 
"Active," Caotain Sims. This last named 
vessel was said to carry" 18 guns and 16 
swivels, with about 100 men. The capture 
was made off St Thomas, W. I. after an 
engagement lasting 37 minutes, in which 
the "Hazard" lost 3 killed and 5 wounded. 
He also had an action with a British ship 
of 14^guns and 80 men. Several attempts 
were made to board but she finally sheered 
off. First Lieutenant Cunningham re- 
ceived his discharge papers, April 20, 1779. 
In July of that year, the "Hazard" was 
appraised at £120,000. 

While cruising in the summer of 1779, 
Captain Williams was met by Captain 



Manley in the "Jason," who told him that 
all the vessels on the coast had been or- 
dered to the Penobscot. He accordingly 
sailed on that unfortunate expedition and 
the gallant ship was burned to prevent 
her from falling into the hands of the enemy. 
He was given the command of the "Pro- 
tector," a ship of 26 guns, with a crew of 
200 men and boys, October S, 1779 and 
went on a cruise to the West Indies. In 
her, he fought the British ship "Admiral 
Duff," Captain 'R. Strange, with 30 guns. 
A shot from the "Protector" ignited her 
magazine and she blew up. Captain Wil- 
liams was captured later and kept until 
May 19, 1782. Janaury 3, 1782-3 he was 
commissioned Captain of the ship "Alex- 
ander," of Boston, 17 guns and 50 men. 
From 1790, until his death June 24, 1814, 
he is said to have commanded a revenue- 
cutter. 

Several other less important vessels bore 
the name "Hazard " during the Revolution. 



The Battlefield of Bunker Hill. 

Dr. Rufus W. Sprague has kindly sent 
to the magazine a communication telling 
about the evidences of the battle of Bunker 
Hill which came to his notice when he was 
a boy, attending the Prescott Grammar 
School then situated in the rear of Elm 
Street, near Medford Street, in Charles- 
town. This school building was located 
about on the line with the rail fence at the 
time of the battle and many interesting 
reminders of the conflict were found in 
that vicinity. 

The grade, in the territory bounded by 
Bunker Hill, Medford, Everett and Polk 
St".., was lowered a few feet at that time and 
a part of this area was used by the boys as 
a playground. Occasionally while waiting 
for the school bell, the boys would amuse 
themselves in digging up the earth in search 
of relics, using knives and sticks for tools. 
They were often rewarded by finding but- 
tons, parts of old muskets, bullets and 
pieces of bone. 

One afternoon, when returning from 
school with two other boys, they stopped 



200 



THE MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 



to watch workmen engaged in excavating 
for an extension ot Norton's factory, situ- 
ated at the corner of Everett and Medford 
Streets. This was a fertile field for relics, 
as it was here that the British Light In- 
fantry under General Howe advanced in 
the attack on the rail fence, and were re- 
pulsed with great slaughter by troops under 
Colonels Stark and Reed and Captain 
Knowlton. While the boys were standing 
there, three skulls and some bones were 
unearthed. One of these skulls is still in the 
doctor's possession. 

A shot from a British ship in the Charles 
River, probably the Lively, struck and par- 
tially shattered a headstone in the Phipps 
Street Cemetery during the battle. This 
is the burial place of many of the early 
settlers and contains a monument erected 
to the memory of John Harvard, founder 
of Harvard College. About half way up 
the hill on School Street, in an easterly di- 
rection from the Cemetery, two cannon 
balls were found in the early sixties by 
laborers, while engaged in digging a trench 
for a drain. They were undoubtedly 
missiles from one of the British ships. 



July Fourth, 1909. 

How shall we celebrate the day ? 

Thought! ul Americans become each year 
more and more dissatisfied with the present 
day celebration of the birthday of our na- 
tional independence. The amount of un- 
necessary suffering of mind and body, 
caused by the use of such large quantities 
of high explosives and the painful annoy- 
ance of innocent invalids, should cause all 
true lovers of our country to pause and 
consider. 

At the annual conference of the patriotic 
societies of Massachusetts, held at the 
Twentieth Century Club in March, a pro- 
position was made by a member of the 
Sons of the Revolution, which points the 



way to a more rational observance of the 
day. He recommads that members of all the 
patriotic societies co-operate in the produc- 
tion ot an historical pageant in the Harvard 
Stadium, on July fourth, 1909. It has been 
suggested that fifteen or more episodes of 
Massachusetts history be taken as the sub- 
jects of short historical dramatic sketches 
of fifteen minutes each. The costumes, 
characters and speaking parts to be histor- 
ically correct, and accompanied when pos- 
sible with appropriate music. 

Among the episodes suggested as espe- 
cially appropriate are, "A Sabbath Service 
among the Pilgrims at Plymouth," "A 
Witchcraft Trial at Salem," "The Incar- 
ceration of Governor Andros, " "The Inaug- 
uration of John Hancock, 1790," and 
"Governor Andrew Receiving the Battle 
Flags from the Veterans of the Civil War. ' ' 

Plans are already assuming definite 
shape and we are pleased to announce 
that a number of Boston men have been 
in Quebec, studying the pageantry in con- 
nection with the tercentenary celebration. 
One way to accomplish this much desired 
end, is to have the state districted, and 
the patriotic societies in each district unit- 
ed into a working body upon which shall 
fall the duty of presenting one of the sub- 
jects chosen. 

No section of similar size in the country 
is as rich in subjects of historic lore as the 
Old Bay State. We have a large number 
of patriotic societies composed of devoted, 
enthusiatic men and women; willing to 
help in any movement for the nation's 
good. In addition we have hosts of gen- 
erous people of wealth, and culture, who 
would gladly do their share toward making 
the affair possible from a financial stand- 
point. The Harvard Stadium is an ideal 
place for such a presentation. Let us hope 
that the project will prove a success and 
that this beautiful meeting place will be- 
come each year the Mecca of the patriotic 
sons and daughters of Massachusetts. 



DEPARTMENT OF THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION 



201 



British Ensigns. Auction sales. 

An interesting idea of "Yankee thrift" 
may be gained from a perusal of the rec- 
ords of the auction sale of privateer prizes 
and their cargoes. Original manuscript 
volumes have recently been acquired by 
the Essex Institute, which were kept by 
the auctioneer's clerk during the middle 
period of the revolution. 

In none of the records have the shrewd 
owners of these vessels, shown their love 
for gain more strongly then in the sale at 
auction of the flags and ensigns of the Brit- 
ish prizes. A few of these sales are re- 
corded as follows; 

Nathaniel Silsbee, on November 3, 
1779, purchased an "English Ensign" for 
£125:00:00. On the same date, Edward 
Allen bought a "Jack" of the^ same na- 
tionality for £50:00:00 and a pennant for 
£23:00:00. These were all sold by the 
agents of the brigantine "Fame" having 
been taken from a prize which she had 
captured. 

June 16, 1780, Mr. Millet purchased at 
auction a British ensign from the brigan- 
tine "Polly" which had been captured by 
the brigantine "Tyger," of Salem. The 



increased price paid for this flag may have 
been due in part at least, to the deprecia- 
tion of money Vhich occurred during the 
later years of the war. The high price of 
commodities and the low purchasing power 
of the money used is shown in many other 
instances in these reports. 

An ox sold April 28, 17S0, by the agents 
of the privateer brigantine "Tyger," 
already mentioned above, was purchased 
by John Leach, he paying "1950 Dolls, or 
£585" for the same. On the eleventh of 
the previous month, the agents for the ship 
"Oliver Cromwell" sold 148 pounds of but- 
ter (including cask) to John Buffington, 
for 30 shillings a pound, a total value of 
£222 : 00 : 00. 129 gallons of New England 
rum sold for 138 shillings a gallon or 
£840:02:00. 



Brigantine "Massachusetts." 

The next vessel to be considered in the 
naval series will be the "Massachusetts." 
She was for some time the consort of the 
"Tyrannicide" and was in many engage- 
ments under the command of noted men 
of the Old Bay State. 



0urEft!l0rtaT TP&t±tj>~ 



Rev. Thomas Franklin Waters. 



THE Maverick-Doherty proposition, 
which has recently been before the 
public can hardly be taken seriously 
by thoughtful people. Samuel Maverick 
settled at Winnisimmet.now Chelsea, where 
^the first settlement in Boston harbor was 
made, and built in 1625 a fortified house 
which the late Judge Mellen Chamberlain 
affirmed to be the oldest permanent house 
within the Massachusetts Bay Colony. He 
owned the whole of Noddle's Island, now 
East Boston; his family held a prominent 
place for generations. Maverick Square in 
East Boston was named in horior of this 
sterling family of fine historic significance, 
and the name of the ancient landholder was 
very fittingly given to this permanent 
public square. But Mr. Doherty, a ward- 
politician, presumably, unknown beyond 
the limits of his bailiwick, has aspirations 
for enduring remembrance, and as he has 
been trained in the school of politics, which 
achieves notoriety for its followers by at- 
taching their names to school-houses and 
ferry-boats, it has been urged by his friends 
and followers that the ancient and honored 
name of Maverick give place to Doherty. 
The very suggestion seems audacious and 
appalling, and yet it has serious signifi- 
cance, wholly apart from the issue of this 
particular contention. 

THE names of streets and public ways, 
and the open squares in every com- 
munity, are given and changed, too 
often without regard for fitness or public 
acceptance. 

Sometimes a new way is opened by an 
individual over his private land and in due 
time dwellings are built, and a name given, 



perhaps his own, perhaps a fanciful and 
ridiculous title. Eventually the way be- 
comes a public road, and the name, now es- 
tablished in use, is tacitly recognized as 
the permanent one. So it comes about 
that a modest street with a few straggling 
houses, bears not only a name of ephem- 
eral significance or of conspicuous unfit- 
ness, but the further enormity is perpe- 
trated of styling it an avenue. The name 
is a reminder of great Parisian thorough- 
fares, lined with splendid dwellings, filled 
with beautiful equipages, or the broad and 
crowded ways of any great metropolis. 
What could be more grotesque than this 
pompous title, applied to the rural, dusty, 
diminutive ways, which are thus misnamed 
in so many communities! In general, the 
names given to public roads, in the towns 
and villages at least, seem a matter of ac- 
cident or individual fancy or the work of 
some committee, which seems sadly defi- 
cient in sentiment or the appreciation of 
the eternal fitness of things. 

But whatever the genesis of the name, 
an unfit one is a public grievance. It is 
a matter of profound concern to all the 
citizens of every community that the names 
of streets and ways and squares be signifi- 
cant and dignified. A frivolous name 
causes mortification to the thoughtful 
citizen, and excites the ridicule of the 
stranger. A great name like that of Wash- 
ington and Lafayette, unfitly applied to a 
mean thoroughfare, is like a jewel of gold 
in a swine's snout. The name of a citizen 
who will soon be forgotten has only a 
fleeting significance. In a way, the names 
which prevail in any town or village are 
suggestive of its tone and quality. 

\ 



OUR EDITORIAL PAGES 



203 



OUR plea is for names of enduring 
significance. Let a new street or way- 
receive the name of an original owner 
of the land, or some honorable family name, 
that has been frequent and familiar in past 
years, but is liable to be forgotten. Xo 
easier and more permanent opportunity of 
commemorating the names of the early 
settlers or prominent citizens of later times 
can be desired. While a change of name is 
always to be regretted, for names should 
be permanent and change should be made 
only under the compulsion of a real neces- 
sity, an unfit name should give place to a 
worthier. Sometimes an old name, full of 
flavor, may well be revived. 

A few instances come to mind. In the 
year 1640, by order of the General Court, 
a highway was laid out from Rowley to 
Salem, the first, of which any mention re- 
mains in the Court Records. For many 
years, it was known as the Bay Road, or 
the "Road leading into the Bay." While 
the name has been lost, the ancient high- 
way is substantially identical with the 
present county road. In Ipswich, the 
name has been revived and it has been 
suggested that all the other towns, inter- 
sected by this historic road, restore the 
ancient title. Another ancient road from 
Springfield to Boston bore the same name, 
and this might well be given anew. 

With later times the turnpike was built, 
and regular lines of stage-coaches were 
maintained. Vivid memories remain of 
the coach, crowded without and within 
with passengers, creeping up the hills, dash- 
ing down the slopes and making a grand 
sweep up the village street to the inn. 
These old turnpikes are utilized in part, 
though some sections have fallen into dis- 
use, but it would be an interesting reminder 
of the old times, if the old name, The Turn- 
pike, could still be preserved along their 
whole length. Very fitly we retain our 
Market streets in many towns, though the 
stated gatherings of farm wagons with 



produce of every sort, which gave occasion 
for the name, have long since been forgotten. 
■The Turnpike would be a stately and ro- 
mantic title, and a fit memorial of the 
stage-coach and the post road. 

SOME of the old names are full of 
flavor. In one town, Turkey Shore. 
Heart Break Hill road, and "The way 
to Labor-in-vain," all old and picturesque, 
still hold and with how much more of 
sentiment, than some prosy modern title! 
In every town, similar instances will occur. 
The good old fashioned "lane," as ap- 
plied to some rural thoroughfare, is passing 
away. With the incoming of some smart, 
new houses, and the invasion of unsightly 
poles, for telephones or electric light, there 
is a feeling that "lane" is shabby and out- 
of-date, like gingham sun-bonnets and 
calico best gowns. Straightway it be- 
comes a street, or. road, or avenue. But 
what a delicious vision lingers of a narrow 
winding way through woods and fields, 
bordered with hawthorn hedges and gay 
with spring primroses in old England. In 
the very heart of London, Drury Lane and 
Mark Lane still preserve the memory of 
the rural solitudes of long ago. The Cow- 
gate has not grown too unsavoury for 
modern ears in Edinburgh. What pity, 
that New England should look askance at 
such old names and ask for something up 
to date! But if the old "lane" must go, 
let it be "road" rather than "street." For 
"road" is rural and venerable. We apply 
the name still to the stately Roman high- 
way, which reached from Rome to the ends 
of the world through forest and desert. 
Street is the name for the crowded city- 
thoroughfare, not for solitudes. 

BUT of all the old names, the stateliest 
and most suggestive is the Common. 
Xow and then, it is supplanted by the 
more ambitious title of Park, but most un- 
wisely. In the earliest days of Rome, when 
the colony was established, a town lot of an 



204 



THE MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 



acre or so was assigned each settler within 
the protecting wall, and outside was the 
common land, in which all shared the privi- 
lege of pasture and other public use. In the 
German village life, the same usage pre- 
vailed. When our Puritan ancestors made 
their settlements, they reverted to this 
ancient system of land holding, though 
they were fresh from densely peopled Eng- 
land, where the old way of land tenure had 
long been outgrown. Within the town, 
which was usually or often surrounded 
with a fence, houselots of two acres and up- 
ward were assigned to individuals. The 
great tracts of. forest and pasture lands 
were owned in common by the body of 
householders, and the privilege of pastur- 
age and of felling the forest for fuel and for 
timber was a common right. Almost in- 
variably, there was a reservation about 
the meeting-house, which was held for pub- 
lic use and jealously guarded from any in- 
trusion. The ancient commons, with the 
accompanying rights of commoners, have 
long since become extinct, but occasionally 
the name remains in some outlying "com- 
mon fields." But in almost every town 
and village, the open Common yet remains 
and holds its ancient name. Professor 
Freeman, the English historian, visiting 
Massachusetts, was greatly impressed with 
this.'and remarked upon the great pleasure 



he found in discovering so many remind- 
ers of this ancient system of land-tenure. 
To every student, the name has rich signi- 
ficance. It is a monumental record of the 
Past, infinitely better than any modern 
substitute. 

And the same may be said of the more 
picturesque "Green," with its suggestion 
of the village sports and games, which had 
so large place in every English village. 
The Puritans suffered unspeakably from 
the license given by "The Book of Sports" 
to engage in such profane indulgences, 
after the church service on the Sabbath 
day; and the goodly English name which 
still holds in the old country, mayhave been 
fraught with such reminders of anguish, 
that they did not care to repeat it in their 
free home. Occasionally the name is found, 
however. Ipswich rejoices in The Meeting 
House Green, and The School House Green, 
as well, near the school house where the 
famous Ezekiel Cheever taught from 1650 
to 1660, and his successors for two cen- 
turies more. Taunton Green remains and 
the goodly name may linger in many other 
localities. 

Is a standing committee on the names of 
public ways in every community, composed 
of men of sentiment and discretion and 
vested with large power, a wholly Utopian 
dream? 



MASSACHUSETTS 



MAGAZINE 




Published bythe Salem Press Co. Salem,Mass. USA 



Wilt IHassatljitstffs JHaitamu\ 

A Quarterly cMagazine Devoted to History, Genealogy and Biography 
Thomas Franklin Waters, Editor, ipswich, mash. 

ASSOCIATE AND ADVISORY EDITORS 

Frank A. Gardner, M.D. Charles A. Flagg John N. McClintock Albert W. Dennis 

SALEM, MASS. WASHINGTON, D. C. DORCHESTER, MASS. SALEM, K.v-9. 

Issued in January, April, July and October. Subscription, $2.50 per year, Single copies 75c. 
VOL. I * OCTOBER, 1908 NO. 4 

<2rtmfcitf0 txf tl}i& Jbsxiz. 

Governor Curtis Guild, Jr John N. McClintock 207 

Massachusetts Today '. . Curtis Guild, Jr. . 214 

Lieut. Gov. Eben S. Draper . . . . . . John N. McClintock 215 

Heath: A Historic Hill Town . . . ... Edward P. Guild . 219 

Fifty Years of Probation Work in Massa- 
chusetts Frank B. Sleeper . 226 

Colonel William Prescott's Regiment . . F. A. Gardner, M.D. 235 

Personal Diary of Ashley Bowen of Marblehead 260 

The Roll of Cafe-. Josiah Williard's Com- 
pany at Fort Dummer George Sheldon . . 267 

Massachusetts Pioneers in Michigan . . . Charles A. Flagg . 269 

Some Massachusetts Historical Writers 274 

Department of the American Revolution F. A.Gardner, M. D. 278 

Criticism and Comment 237 

Pilgrims and Planters . . . . . ... Lucie M. Gardner . 2S9 

Our Editorial Pages Thomas F. Waters . 291 



CORRESPONDENCE of a business' nature should be sent to Tiie Massachusetts Magazine, 5aleru,"Mass. 

CORRESPONDENCE iu regard to contributions to the Magazine may be sent to the editor, Rev. T. F. 
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ed of such changes. 

ON SALE. Copies of this magazine are on sale in Boston, at W. B. Clark'* & Co., 26 Tremont Street, Old 
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Entered as second-class matter March 13, 19iS, at the post ollice at Salem, Mass., under the act of Congress of 
March 3, 1879. Ollice of publication, 4 Central Street, Salem, Mass. 



"A TALK" 

About the Massachusetts Magazine and 

What It Is Going to Do Next Year. 

i 

Massachusetts Revolutionary Regiments. 

Though many fail to understand the scope of this series of articles, 
where its importance is appreciated, most favorable and enthusiastic inter- 
est has been aroused. Many histories of the regiments in our civil war 
have been published and the State thinks so well of their importance that 
it agrees to buy 500 copies of every one printed. This is, however, the 
first systematic attempt that has been made to print the histories of regi- 
ments in the Revolutionary War. No one else has ever attempted even to 
give the organization and names of officers of these regiments. Dr. -Gard- 
ner's rare gifts as an investigator and the thoroughness of his work will 
make the series a source of authoritative reference for information concern- 
ing Massachusetts officers in the Revolutionary armies. In the case of 
privates it will also be very helpful. For instance, a genealogist or town 
historian in looking up the record of Private X may find in printed records 
of the State that he served in a company in Fellows's Regt., also later 
in one in Bridges 's Regiment. Then it becomes of immediate interest to 
know what service those regiments experienced, and then get an idea how 
important Private X's service was. If it is found that during the period of 
his enlistments, these regiments served in Long Island, Trenton, Sara- 
toga, Yorktown, and other important campaigns, then the searcher begins 
to feel as if he knew something of Private X's experiences and the part 
he played in the fight for independence.' 

Speaking of the thoroughness of the work it may be mentioned that in 
the two regiments now completed there are five officers whose names are 
not to be found in the printed records of the State {Soldiers and Sailors of 
the Revolutionary War*). They are: 

Lieut. William Jones, whose record is given on page 100. 

Lieut. Theophilus Munson, whose record is given on page 99. 

Lieut. William Graves, whose record is given on page gg. 

Capt. Joseph Lee, whose record is given on page 97. 

Adjutant William Gibbs, whose record is given on page 102. 

*It should be understood that this is not a reflection on the carefulness of the prepara- 
tion of that publication, for it only pretends to give records in the State archives. 




Special Numbe 

50 cts. 



Governor 
Guild 




I?ubligt)s& i|uarterl{k 





GOVERNOR CURTIS GUILD, JR. 



By John N. McClintock. 



THE Governor of Massachusetts, by virtue of his office, is always a 
stately and commanding figure. When his official dignities are 
supplemented by unusual gifts and graces of character, he becomes a 
personage of profound interest to every citizen of the old Commonwealth. 

Election to the office of Governor of the State of Massachusetts, repre- 
senting the authority, the. dignity, and the traditions of the Commonwealth, 
gives to the man honored by such election preeminence, kingly power, and 
a place in the history of the country: his breeding, his training, and his 
preparation for the high office, as well as his record in the adminis- 
tration of the affairs of State, are matters of public interest. 

Governor Guild was born in South street, Boston, Feb. 2, 1860, the 
son of Curtis and Sarah (Cobb) Guild. His father (born in Boston, Jan. 19, 
1827; married in September, 1858) founded the Commercial Bulletin, Jan. 
1, 1859, and attained fame as an editor and author. His mother was de- 
scended from General David Cobb, aide to General Washington; his 
grandfather, Curtis Guild of South Dedham, Harvard College, 1822, was 
a. well-known Boston merchant; his grandmother was the daughter of Ezra 
Hodges, a revolutionary soldier. 

He was prepared for college at the Chauncey Hall school and was 
graduated from Harvard in 1881. While in college he was an editor of the 
Crimson and of the Lampoon, took part in the first Greek play ever given 
at Harvard, and was chosen class orator. He took the highest honors, hav- 
ing specialized in English and French literature, history and English com- 
position. 



208 ^A THE MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 

In his class oration, departing from conventional themes, Mr. Guild 
made a forceful exposition of the duties of the American citizen in politics. 
These precepts he put into immediate practice by taking an active interest 
in ward politics in the first election in which he was allowed to cast his 
vote. For a number of years he was either treasurer or chairman of the 
ward 9 committee and a constant attendant at the conventions of the Repub- 
lican party. He was one of the five original founders of the Republican 
Club of Massachusetts. He became conspicuous at once as a political 
speaker. In 1896,- he was sent by the national committee through 
Maryland, West Virginia and the central West, in the campaign against 
William J. Bryan. He spoke nearly every night for five months, addressing 
great audiences in Carnegie Music Hall, Chicago, the Opera House, Phil- 
adelphia, the Auditorium, Detroit, and the Cooper Union, Xew York. He 
spoke often in all the Xew England states as well, and was forced to decline 
repeated offers from all the large lecture bureaus of the country. His services 
on the political platform were purely a labor of love, as he persistently re- 
fused any pecuniary compensation. He was the orator at the dedication of 
the state monument to John Hancock at Detroit, on Washington's Birth- 
day, 1897, and at the dedication of the Shay's rebellion monument in Taun- 
ton. He represented Massachusetts as acting chairman of the commission 
at Atlanta, Ga., and as chairman of the second southern exposition at Nash- 
ville, Tenn. He was always chosen to represent the 7th army corps in the 
Spanish-American war on official occasions both in the United States, and 
in Cuba, where his addresses were made in Spanish. 

In 1895 Mr. Guild presided at the Republican State Convention. The 
following year he was chosen by acclamation delegate-at-large to the na- 
tional convention in St. Louis. There he took a very active part in the can- 
vass of the convention by Massachusetts, which resulted in the substitution 
of the gold plank in place of the straddle in the party platform. He was one 
of the vice presidents of this convention. 

Eighteen of the most strenuous years of Mr. Guild's life were devoted 
to practical newspaper work. After experience in every department he was 
taken into partnership by his father and uncle. Consequent daily study, 
discussion and suggestion of measures for state and national legislation 
aided materially in qualifying him for the work he was later called upon to 
perform. He wrote the first articles suggesting the subway, and aided 
Mayor Matthews, Gov. Greenhalge and others in the drafting and passage 
of the measure. He fought the sugar fight on sugar tests in the New York 



itf>- • '■■ *"' 












N 



GOVERNOR CURTIS GUILD, JR. 209 

custom house and secured investigation, which reported that tests in the 
New York custom house were too low. 

He began the agitation for dry docks in Boston and urged the measure 
in the newspaper and on the platform until the Legislature passed a reso- 
lution in its favor. He drafted the bill which abolished political appoint- 
ments to the Governor's- staff restricting them to soldiers only. 

He wrote many ,of the posters, cards and particularly the statistical 
literature used by the Republican party in Massachusetts and furnished 
facts and figures to members of Congress and senators, even of the states 
beyond the Mississippi. He made the Commercial Bulletin statistics on 
wool the accepted authority on that staple, not only in the United States, 
but in England, the European continent and Australia. He has been for 
years a contributor to the North American Review, the Atlantic Monthly, 
Harpers and Life. 

Mr. Guild began his military career at the age of ten years, when he 
joined the Chauncey Hall School battalion. In seven years he rose through 
all the grades until he was major, and commanded his school for two years. 
Only the wishes of his parents withheld him from entering West Point. 
For two years and until it disbanded, he was first lieutenant of the Harvard 
Rifle Corps. He joined troop A, the National Lancers, of the 1st bat- 
talion Massachusetts cavalry, as a private, becoming a non-commissioned 
and a commissioned officer in that famous old troop. A staff appoint- 
ment was offered him by the late Gov. Greenhalge, but was declined. On 
the earnest soliciation of Gov. Wolcott he accepted the office of inspector 
general of rifle practice, and in 1897, the year he was in office, 96 per cent, 
of the Massachusetts militia were qualified as marksmen. 

The day after the sinking of the Maine Mr. Guild waited upon the 
Governor, and declaring his conviction that war was inevitable, requested 
that if war should be declared, his resignation as a staff officer be accepted 
and that his name be filed as a volunteer. This made him. in February, 
1898, the first volunteer in Massachusetts for the Spanish war. Gov. 
Wolcott sent him, in company with Gen. Dalton, to arrange for equipment 
in case of war. When the war began he sought appointment as first lieu- 
tenant and aide on the staff of some general going to Cuba. His applica- 
tion was unsuccessful ; and he abandoned all attempts in this direction and 
became first lieutenant and adjutant of the 6th Mass. At that time 
Washington authorities had stated that probably not more than two regi- 
ments from Massachusetts would be sent out of the state. Owing to the 
scarcity of officers in the regular army, without his request or even his 



210 THE MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 

knowledge, Mr. Guild was appointed lieutenant-colonel and inspector- 
general on his record and assigned to the 7th army corps, that of Gen. 
Fitzhugh Lee. Mr. Guild was notified by Gen. Corbin to be ready to em- 
bark for Cuba within ten days. But the department sent not Gen. Lee but 
Gen. Shafter to Cuba, and the 7th army corps saw service first in Florida 
and Georgia. Later it went to Cuba as part of the army of occupation in 
Havana province. 

Mr. Guild acted as drill master and, for a portion of the time, as chief 
ordnance officer, in addition to his duties as inspector general. He in- 
augurated a new method of weekly inspection reports covering health, 
drill, sanitation, food and equipment. His special service was the break- 
ing up of the fever camp at Miami, in spite of the railroad lobby at Wash- 
ington. He resigned his commission and asked for a court-martial for 
appealing directly to the President over the heads of superior officers. He 
was sustained by the President and the camp was abandoned. He was 
the prime mover in the inspection and laying out of camp sites in Savannah, 
together with framing of court regulations and discipline of pilots during 
the period that the United States forces were embarking from there. 

In Cuba, in addition to his regular services as inspector general, he 
was chief of the secret service at the time when Cuban guerillas were ex- 
pected to massacre the Spanish inhabitants. He had entire charge of in- 
vestigation of all claims for land damages, together with inspection and 
reform of the slaughter house system. Upon the close of his services as 
a volunteer he was offered a position by the President as military member 
of the colonial commission to frame laws for Cuba and Porto Rico, with 
the rank in the army that he had held in the volunteer forces. This he 
declined and resigned on the breaking up of the corps. 

In 1900 he stumped the West with Theodore Roosevelt. The office 
of first assistant postmaster general was tendered him, but was declined. 

In 1902 Mr. Guild was nominated for Lieutenant Governor by acclama- 
tion, by the Republican state convention held at Boston and was elected 
in November of that year. He was renominated and re-elected in 1903 and 
1904. In the fall of 1905, Lieut. Gov. Guild was nominated by acclamation 
for Governor and was successful in the November election, polling 197,469 
votes, against 174,911 for the Democratic candidate, General Charles W. 
Bartlett of Boston. In 1906 he was nominated again for Governor without 
opposition and was reelected in November, receiving 222,528 votes against 
a total of 192,295 for John B. Moran of Boston, who had received the nomi- 
nation of the Democratic party, of Hearst's Independent League and of 



GOVERNOR CURTIS GUILD, JR. 211 

the Prohibition party. Notwithstanding this combination of elements 
against him, Gov. Guild's plurality was 30,233 or nearly 8.000 more than 
it had been in the preceding year. In 1907 he was reelected by 105,000 
plurality overiiis Democratic opponent, Henry M. Whitney. 

His long and varied experiences in so many fields, in political campaign- 
ing, in the army, in the editor's sanctum, in the sharp competitions of 
an active business career, his scholastic culture and his judicial temper, 
had. prepared him for a wise and honorable discharge of the duties, now 
laid upon him, and for statesmanlike leadership. 

The record of his administration is a record of gratifying success. In 
his last address to the General Court, the Governor made a brief but 
valuable summary of the legislation accomplished during the first two 
years of his administration. 

"The constructive work of Massachusetts in this short period not only 
is already serving as a model elsewhere, but its new departures have won 
general and national encomium. 

"Complete recodification or radical reform has been effected in the 
laws covering the banking and financial institutions of the Common- 
wealth, the regulation of the sale of liquor, the control of insurance, the 
hours, age and condition of labor, the medical inspection of schools and 
factories, the control of telephones and telegraphs, the extension of the 
express business to trolley lines, the protection of children in school and 
factory, the safeguarding of juries, the checking of corruption in elections, 
and the system of taxation. 

"Progressive change or radical reform has been effected in the police 
and excise system of the city of Boston, the Bank Commission, the in- 
surance department, the Gas and Electric Light Commission, the Rutland 
Sanatorium, the Highway Commission, the Foxborough State Hospital, 
the State system of education, the Armory Commission, the office of State 
Forester, the State control of weights and measures, the Bureau of Statis- 
tics of Labor, the department of boiler inspection, the State police, and 
the Massachusetts Volunteer Militia. 

- "These great changes, legislative and executive, have been made, 
thanks to the methods of the General Court and the temper of our people, 
without any dislocation of public life or disturbance of private business. 

"Public-service corporations have found that public regulation knows 
no favorites. In some, abuses have been corrected ; in some, the charge 
to the public has been materially reduced. In every case, however, the 
Commonwealth has maintained, as it ever must maintain, quietly if possi- 



212 THE MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 

ble, but conspicuously if necessary, the dignity and inviolability of its 
statutes, no matter what the result." 

The results of this earnest, constructive legislation are evident on 
every hand. 

Great public works for the benefit of all, or some distinct district, in- 
cluding highways, parkways, parks, grade crossings, armories, sewerage, 
and water supply, have been wisely carried on by the State independently 
or lending its credit to interested municipalities, and temporarily assum- 
ing a large contingent debt. Laws governing the civil service, sanitation 
and the public health, have been broadened and made more effective in 
practice. The work devolving upon the various boards and commissions 
has been systemized, so that their organization has become a model to the 
National Government and the government of other states. 

The restrictive laws pertaining to banking passed during the adminis- 
tration permitted the Massachusetts banks to go through the financial 
crisis of 1907 without derangement of business. The insurance depart- 
ment of the Commonwealth 4s the admitted standard for efficiency in the 
country ; Massachusetts insurance laws have been copied in part by many 
States, and by some States almost in their entirety. Permissive insurance 
and old-age annuities by savings banks were legalized. 

Telegraph and telephone companies, like other public-service corpora- 
tions, have been placed under the supervision of the Commonwealth, and 
the legal use and illegal abuse of the highways of the State by automobiles 
have been sharply defined. 

Laws pertaining to railroads and street railways. have been codified, 
strengthened and enforced for the benefit of the public. The militia has 
been placed upon a new basis, to the great advantage of the service. Labor 
legislation has been especially progressive ; and the right to one day's rest 
in seven has been legalized. The bucket shop, a form of gambling in the 
rise and fall in price of legitimate securities and property, has been legally 
abolished, as well as the promotion of bogus enterprises and questionabfe 
schemes. The Commission on Commerce and Industry to promote the 
best interests of the Commonwealth has been established. 

That Gov. Guild's administration has appealed to labor organizations 
is evident from the resolutions passed in 1908 by the Boston Central Labor 
Union, representing all the unions of Greater Boston : 

"Always just and fair in his dealings, the workingman has come to 
look upon him as a bulwark against tyranny, oppression and abuse. 

"Ever ready with voice, pen and money to assist those in need, and 




I I III hi II 



MRS. CURTIS GUILD, JR. 



GOVERNOR CURTIS GUILD, JR. 213 

-ever ready to champion the right, he has bound himself to the heart of the 
Commonwealth with ties of love and respect that can never be severed." 

The Massachusetts Medical Society passed resolutions thanking the 
•Governor for his leadership in effecting certain medical reforms ; and the 
same sentiment was publicly voiced by the President in an address given 
at Provincetown. The decoration of the Governor by the King of Italy 
was in part a recognition of new legislation passed to prevent the swindling 
of immigrants by padrones and fake bankers. In the last year of his ad- 
ministration, Governor Guild received a very flattering vote at the Republi- 
can National Convention for nomination as the candidate of his party for 
the office of Vice-President of the United States. 

He is a friendly and sympathetic helper in all good enterprises. The 
appeal of the Paul Revere Memorial Association for funds was seconded 
by a cordial, personal letter from the Governor. He appended his name to 
the petitions from Massachusetts to Congress for national investigation of 
child labor, and for consideration of the atrocities in the Congo region, and 
the tariff petition to the President. 

In June, 1892, he married Miss Charlotte P. Johnson, daughter of Mr. 
E. C. Johnson of the well-known firm of C. F. Hovey and Co. of Boston. 
She shares her husband's unaffected and unostentatious ways. Without 
children, she has a tender interest in many poor boys and girls, and delights 
to help them in their struggle for an education. Their home life is simple 
and sincere. 

Governor Guild is a Unitarian in religion, a member of the prudential 
committee of the Arlington Street Church, a life member of the Young 
Men's Christian Union and of the Press Club, a Mason of high degree, a 
member of the Tavern, Algonquin, Puritan, Exchange, and University 
clubs. He is active in the management of the Benevolent Fraternity of 
Churches, and cordial in his support of any enterprise, which promotes good 
citizenship and enhances the common weal. 

Governor Guild has received the degree of LL. D. from Holy Cross 
College. 



JBassatljuscffs Co-trati* 




F you seek the monuments to the Bay 
State's enterprise do not look behind you, 
look around you. European authorities 
admit that France alone compares with 
Massachusetts in the excellence of her 
State highways. Buda-Pesth was the first city in the 
world to use a subway for the relief of street traffic, 
Boston was the second and New York followed. The 
tunnel under Boston harbor is the first submarine tunnel 
ever built in the United States for the rapid transit of street 
passengers. Only the great dam of the Nile at Assouan ex- 
ceeds ; no other dam yet built equals in extent the hugh 
Metropolitan Water Works dam near Clinton. Yet every 
one of these great public works has been constructed far 
within the estimated cost. Not one contractor engaged in 
their construction has been asked for a cent by the political 
party in control of this Commonwealth; not one man 
who has used pick or shovel has had his politics con- 
trolled or questioned. 

Such is Massachusetts. As she was first at Lexington 
and Concord, so has she been at El Caney and Santiago. 
As she voiced the National protest against the slavery of 
the black man in the cotton field, so she voices the Na- 
tional protest against the slavery of the white child in the 
cotton factory. As Massachusetts' ideals incarnated in 
the schools of Horace Mann spread universal education 
through the country, so now do Massachusetts' ideals 
through an organization born in Boston seek to spread 
universal peace throughout the world. 

Such is the home we open to you ; such is Massachu- 
setts. She seeks no eulogy. She needs no apology. 

Governor Guild in Old Home Week Address. 



LIEUTENANT GOVERNOR EBEN S. DRAPER. 



By John N. McClintock 



In the year 1830, in the first issue of the Boston Transcript, Ira Draper 
of Milford advertised "temples" for weaving, of his own invention and 
manufacture, then on exhibition in the store of John Lowell. He was the 
son of Major Abijah Draper of Dedham, who was a soldier in the Revolu- 
tionary war, and a descendant of James and Miriam (Stansfield) Draper, 
who came from Yorkshire, England, to Roxbury in 1647. The immigrant 
was a skilled mechanic, familiar with weaving and spinning machinery ; 
and the ancestral trade descended to his posterity. The modest business 
of Ira Draper flourished ; and in due time, his son, George, was 
associated with him. Both sons were closely identified with the 
Hopedale Community, which had been founded by Rev. Adin Ballon, as 
a practical exemplification in every-day life of the principles of the Xew 
Testament. In 1852 the two sons succeeded to the business, and carried it 
on under the auspices of the Community, of which Eben D. was then 
President. Five years later, the Community came to grief financially, and 
its property was sold. Relying upon the value of the "temple" and other 
inventions which George had patented, the Draper brothers took the fac- 
tory, agreeing to settle all the indebtedness. 

George Draper became sole proprietor in 1865, and took into partner- 
ship his son, Gen. William F. Draper, who had served with distinction in 
the war of the Rebellion. George A., a younger son, became a member of 
the firm in 1877, at the age of twenty-one, and in 1880, Eben Sumner, trfe 
youngest son, having just attained his majority, became a partner. 

Thirty workmen were employed in 1865 ; in 1886, the year of George 
Draper's death, five hundred were on the pay roll. The business has made 
great advances, and a maximum of four thousand employees has since been 
reached. It was incorporated as the Draper Company in 1897, Gen. William 
F. Draper being President, George A., Treasurer, and Eben S., agent. It 
is the largest manufacturing establishment engaged in the production of 
cotton milling machinery in the United States. It is affirmed by a 



216 THE MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 

competent authority that the machinery introduced and made by this 
company has effected a saving to the commercial world of two hundred 
and fifty million dollars. 

Though the Community failed financially, its fine spirit has never been 
lost. Ideal relations have always existed between the employed and their 
employers. The Corporation has provided convenient work rooms, 
equipped with the latest appliances for safety and comfort, and attractive 
homes for its operatives, and has always dealt with them with conspicuous 
fairness. It has accomplished, largely at its own expense, great public im- 
provements. A beautiful church, a memorial of their parents, has been 
erected by George A. and Eben S. Draper. The streets have been ma- 
cadamized, and concrete sidewalks built. Good water, gas and electric 
lights, an electric railway and a sanitary sewage system have been intro- 
duced. Hopedale was the first town in Massachusetts to adopt the Glover 
system of sewage disposal by rapid filtration in 1899. A great park of an 
Tiundred and fifty acres and a playground of six acres are conspicuous 
features in this beautiful town. 

The junior partner in this great industry, after a long political career, 
is now the Republican candidate for Governor. Eben Sumner Draper was 
"born in Milford (Hopedale) June 17th, 1858. He began his school training 
in the public schools of his native town, and was prepared for business life 
in the Allen School, West Xewton, one of the best secondary schools in 
Massachusetts. He then completed a course in the department of engineer- 
ing, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and later began work in the 
Hopedale machine shops, where he was thoroughly trained in the various 
details of the business. He obtained a practical knowledge of the work- 
ing of cotton machinery in the cotton mills of Lowell, Manchester and 
other New England manufacturing cities. Three years of such training 
were an admirable preparation for his business career. He became interest- 
ed in politics arid achieved his first notable success in 1892, when he was 
elected Chairman of the Republican State Committee. In 1896, he was'the 
Chairman of the Massachusetts delegation to the Republican National con- 
vention, and had charge of the canvass of the convention, which secured the 
adoption of the "gold standard" resolution. 

He headed the Massachusetts delegation to the Xashville Exposition 
in 1897, and was the Republican Elector for the Eleventh Massachusetts 
district in 1900. During the Spanish war he was President of the Massa- 
chusetts Volunteer Aid Association, and had a leading part in the purchase 
and equipment of the hospital ship. Bay State, at an expense of S200.000, 













/ 







LIEUTENANT GOVERNOR EBEN S. DRAPER 217 

and in raising an equal sum for the care of Massachusetts soldiers and 
sailors. He served as President of the Republican Club of Massachusetts 
in 1903 and 1904. 

In 1905 Mr. Draper became the candidate of the Republican party for 
Lieutenant-Governor of Massachusetts. The workingmen of Hope-dale, 
when he was nominated, presented him with a signed address, which read : 

"A few words from the employees of the Draper Company about Hon. 
Eben S. Draper and the town of Hopedale. 

"Hon. Eben S. Draper is: 

"A man of large business ability ; 

"A man of sterling honesty and integrity; 

"A man interested in philanthropy, and charity, and all measures which 
tend to improvement and advancement. 

"He is agent of the Draper Company of Hopedale, Mass., a company 
which is conspicuous among the employers of laboring men on account of 
the care and attention given to conditions which prevail at their works, 
among which are ample and commodious shops and workrooms for the 
employees, up-to-date appliances for the use and safety of the men ; steady 
and regular work so far as business conditions will permit; fair and honest 
treatment to all, which conditions make Hopedale a desirable place in 
which to work." 

He was elected in November, and was re-elected in 1906 and again in 
1907. During the spring of 1908, owing to the enforced absence of Gov- 
ernor Guild from his official duties at the State House on account of sick- 
ness, Lieutenant-Governor Draper was Acting-Governor of the State for 
many weeks, and brought to the office the administrative ability and 
judgment of men and affairs that had placed him at the head of a great 
corporation. Governor Guild could not have delegated his authority and 
the direction of his-administration to safer hands. 

Apart from his busy political life, he has a living interest in a multi- 
tude of affairs. He is a member of the Corporation of the Institute of Tech- 
nology, a member of the Board of Managers of the Milford Hospital, (a 
gift from his wife and himself to the town), and a trustee of the Peter 
Bent Brigham Hospital, and Vice President of the American Unitarian 
Association. He served as Chairman of the Massachusetts Association 
for the relief of California. 

He is a Director of the National Shawmut Bank, the Boston and Al- 
bany Railroad, the Old Colony Trust Co., the Milford National Bank, and 
various cotton mills and other industrial corporations. The Society of 



218 THE MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 

Colonial Wars, the Somerset, Middlesex, Massachusetts, Xorfolk, Union, 
Algonquin, Exchange and Country Clubs, the Hope Club of Providence, 
and the Metropolitan Club of New York, include his name on their 
enrollments. 

Notwithstanding this multiplicity of club memberships, and his diverse 
business and political affiliations, Lieut. Governor Draper is preeminently 
a lover of his family and- his home. He married, November 21, 1883, 
Nancy Bristow, daughter of the late General Benjamin Helm Bristow, of 
New York, who was Secretary of the Treasury in Grant's administration 
and candidate for the Presidency in 1876. 

Their children are: Benjamin Helm Bristow, born Feb. 28, 1885; 
Dorothy, born Nov. 22, 1890, and Eben Sumner, Jr., born Aug. 30, 1893. 
Mr. and Mrs. Draper are social and cheery, and the evening caller, 
dropping in, is likely to find the family group engaged in games, in which 
the children share. He enjoys lawn tennis, but golf is the sport in which 
he finds particular delight. All the commonplace interests of the com- 
munity are shared by him, and when Sunday comes, if he is not in his 
pew in the Unitarian church, the congregation knows that he is away 
from home. 

The legion of workmen in the Draper employ are his enthusiastic 
friends. During the recent commercial depression, the Draper Company, 
in common with so many other corporations, was obliged to put many 
men on shorter hours, but the burden of a -decreased wage was made 
lighter by the voluntary reduction of rents by one-half, while those 
whose hours of labor were still further reduced, found their weekly rent 
bill entirely cancelled. No wonder the workmen say "The Drapers are 
good people to work for." 

Those who know the Lieut. Governor best, admire him for the 
straightforward honesty of his character, his good judgment, and for his 
kindly, genial nature. His business associates recognize his skill in ad- 
ministration, and his high sense of honor. The citizens of the Common- 
wealth have tried him and proved him, and will continue to trust in him, 
whatever his political future may prove to be. 



I ^ 







" :: 



MRS. EBEN S. DRAPER 



HEATH: A HISTORIC HILL TOWN 



By Edward P. Guild 



In the northern-most tier of Massachusetts towns, some twenty miles 
west -of the Connecticut River, in Franklin county, and bordering the Ver- 
mont line, lies the township of Heath. It occupies the middle portion of 
the elevated area which rises from the valley of the Deerfield River on the 
west and south, and the Xorth River on the east. The elevation of most 
of the town, excepting the depression of various brook valleys, ranges 
from 1500 to 2000 feet above sea level; the altitude of the village is 1600 
feet. From many points in the town, especially from Mount Pocumtuck 
.at the southeastern corner, there are commanding views of wonderful 
beauty extending from the Green Mountains nearly to Long Island Sound ; 
from Mt. Grey lock to YYachusett and Monadnock. 

Heath is a typical Xew England hill town with a population, which at 
its most reached only 1200 and that eighty years ago, now reduced to less 
than 400; and yet a town highly interesting historically, socially, physical- 
ly. It is a town which to a high degree has represented the ideals of those 
who founded our Xew England institutions ; a community notably strong 
on the side of education and religion, a radiating point for men and women 
who went forth and made their impress in other fields. 

To understand the beginnings of this town we must go back to the 
-earliest days of New England. It is almost three centuries since the begin- 
ning to Plymouth Colony, and a few years less since that of Massachusetts 
Bay. Men, for the most part strong, resolute and deeply religious, were 
they who faced the dangers of settlement in a wilderness. For only a short 
time, however, were they content to cling to the coast. Only thirteen 
years from the memorable day when the little "Mayflower" cast its anchor 
•off Plymouth, the "Western fever" had asserted itself, the valley of the 
Connecticut had been reached, and a house built at Windsor. Then came 
the settlements farther up the river. Major Pynchon and his hardy followers 
founded Springfield in 1636; Northampton, Hadley, Hatfield. Deerfield 
soon after were helping arouse the red man's jealousy. The Old Bay 
path was the highway between the seaboard and the river settlements ; the 



220 THE MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 

journey, slow, tedious, exposed to constant danger. To the gifted J. G~ 
Holland whose boyhood days were lived in Heath, and again in our own- 
day to Mary P. Wells Smith we are indebted for weaving fact and imagina- 
tion into most vivid, pen pictures of these journeys along this ancient 
thoroughfare. 

The next chapter in the life of the Colony is that of King Philip's War,, 
retarding further exploration, even making uncertain the continued exist- 
ence of all western Massachusetts settlements. This was a time when life- 
was full of anxiety and dread, the foe was ever alert to destroy, existence 
was a constant terror by night and day. Had that cunning and malicious 
savage, King Philip, succeeded in his schemes as seemed many times too 
probable in that long war, the future of the Connecticut Valley, the Deer- 
field Valley, and these adjoining hill towns would have been far different. 
But the same spirit that determined the Plymouth Colonists not to turn 
back to the Old World even in the terrible sufferings of their second winter- 
on these shores, gave these Connecticut Valley settlers the resolution to 
hold their ground. Then came Queen Anne's War closely following the 
struggle with Philip, and the courage of the Colonists was again severely 
tested. The destruction of Deerfield occurred in 1704 and with it the tak- 
ing into captivity of Rev. John Williams, whose subsequent book, ''The 
Redeemed Captive Returning to Zion,*' is one of the classics of colonia) 
literature. But a time of comparative peace came and with it the impulse 
to venture upon further settlement. The meadows along the Deerfield 
River in Charlemont attracted Capt. Moses Rice and Othniel Taylor, who 
settled there in 1741. 

At this time not a settlement had been made within the present bor- 
ders of Heath, then partially included in what was called the Green & 
Walker grant. In the Spring of 1741 a party of surveyors under Richard 
Hazen of Haverhill went through the northern part of the town in running- 
the official boundary line of Massachusetts under commission of Governor 
Belcher. Probably they were the first white men to set foot within this 
territory. 

In 1744 Fort Shirley was built in the northeastern part of Heath. It 
was the first regular fort built to protect the northern frontier of Massa- 
chusetts from the French and Indians, and was named for Governor Wil- 
liam Shirley, who had succeeded Belcher. A little later Fort Pelham in 
Rowe and Fort Massachusetts in Adams were built, and to the eastward 
several lesser forts or stockaded houses were added to the line. Fort 
Shirley, however, was not only the first but the principal fort and the- 



HEATH: A HISTORIC HILL TOWN 221 

headquarters of the commanding officer. Fort Shirley was constructed 
under the direction of Col. John Stoddard of Northampton and the follow- 
ing description is of interest: 

"For the outside white pine logs were scored down and then hewn six 
inches thick and fourteen inches high. The walls of the fort were twelve 
feet high, the timhers laid edgewise one above the other, each being dove- 
tailed to the one below by red oak dowel pins. Those ends of these tim- 
bers that came to the four corners of the fort were dovetailed into each 
other in the well known manner, so that there were straight lines and strong 
locking at the corners. There were two mounts on two corners of the fort 
twelve feet square and seven feet high, the houses and barracks within the 
fort were eleven feet wide with shingled roofs, and the mount timber, the 
insides of the houses, and the floors were all hewn presumably of the same 
width and thickness as the wall timbers. "* 

The size of the fort, it should be added, was about sixty feet square. 
Only a few traces of the fort now remain, but the site and several acres 
of surrounding land are now the property of the Heath Historical Society. 
The location of the building is marked by a boulder with an inscription, 
all being a gift to the society by Mrs. Felicia Emerson Welch of Amherst, 
Mass. While Fort Shirley was garrisoned Rev. John Norton was the 
Chaplain, and his daughter Anna died and was buried within the enclosure. 
The spot was marked at the time by a simple stone with the inscription — 

Hear lys ye body of Anna 

D : of ye Rev : 

Mr. John Norton. She died 

Aug; ye — aged — 1747. 

Some thirty years ago this little stone was carried to Williams College 
but quite recently has been restored to Heath. 

In 1752 Jonathan White came from Lancaster and built a house in 
Charlemont up on the hill north from the river in what is now Heath. He 
was a man of education and high standing and of considerable wealth. 
He had seen active service against the Indians, and after coming to Heath 
he enlisted in the French and Indian War and in its campaigns was the 
hero of many hard fought battles. 

White was commissioned Colonel Feb. 18, 1756, and ordered with his 
regiment to Lake Champlain. His service extended to the end of the war, 

•Prof. A. L. Perry, Heath Centennial address, Aug. 19, 1SS5. 



222 THE MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 

and he won a high reputation as a capable and gallant officer. His de- 
scendants became prominent in the affairs of Heath. His youngest son, 
Asaph White, born in 1747, was selectman for many years and possessed 
a high order of business and executive ability. He built the turnpike over 
Hoosac Mountain, and the Second Massachusetts turnpike, so-called, also 
the turnpike from Athol to Boston. He established a clothing mill in 
Heath and constructed many roads and buildings. His grandson, Hon. 
Joseph White, is now remembered as the very efficient secretary of the 
Massachusetts Board of Education for many years. 

Hugh Maxwell, of Scotch ancestry, was born in Minterburn, Tyrone 
Co., north of Ireland, April 27, 1733, came with his parents in infancy 
to Bedford, Mass., which town was his home until his fortieth year. Like 
"his contemporary, Washington, he studied and practiced surveying in his 
early life, but at the breaking out of the French and Indian War enlisted 
in the army and served to the end of the conflict. He became, says a Bed- 
ford historian, "a famous warrior and military leader." In 1773 he removed 
to Heath — still a part of Charlemont. Only two years later the alarm at 
Lexington and Concord brought him again into the field with the Bed- 
ford men; and, as the same writer says, "Concord had her Emerson; Lex- 
ington, Clark; while in Bedford, Hugh Maxwell came to the front with 
somewhat of the heroism and organizing power which inspired his father 
to lead his entire family across the ocean to escape oppression." After the 
close of the war Col. Maxwell was prominent in civil life and a leading 
citizen of Heath until his death which occurred from a fever while on a 
voyage home from the West Indies, where he had gone with a cargo of 
"horses in an attempt to retrieve his fortune, after being embarrassed by 
unfortunate losses. 

In the Heath ''South Burying Ground" is a simple marble shaft bear- 
ing this inscription : 

A Soldier and an Officer in the French War from 1755 to 
1764, Escaped the massacre at Ft. Wm. Henry 1756; A Member 
of the first Provincial Congress 1774: A brave and faithful officer 
in the war of the Revolution from April 1775 to April 1784; was 
at the siege of Boston and the Retreat from Long Island and 
New York: fought at Bunker Hill, Trenton, Princeton. Saratoga 
* and Monmouth : Suffered in the camps at Morristown and Valley 
Forge: Watched for three years on the lines near Xew York 
under General Heath Who said to him, ''Often have I slept with- 
out fear of being surprised because I knew you were at the out- 



HEATH: A HISTORIC HILL TOWN 22$ 

post/' In civil life, he obtained the charter of this town ; Was 
the first justice commissioned in this section, the first deacon in 
the first church in this town, a Christian Patriot and Christian 
Soldier: Honored his God, served his Country; Loved his family: 
to Duty was ever True. To his posterity His memory is a rich 
inheritance; May they emulate his virtues. 

Lieut. Benjamin Maxwell, who came to Heath a few years after his 
brother Hugh, also fought in the French and Indian War, was in various 




WHERE THE OLD FORT STOOD 

campaigns in the Revolution, and was present at the surrender of Bur- 
goyne. He died in Heath February 2, 1829, aged 92. 

It is here worthy of note that all the brothers and the sisters of Col. 
Maxwell attained to ages of a remarkably high average. Benjamin, as 
noted, lived to 92; Thompson (a Major in the Revolution) 93; William, 
95; James, 83; Margaret, 99; Sarah, above 90. 

Heath was incorporated as a town in 1785 and among other families 
prominent in its early affairs appear the names of Leavitt, Harrington, 
Smith, Thompson, Buck, Gould, Brown, Emerson. Peletiah Smith came 



,■>_■ 



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224 



THE MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 



from Amherst in 1773. He was a great-great-grandson of Lieut. Samuel 
Smith of Hadley whose name is indissolubly connected with the annals of 
that town in the years of and preceding King Philip's War. 

Rev. Jonathan Leavitt born in Suffield, Conn., in 1731, a graduate 
of Yale 1758, was the first minister in Heath. He built a commodious 
house and had a considerable farm near the present Charlemont line. 
Joshua Leavitt, noted anti-slavery writer and founder of the Xew York- 
Independent, and Col. Roger Hooker Leavitt, active in the project for 
building the Hoosac Tunnel, were his grandsons. 




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HOME OF THE HEATH HISTORICAL SOCIETY 

Although now of a greatly diminished population many of the old 
Heath families are still there represented. The Heath Historical Society 
was organized in 1899 and later incorporated. The old town house, an in- 
teresting example of simple architectural style and proportions, but sup- 
planted by a newer building, was given to the Society by the town under 
a perpetual lease. The object of the Society is "the preservation of the Old 
Town House ; the collection and safe keeping of any and all articles of 
historical interest connected with the town of Heath. Bevond this it 



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HEATH: A HISTORIC HILL TOWN 225 

purposes to ascertain and record facts of value relating to early settlers 
and their doings, to secure genealogical records of old families, to pro- 
mote interest in historical matters, and to keep alive the best traditions 
of the town." The building now contains a valuable assemblage of articles 
of historical and antiquarian interest attracting many visitors. 

"This Historical Society would aid to keep in remembrance those 
lives of heroism, self-sacrifice and daring, which, whether in escaping 
from Old World oppression, in struggling with Xew World savagery, in 
resisting the tyranny of the mother country, or in planting a new town in 
the wilderness have made possible the blessings now enjoyed by posterity. 
For this reason we gather together the records of these lives, and in this 
hall place portraits of those who have been identified with this town. It 
is fitting that here should stand the loom, the spinning-wheel, and other 
ancient implements ; also here be gathered utensils, fabrics, that once 
served an earlier generation. These are of ever increasing value for they 
are the tangible, visible links that connect the earlier generations with 
our own."* 

It is gratifying to believe that other small Massachusetts towns are 
giving increased attention to the value of their historic past. In this com- 
mercial age it is not well to forget the debt due to the early settlers. Are 
there not many other towns which well might organize and maintain his- 
torical societies similar to that in this hill town ? 

•Address before the Heath Historical Society by E. P. Guild, President, July 23, 1902. 



FIFTY YEARS OF PROBATION WORK 

IN MASSACHUSETTS 



By Rev. Frank Braman Sleeper 



"Write me as one who loves his fellow men — Ben Adhem." 

Great moral progress is shown as the justice administered in our courts 
at the present is far more humane and practical. Careful consideration is 
given to the reformation of all violators of the law who sincerely desire 
this. Every man whether upright or criminal represents great moral 
worth. Christ declared the soul of more value than "the whole world." 
Because the bright image of the coin is worn or effaced, it does not spoil 
the gold. To win a violator of the law to a life of integrity is a great moral 
triumph infinitely better than imprisonment. It is a low ideal to have no 
better use for a man than to keep him locked in a cell or grant him only 
prison liberty. Very many indicted for crime and granted probation have 
entirely changed forsaking wickedness and fully establishing a character 
of uprightness. 

By an unwritten law great moral changes always go slowly. Under 
the old Roman government the life of a slave or plebian was of little or no 
value. The ancient Hebrew law demanded "life for life, eye for eye, tooth 
for tooth, hand for hand, foot for foot." In the Star Chamber trials of Eng- 
land the accused had. no rights that the government was bound to respect. 
He could have no lawyer to plead his case, was not allowed to cross ex- 
amine witnesses against him nor to summon witnesses on. his side. One 
hundred years ago justice in our own country was administered with great 
severity. Mercy was no part of court or prison treatment and probation 
was unknown. 

•The old saying "You may drive out nature with a pitch-fork but it will 
return" has great force. But there is none of the pitch-fork in probation. 
It is a system of pure reasoning, deep love and exaltation of moral, social 
and intellectual life. It is as devoid of brute force as the holy gospel of 
Christ. It leads men to know self, to attain noblest character, to set supreme 
value on the pearl of pearls, the integrity of the soul. 



PROBATION WORK IN MASSACHUSETTS 227 

In 1853 Hon. P. Henry Aldrich became District Attorney in Worces- 
ter. With a heart full of love for humanity he was not satisfied with 
prosecuting and convicting only. A man of large judicial knowledge and 
great ability, he held that he had the legal right to afford a criminal ''a 
second chance" who gave evidence of sincere reformation. He said "I 
have the opportunity of doing a great deal of good in this way." He was 
greatly encouraged by the many who were allowed probation and became 
upright citizens. In 1875 he was appointed Judge of the Superior Court. 

There are some very positive men (we hope they are few) who have 
the spirit of heartless justice. The probation system will never satisfy 
this class. Carl Schurz describes certain religionists who demand "a well 
kept hell fire to roast sinners. " It is reasoned that society is not safe ex- 
cept as criminals are punished and that severely: that the hot branding 
iron must be put upon them to deter others from committing evil. There 
is, however, no historic proof that punishment lessens crime. Wicked 
men dare their chances with the hope of not being detected in evil or if 
arrested of escaping conviction. Wise probation promises to do far more, 
and that permanently, for the moral improvement of society. As the burned 
child dreads the fire so there is ten-fold greater motive for the one who 
has tasted the bitterness of crime to lead an upright life and to influence 
others the same way. 

Hon. Daniel W. Bond was District Attorney from 1877 to 1889. He 
was of the same spirit as Judge Aldrich concerning probation. There was 
in his soul the same intense purpose that men should realize the wicked- 
ness of crime and become good citizens. Probation was then in its crude, 
untested, undeveloped form and aroused opposition and sneers on the part 
of many. But Attorney Bond had large faith in its success. 

He tells the following: A young man who was guilty of an assault 
did not appear to have the heart of a determined criminal. A man living 
in the town where he resided went surety for him and he was allowed pro- 
bation on condition that if his future conduct was right his case should not 
come up in court again. This was the last of any violation of the law by 
him. He lived uprightly, was elected a selectman and for some years was 
chairman of the board. This was a test case. Had he been prosecuted, 
convicted and sentenced there was serious danger of his becoming dis- 
couraged, desperate and hardened. 

In 1890 Hon. Mr. Bond was appointed Judge of the Superior Court. 
He has maintained the same deep practical interest in the probation system. 
is laboring earnestly for it, and has growing faith in its work of permanent 



228 THE MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 

reform. He has been Chairman of the Committee of Judges of the Superior 
Court on probation. Judges Aldrich and Bond so far as known are the 
fathers or pioneers of the probation method. 

At the first it was not expected that the probation system would in- 
clude anything more serious than misdemeanors. Felony was looked 
upon as unpardonable. Many could not get rid of the idea of an ounce of 
punishment for an ounce of crime. Shylock's pound of flesh is but a 
rougher way of stating this. But the development of the probation 
system has shown that felony may be atoned for. It is a crime capable of 
repentance and restitution. It affords the defaulter, thief and gambler 
the opportunity of getting right in the sight of God and man. 

A young man at the gambling tables staked and entirely lost money 
belonging to his employer and was arrested. The probation officer be- 
lieved he would entirely reform if given an opportunity. His employer 
at the first was opposed to leniency. He claimed that justice and the good 
of the community demanded punishment but afterwards he agreed to pro- 
bation. The condition was that the young man should pay what he had 
unlawfully taken as fast as he reasonably could. This was his first and 
only crime. The money was all refunded. He works for the same em- 
ployer who rejoices in his uprightness. 

The following Massachusetts Statutes show the progress of probation. 

ACT OF 1878. 

The Mayor of the city of Boston shall appoint annually in the month 
of May and whenever a vacancy occurs, either from the police force of 
said city or from the citizens at large, a suitable person whose duty it 
shall be to attend the sessions of the Court of Criminal Jurisdiction held 
within the County of Suffolk to investigate the cases of persons charged 
or convicted of crimes (and misdemeanors) and shall recommend to such 
courts the placing on probation of such persons as may reasonably be ex- 
pected to reform without punishment. It shall be the further duty of such 
officer so far as the same is practicable to visit the offenders placed- on 
probation by the court at his suggestion and render such assistance and 
encouragement as will tend to prevent their again offending. These offi- 
cers are under the control of the chief of police. (Chapter 198.) 

. Probation proved a large success in Boston. If it worked well there 
why not in other places in the Commonwealth? Xew hopes were inspired 
in the hearts of philanthropists concerning the so-called criminal class. 



PROBATION WORK IN MASSACHUSETTS 229 

The demand arose: Give other cities and towns in our State the opportunity 
of changing men from vice to integrity. Two years later, the Massachu- 
setts Legislature passed another law. 

ACT OF 1880. 
The aldermen of any city except Boston and' the selectmen of any 
town may establish the office of probation officer and fix his salary. When 
the office has been established, the officer may be appointed by the Mayor 
subject to the confirmation of the aldermen or the selectmen and shall 
hold his office until removed by the ^aldermen or selectmen. Such proba- 
tion officer shall carefully inquire into the character and offence of every 
person arrested for crime in his city or town for the purpose of ascertain- 
ing whether the accused may reasonably be expected to reform without 
punishment and shall keep a full record of the results of his investigations. 
(Chapter 129.) 

In eleven years a larger light shone on probation. It was better under- 
stood and rendered more systematic. Probation has won its way to great 
influence by constant use and success among the criminal class as it has 
restored them to righteousness. After eleven years the Massachusetts 
Legislature passed the third enactment. 

ACT OF 1891. 

The Justice of each municipal, police or district court shall appoint 
one person to perform the duties of probation officer as hereinafter named 
under the jurisdiction of said Court. He shall not be a member of the 
regular police force. Each probation officer shall inquire into the nature 
of every criminal case brought before the Court under whose jurisdiction 
he acts and may recommend that any person convicted by said Court be 
placed on probation. The Court may place the person so convicted in the 
care of said probation officer for such time and upon such condition as 
may seem proper. (Chapter 35G.) 

The probation system was characterized by great moral progress as 
during the next five years it took cognizance of more serious offences. 
If larger crimes could be genuinely atoned for it proved the moral 
greatness of the method. The Massachusetts Statutes were broadened 
as larger knowdedge of probation justified. 

ACT OF 1898. 
The Superior Court may appoint probation officers who shall have 
the same powers and perform the same duties in any part of the Common- 



230 THE MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 

wealth for the Superior Court as the probation officers now have or per- 
form when appointed under the probation of ch. 356 of act of 1891, and 
the Superior Court may place upon probation under any of said probation 
officers any person charged of a criminal offence before it, and may direct 
them to act in any part of the Commonwealth and to report to the Court. 
(Chapter 512.) 

Our leading jurists are strongly pronounced in favor of the probation 
system. Judge Charles A. DeCourcy, of the Superior Court. President 
of the Massachusetts Conference of Charities, at the annual meeting in 
Lynn, November 6. 1907, in his masterly address, said : 

"Probation affects every American who holds dear the character of 
our citizenship. . . . Some day Massachusetts will take up this great 
problem in a comprehensive and practical way; for it is forcing itself upon 
our attention with a persistency that cannot be ignored. . . . The 
advantages of reformation are both to the community and to the law 
"breaker. To the State it means not simply economy as to the expense of 
trial and imprisonment and often the support of a dependent family, 
but the saving of a man from a life of war against society, and, his resto- 
ration to good citizenship with all that it implies. 

I speak not now of the habitual or professional criminal who has for- 
feited Jiis right to live free in society ; but of him who can be reformed. 
. . . For such fellow men the public needs to be interested ; not with 
weak sentimentality, but sanely and with intelligent discrimination ! With- 
in our Commonwealth probation has already accomplished much in re- 
ducing the cost of crime, lessening the prison population and saving men 
and women from vice." 

ACT OF 1908. 

The Massachusetts Legislature authorized the Chief Justice of the 
Superior Court to appoint five Probation Commissioners who in turn are 
to appoint a Deputy State Probation official who shall fulfill such duties 
as the Commission shall direct him. This will arrange the work in the 
Commonwealth more systematic and with greater efficiency. This change 
takes place October 1st of this year. 

In conformity with the Act of 1908 the following have been appointed 
as the State Probation Commissioners: Judges Charles A. DeCourcy 
and Robert O. Harris of the Superior Court, Judge Wm. Sullivan of 
the Municipal Court, John D. McLaughlin, Esq.. and Joseph Lee, Esq. 
This Commission is made up of men of large public experience, and who 



PROBATION WORK IN MASSACHUSETTS 231 

'will look carefully to the probation work throughout the Commonwealth. 
Their first meeting was October 3d, when they chose Judge DeCourcy as 
•chairman and Mr. Lee as secretary. They have appointed Edwin Mulready 
of Rockland as Deputy Probation Commissioner for the State. He lias 
'been probation officer of Plymouth and Norfolk counties ten years. This 
new office is a position requiring great diplomacy in dealing with the 
"hard problems that are sure to arise all over the Commonwealth. By 
reason of his long experience and marked ability he is nobly fitted for this 
office and large beneficial results may be looked for. 

Hon. John A. Aiken, Chief Justice of the Superior Court, has made 
long and thorough investigation of probation. He gives us the following 
statement, weighty with thought and experience. It is what he has known 
in many of his cases in Court. 

"The Judge imposing sentences, as a rule is not seriously perplexed by 
offenders over twenty-five years of age. At this period character is so 
fixed that there is little likelihood of changing. The controlling influences 
in favor of a sentence are restraint or example, or both. But many of the 
offenders are in their minority. It is startling to realize that the majority 
of defendants in criminal court are lads between sixteen and twenty-one 
years old. In cases where the offence is a first one, experience justifies 
trying some other course than imprisonment. But experience is often 
-disheartening. The sum of the whole matter is as follows : Imprisonment 
in a penal institution is blight or ruin. Probation may save. The doubt 
should be determined in the defendant's favor. The field of operation is 
in both the lower and higher courts. The temperament of the probation 
officer is vital. The keeping of records is important. But love of his erring 
iellow beings in conjunction with sound judgment is more so." 

The work of the probation officer is intensely nerve-wearing. He 
must have infinite patience, indomitable perseverance and deepest love for 
man. It proves highest joy when a criminal sincerely reforms, but a sad 
-disappointment when an unruly probationer must be surrendered to the 
Court for sentence. Judge Bond's words are very true "You must not 
always expect success. Some persons seem bound to go to the bad after 
the kindest and truest labor in their behalf." 

In a sense the probation officer is like the priest at the confessional. 
"Whatever revelation is made or crime acknowdedged is forever sacred. 
This gives the probationer full confidence to tell the worst. Some have 
"blamed the probation officer for keeping this secret. But it is the only 
possible way of accomplishing a great moral change. The Judges of our 



232 ... THE MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 

Superior Court heartily sanction this. The principle involved is twofold, 
1. The information is given for moral purposes and the offender has the 
right to strict confidence. 2. It enables the official to fully know the ca-c 
and to help the ward accordingly. 

Ella M told her sad story of evil to the probation officer with 

the assurance of its being strictly confidential. She had a deep longing to 
forsake her low life and to live purely. Encouraged by him her conduct 
and associates were entirely changed. After five years of integrity she 
said, "He has proven my human savior. I know not where I should be at 
the present if he had not interested himself in me."' To Haunt her story 
anew to the world would tend to drive her to the hell of desperation and 
wickedness. 

Some have criticised probation as a weak system encouraging evil 
doers in vice as long as they could obtain mercy. It is little known how 
strict probation is. There is a "Thus far and no farther" like a high wall 
of impassable fire. The following card clearly stating the requirements 
binding on the probationer, is given him at the first. 

"The Court has placed you on probation under bonds to give you an 
opportunity to reform without punishment, and the Probation Officer has 
become your bondsman to save you from prison on the following terms and 
condition : 

That you diligently perform some lawful employment. 

That you be of good behavior and keep the peace toward all persons. 

That you pay to the Court the costs you have made the County when 
the Court requires. 

That you report to the Probation Officer at such times and places as 
he may require. 

That you notify the Probation Officer immediately of any change in 
your address. 

If your promise is willfully violated or neglected you will be sur- 
rendered to the Court." 

The above means just what it says. The grip of the law is a grip of 
steel. To escape is like trying to flee from fate. A man pleaded for pro- 
bation. He said that desire for strong drink w r as the cause of his com- 
mitting larceny. He failed, however, to tell the probation officer or the 
court all the facts. It was afterwards ascertained that he was the husband 
of a wife who within a few weeks had given birth to a child. After he was 
allowed probation he fled into New Hampshire. When the wife appeared 
he had left no word for her. Her husband's location was ascertained, an 
officer went to the shop where he was at work and the probationer was 
brought back, surrendered to Court and sentenced. Probation has no 
mercy for such. 

The duties of a probation officer are manifold. 

1. He is to seek work for his wards who need it. Idleness and want 
are the direct cause of more felony than any other source. Many having- 
honest employment by which the necessities of life are paid for are con- 



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• PROBATION WORK IN MASSACHUSETTS 233 

.tented and live uprightly. There is a noble disposition on the part of em- 
\ployers, so far as they can, to help the probation officer by giving work 
.to those he recommends.. 

2. The probation officer is authorized by law to spend a reasonable 
•-amount on a needy ward. If hungry he may feed him. If sick, he can 

afford medical attendance or a nurse. If in rags, he may be clothed. If 
away from home needing to return, a ticket will be purchased. Money is 
not to be thrown away hut a small sum used judiciously will bridge over 
a hard place. The probation officer keeps an account of such expenditures 
■and is reimbursed by the county on an order from the Court. 

3. The probation records are never open to the public. Xo reporter 
•can read these that he may write up a startling story. Xo detective from 
this source can work up his case. Xo meddlesome gossip can fill his 
"bundle of news. If crime has been committed it is buried in oblivion. 

4. The probation system is intended to and often does bring about 
restitution. In case of larceny the man is allowed probation on condition 
that as fast as he reasonably can he shall pay back wdiat he has unlawfully 
taken. The probation officer becomes the banker. He receives and pays 
to the man or firm who have suffered the financial loss. Thousands of dol- 
lars have been restored in this way. A young man, very smart and active, 
placed on probation was required to pay all that he had defrauded a neigh- 
bor. In two years the debt was cancelled. It was the making of his man- 
hood. 

5. The probation officer is to exercise large influence in opening the 
-doors of society. The bright angels of cheer for the probationer are kind 
-words, the hearty grasp of the hand, and welcoming smiles. These put 
•courage into his soul. The probation officer seldom lacks for encourage- 
ment in the best of society. 

A girl wdiose mother was dead had greatly angered her father by her 
vvildness. Out late at night she was arrested. As she was shut for the 
first time in a cell the untold horror of her situation overwhelmed her. 
Her father would have no mercy on her. He denounced her and would 
have her severely punished. The probation officer investigated her case 
and secured probation for her on her promise of reforming. Four years 

•have gone by and her life has been perfectly true. She won the love of a 

- fine young man and is happily married to him. 

: The Massachusetts probation system is winning great attention from 

all parts of the world. It has been carefully written up for leading periodi- 
cals in London and Edinborough. 

James P. Ramsey of Lowell, a very successful probation officer of 
Middlesex Superior Court was born in Scotland. In 1903 he returned to 
his birthplace. Never was an audience more interested than those in Glas- 
gow as they listened to his able addresses on probation. Members of the 
governing council of the city heard him with great profit. The result is 
that many of his plans have been adopted in that enterprising city of Scot- 
land. In 1906 a Judge came from Sweden to make thorough investigation 
of our probation system and is writing a book concerning it. 



234 THE MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 

People are asking what are its results. The answer is easily given- 
Rev. Robert Walker of Cambridge, probation officer of Middlesex Superior 
Court, is authority for the following. Take one hundred probationers. 
Out of the number 25 to 30 will entirely reform and 25 to 30 more wilt 
partly reform, leaving only 40 to 50 in the doubtful list. Drunkards give 
up their cups. Thieves, defaulters, gamblers turn to an honest life. The 
low are exalted by purest light. Husband and wife are happily united. 

The financial results of the probation system are very important. Depu- 
ty Sheriff Wheeler of Brockton says that their probation officer Mulready 
has more than saved his salary in the shortening of terms of the Superior 
Criminal Court. Taxes are thousands of dollars less because reformation 
is far cheaper than imprisonment or punishment. Our population is rapidly- 
increasing while the number of our prison inmates is materially decreasing. 

What is justice in its higher sense? Is it heartless machinery grinding" 
out definite results irrespective of the conditions of human life? Or is it 
the purpose of doing good, of protecting society, of reforming men and 
women who have been led into evil? There can be little or no doubt that 
wise probation will be extended through our Country and will have great 
influence among all civilized nations. Like electricity and the telephone 
it could only appear at its appointed time. The secrets of wisdom like the 
secrets of material forces bide their time before being told. But the judicial 
tendency of our nation and the world is combining, today as never before,, 
helpfulness and justice, mercy and strictness, reformation and the full- 
demand of the law. 

The probation system because of its multitudinous demands as varied! 
as the many probationers is open to great development. 

Doubtless I am betraying the zeal of an enthusiastic advocate in the 
writing of this article and am, glad to do so. 

Not always prison walls are best; 

He w r ho fully reforms from crime, 
Henceforth lives true to God's behest 

Shall yet attain a crown divine. 

Very strong testimonv for probation is found in a document signed by 
seventeen jurors who had been impanelled for a term in the Massachusetts- 
Superior Criminal Court, in East Cambridge. 

"We the undersigned jurors wish to express our admiration for the 
system of probation practiced under the laws of Massachusetts in our 
Courts of justice. The humaneness of the idea struck home to us. It 
offers an opportunity for those who have been led astray and committed 
their. first criminal act thereafter to lead upright lives instead of having- 
their heads bowed under the load of a prison sentence leading usually to- 
a ruined and criminal life when they are set free. We hope that men at 
large will come to a better appreciation of the probation system.*' 

Signed by seventeen jurors. 



COLONEL WILLIAM PRESCOTT'S 

REGIMENT 



Colonel William Prescott's Minute-Men's Regiment. 1775. 

Tenth Regiment Army of the United Colonies. 1775. 

Seventh Regiment Continental Army, 1776. 



By Frank A. Gardner, M. D. 



(Concluded.) 



■ The first document relating to this regiment after the battle of Bunker 
Hill, is the following : 

"It is recommended to the Hon ble the Provincial Congrefs that the 
following officers, in Col. W. Prescott's Regiment be Commissioned 
Ebenezer Spaulding 1st Lieut 



Thomas Rogers 
John Williams 
Thomas Spalden 
Benjamin Ball 
John Mosher 
Thomas Cummings 
Joseph Baker 



2nd 

1st. Lieut. 

2nd 

2nd Lieut 

2nd Lieut 

2nd Lieut 

2nd Lieut 



At Provincial Congrefs June 25, 1775. 
delivered to the above Officers 



Capt. Parkers Compy 

Capt. Lawrence Compy 
Capt. Farwell's Compy 
Capt. Nutting's Compy 
Capt. Wimon's Compy 
Capt. Gilbert's Compy 

William Cooper Sec> r 

Ordered that Commifsions be 

att Sam 1 Freeman Sec*'" 



Captain Reuben Dow and Lieutenant John Goss were ordered to be 
commissioned by the Provincial Congress. June 26, 1775. A petition, dated 
June 27, 1775, had the names of the following officers of this regiment 
appended : William Prescott, Henry Woods, John Xutting, Nathaniel 
Lakin, Asa Lawrence, Abijah Wyman and Henry Farwell. 

Explanation of Names. Minute-Mens Regiments. Raised for emeraencv calls and responded to the 
Lexington Alarm of April 19, 1775. Provincial Army of Massachusetts, May-June 177o. commanded by- 
General Artemas Ward. Army op the United. Colonies (or Provinces) July-December 1775. commanded 
by General Washington. 38 regiments, 27 of which were from Massachusetts. Continental Army of 1776, 
commanded by General Washington, a National Army of 27 regiments, 16 from Massachusetts. Line Regi- 
ments of the National Army, 1777-1783. General Washington Commander-in-Chief. Regiments of each 
state numbered separately, as 1st. 2nd, 3d, and so on to 16th, Massachusetts Line. In addition to the above 
were the special regiments raised for particular service, the artillery and dragoon regiments, and the Militia 
regiments raised and numbered by counties. 



236 



THE MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 



• On the third of July, 1775, the day on which General Washington took 
command of the army, this regiment was ordered to "equip, . . . march 
this evening and take possession of the woods leading to Lechmere's Point." 
This was a point of land in what is now East Cambridge which extended 
toward Charlestown. A redoubt crowned the hill just west of the point. 
From the Journals of the Provincial Congress, we find that: "Nine small 
arms were delivered Col. William Prescott, for the use of his regiment, 
amounting by appraisement to seven pounds nine shillings," and fifteen, 
July 3, amounting to twenty-nine pounds, sixteen shillings, "for which a 
receipt was given in the minute book." Ten more were given July 5, 
valued at £27:1:4, and nine more July 28, valued at £55:19:06. 

July 22nd the regiment was stationed at the redoubt at SewalTs Point, 
and a part if not the whole of the regiment remained here through the year. 
The following list of officers is taken from Colonel Henshaw's Orderly 
Book, published in the Massachusetts Historical Society Proceedings, 
v. XV, p. 79. 

Colonel, William Prescott. 
Lieut. Colonel, John Robinson. 
Major, Henry W r oods. 
Adjutant, William Green. 

Surgeon, 

Captains Lieutenants 2nd Lieutenants 



Henry Farewell 
Hugh Maxwell 
John Nutting 
Joshua Parker 
Asa Parker 
Eliphalet Densmore 
Oliver Parker 
Joseph Moore 
Abijah Wyman 
Samuel Gilbert 
Samuel Patch 
Reuben Dow 



Levi W r hitney 
Joseph Stebbins 
Nath 1 Lakin 
Amariah Fassett 
Ebenezer Spaulden 
Joseph Spaulden 
Joseph Gilbert 
Ephraim Corey 



Benja Ball 



John Moshen 
Thomas Rogers 

John Williams 
Thomas Spaulden 
Thomas Cummin gs 
Joseph Baker 



Joshua Brown 
John Goss 

Total number of officers and men 482. 



During the remaining months of 1775, the 
near Cambridge as a part of the besieging army. 



regiment did duty in or 
When the reorganization 



COLONEL WILLIAM PRESCOTT'S REGIMENT 237 

took place January 1, 1776, Colonel Prescott's Regiment, up to this time the 
10th Regiment of the Army of the United Colonies, became the 7th Con- 
tinental Regiment. The list of officers in this new command is given in 
the "Army and Navy of the United States' 7 as follows; — 

Captains . 1st Lieutenants 2nd Lieutenants Ensigns 



Hugh Maxwell Thomas' Xowell Benjamin Ball William Taylor 

John Nutting Benjamin Brown John Mosher Edmond Bancrofft 

Samuel Darby Eleazer Spoulding George Marsden Samuel Xason 

Jonathan Nowell John Williams Nathaniel Sartle Simeon Lord 

Joseph Moss Ebenezer Woods Samuel Brown William Xevins 

Samuel Catch Zachariah Walker Joseph Baker Obadiah Witherell 

Samuel Gilberts Joseph Gilberts Isaac Dodge Andrew Brown 

Joseph Mores Joshua Brown Jedediah Sangor Samuel Lawrence 

Col. William Prescott. Lt. Col. Johnson Moulton. Maj. Henry Woods. 
Adjutant, George Marsden. Quartermaster, Samuel Xason. 
Surgeon, John Hart. Surgeon's Mate, Abraham Parry. 

January 24, 1776, the regiments were ordered to be brigaded and 
Colonel Prescott's Regiment was assigned to General Heath's Brigade. 
The movements of the enemy made General Washington anxious for the 
safety of New York, and as soon as regiments could be spared from the 
fortifications about Boston they were sent to the former place. On the 
18th of March, the day following the evacuation of Boston by the British, 
General Washington ordered General Heath with five regiments and a 
portion of artillery, to march for Xew York, and as soon as the British 
fleet had sailed away from the mouth of Boston harbor he ordered most of 
the remainder of the army to proceed. Five regiments under General Ward 
were left to protect Boston. 

On the 7th of April, Colonel Prescott was ordered by General Israel 
Putnam, then temporarily in command at New York, to proceed to Gov- 
ernor's Island in Xew York harbor and erect breastworks. In the re- 
arrangement of the army, this regiment was assigned to General John 
Nixon's Brigade, in Major General Xathaniel Greene's Division. This 
division was composed of X^ixon's Brigade, made up of one Pennsylvania 
Regiment, two from Rhode Island, and three from Massachusetts; Heard's 
Brigade of five Xew Jersey Regiments; with twelve Connecticut Militia 
Regiments and two from Long Island. All of the regiments composing 
Nixon's and Heard's Brigades were stationed along the Long Island water 



238 THE MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 

front with the exception of those of Colonel William Prescott and Lieut. 
Colonel Thomas Xixon, which were both at Governor's Island. In Gen- 
eral Orders, May 7, 1776, we find the following: "Colonel Prescott, or 
officer commanding upon Xutten or Governour's Island, and the officer 
commanding at Red Hook, to report all extraordinaries to the Commander- 
in-Chief, upon any appearance of an enemy." 

The following letter relating to the service at this post is of interest : 

"Governour's Island, July 3, 1776. 
May it please your Honour ; 

We, the Officer's of the Seventh Regiment, stationed on Gouvernour's 
Island, are determined to fight in defence of our country to the last ; yet 
we think too much for America to risk such an important post as this with 
seven or eight hundred men, especially considering the extensiveness of 
the lines we have to defend, and the difficulty which will attend our im- 
mediate supplies, when most probably in case of an attack wind and tide 
will be against them ; whereas, should a sufficient number be on the spot to 
withstand any force that could be sent against them, they would have the 
same advantage of wind and tide with the enemy, should they aim at any- 
other part. We think it likewise very necessary to have some field-pieces 
and a reinforcement of the train, in order to secure the retreat, should it 
be thought proper, from the out works to the citadel. 

We therefore, pray your Honour to represent the affair to his Excel- 
lency, and solicit a proper reinforcement, which in our opinion cannot be- 
less than two thousand men. We are, as in duty bound, your Honour's 
most obedient humble servants. 

William Prescott, Colonel. 

Johnson Moulton, Lieutenant Colonel. 

Henry Woods, Major. 

In behalf of ourselves and Officers, to the Honourable Brigadier Gen- 
eral Heath." 

General Nixon's Brigade was made up of the ' following regiments r 
August 12, 1776: Late Nixon's, Prescott's, Yarnum's. Little's, and Hand's. 
The regiment remained there until August 30-31. Bancroft alludes to 
their departure from the island as follows: 'Tor the time Washington 
could only hope to keep at bay the great army opposed to him. The 
dilatoriness of his antagonist left him leisure to withdraw the garrison from 
Governor's Island, where Prescott ran almost as great a risk of captivity as 



COLONEL WILLIAM PRESCOTT'S REGIMENT 239' 

at Bunker Hill." During the following weeks the regiment shared in the 
conflicts and hardships incidental to the withdrawal from Xew York Island. 
After the American troops had taken their new position on the northern 
bank of the Harlem River, Howe's great ambition was to get in their rear. 
He made a desperate attempt to do this in October. Lamb in his "History 
of the City of Xew York'' describes this movement of Howe's forces as fol- 
lows : "On the 12th, (Oct. 1776), Howe's army was in motion. Men-of- 
war sailed up the East River and fiat-bottomed boats with bright scarlet 
burdens floated upon the bosom of the shining waters. The landing was 
at Frog's (Throgg's) Neck, practically a tide island, which was then con- 
nected with the mainland by a bridge over a mill-dam, which, built by 
Caleb Heathcoate in 1695, stood until February, 1875, when it was acci- 
dentally burned. 'Had they pushed their' imaginations to discover a worst 
place/ wrote Duer, 'they could not have succeeded better.' Hand and his 
(New York) riflemen, stationed on the other side of the bridge, pulled up 
the planks, and Prescott, of Bunker Hill renown, with his command behind 
breastworks hastily thrown up, resisted every attempt of the enemy to 
cross; relieved from time to time by other regiments, the Americans ac- 
tually prevented Howe from marching beyond the cover of his shipping. 
After losing five days, he re-embarked his troops and crossed to Pell's 
Neck." Howe then decided to strike at White Plains, to which place Gen- 
eral Washington had sent a corps and had his stores transferred from- 
Connecticut. 

A return of the regiment, dated October 31, 1776, showed that its ranks 
had been markedly thinned. Of the rank and file only 211 were fit for duty, 
46 were present but sick, 59 absent and sick, and 60 were absent on com- 
mand, a total of only 376 exclusive of officers. Four days later a return of 
this regiment was made, as a part of General Parson's Brigade. The num- 
ber of rank and file was the same as given above and the list of officers con- 
sisted of a Colonel, a Lieut. -Colonel, 6 Captains, 4 First Lieutenants, 
6 Second Lieutenants, 4 Ensigns, 1 Chaplain, 1 Adjutant, 1 Paymaster, and' 
of non-commissioned officers, 21 Sergeants and 9 fifers and drummers. They 
reported "wanting to complete" 1 Sergeant, 1 drum and fife and 264 rankr 
and file, 

November 18, this regiment was stationed with two other regiments 
of General Parson's Brigade (Ward's and Wylly's) and General Scott's 
Brigade, in the gorge of the mountains by Robinson's Bridge. On Novem- 
ber 30, three men of this regiment were reported sick at Stamford and" 
recommended by the surgeon for discharge. December 9, General Parsons- 



240 : THE MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 

•received the following - communication from his division commander at 
Peekskill ;— 

"Dear Sir; 

I have this moment received orders from General Washington to move 
over the North River with the Continental troops under my command, to 
wit; your brigade. You will therefore immediately give orders to Prescott's, 
Ward's and Wylly's regiments, to be ready to march tomorrow., at ten 
o'clock; tents, kettles, and light baggage only to be carried. The heavy 
baggage to be left with the men who are unfit for duty. Four days' pro- 
visions to be taken. Hard biscuit may be drawn. 

I am, dear sir, vours &c 

W. Heath, 

Major General." 

The regiment disbanded at the close of the year and its members 
joined various other organizations or returned to their homes in Massa- 
chusetts. It is interesting to note in closing, the similarity of the work done 
by the organization at all the posts to which it was assigned. The com- 
manding generals certainly recognized the fact that Colonel Prescott's par- 
ticular forte was the erection and defense of breastworks. This was the 
work laid out for him at Bunker Hill, Lechmere's Point, Sewall's Point, 
Governor's Island and Throgg's Neck. That he performed his duty satis- 
factorily to his superiors is proven by his being repeatedly detailed to do 
such work. His personal bravery and ability to handle his men have 
both been demonstrated in the preceding pages. 

A study of the distribution of the officers of this regiment in 1777 is 
interesting. We know that at least eight of them held commissions in 
Colonel John Bailey's 2nd Regiment Massachusetts line : six in Colonel 
Jonathan Reed's 6th Regiment Middlesex County Militia : three in Colonel 
Michael Jackson's 8th Regiment Massachusetts line ; three in Colonel 
Timothy Bigelow's 15th Regiment Massachusetts line; and one or two 
in several other regiments. ^ , 

COLONEL WILLIAM PRESCOTT, son of Judge Benjamin Pres- 
cott, was born in Groton, Mass., Feb. 20, 1726. His great grandparents 
were John and Mary (Platts) Prescott of Lincolnshire. England, who 
immigrated to this country at an early date and founded Lancaster. Mass. 
William Prescott early in life moved out from Groton to an unsettled 
part of the country and established a home. Others followed and the 
settlement thus established finally developed into a township, which was 



COLONEL WILLIAM PRESCOTT'S REGIMENT 241 

named in lienor of Sir William Pepperell. He took an active part in the 
French and Indian war, serving as Lieutenant under General John VVinslow 
in the expedition against Cape Breton in 1754 and against Acadia in the 
following year. During this service he was promoted to the rank of Cap- 
tain.. In recognition of his gallantry he was offered a commission in the 
Royal Army, but declined and returned to his farm in Pepperell. He 
married Abigail Hale. 

He openly advocated resistance to royal authority as early as April 
1774, and was soon after appointed Colonel of a regiment of minute men, 
receiving his commission from General Joseph Warren. His service on ' 
the Lexington alarm has been given in the history of the regiment. A 
commission as Colonel was issued to him May 26, from the Provincial 
Congress. The story of his brilliant achievements in the Battle of Bunker 
Hill has already been told. The following extract from Judge Prescott's 
"Memoirs," shows the spirit in which our hero entered the conflict: "Colonel 
Prescott had determined never to be taken alive. A few months before the 
battle, while he commanded a regiment of minute-men, his brother-in-law* 
Colonel Willard, was at his house; and endeavoring to dissuade him from 
the active part he was taking against the king's government, among other 
things suggested, that if he should be found in arms against it, his life and 
estate would be forfeited for treason. He replied: T have made my mind 
on this subject. I think it probable L may be found in arms, but I never 
will be taken alive. The Tories shall never have the satisfaction of seeing 
me hanged.', He went to the heights with that resolution." It is narrated 
that while General Gage was watching the Americans on Breed's Hill 
through his glass, that this same Willard, a mandamus councillor, was 
standing beside him. Gage enquired "Who is the person who appears to 
command?" Willard replied that the man was his brother-in-law, and on 
being asked if he would fight, replied: ''Yes, that man will fight h — 1, and 
if his men are like him you will have bloody work today." Colonel Pres- 
cott showed great personal courage throughout the battle and we are told 
in the "Memoirs" that on the retreat he "came to a house on Charlestown 
Street near the neck, where three or four men had just prepared a bowl of 
punch, and which they presented to Colonel Prescott before having tasted 
it. This to a man suffering with fatigue and parched with thirst was a 
most gratifying and acceptable offering. Prescott took the bowl, but be- 
fore he had time to partake of its contents a cannon ball passed through 
the house, upon which the men immediately fled, leaving Colonel Prescott 
to drain the bowl by himself and at his leisure." 



242 THE MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 

The Colonel's record through 1775 has been told in the story of the 
regiment. On January 1, 1776. he was commissioned Colonel of the 7th 
-Continental Regiment and served through the year as its commander. An 
-interesting anecdote is told of him while his regiment was stationed near 
New York. One of the '*out guards brought in a British deserter. As they 
.approached the camp the deserter observed to the guards, 'that officer 
yonder is Colonel Prescott? The guard informed the Colonel of the fact. 
'How came you to know me?' inquired Colonel Prescott. 'I saw you on 
Bunker Hill' replied the soldier 'and recollected you immediately.' 'Why 
-did you not kill me at that time?' asked Colonel Prescott. 'I tried my best' 
said the soldier. T took deliberate aim at you more than once when I 
thought it impossible for you to escape. I also pushed at you several times 
with my bayonet when you were as near as I could have wished, and after 
•several of us had taken possession of your works.' 'You are a brave fellow* 
•said Colonel, 'come into my tent and I will treat you.' " 

His service as regimental commander ended when the army was re- 
organized at the close of 1776. He has a record of "Colonel, serving as 
volunteer, Capt. James Hosley's co. of Volunteers, Col. Jonathan Reed's 
Reg't, engaged Sept. 26, 1777; discharged Nov. 9, 1777, service 1 mo. 15 
days." Dr. William Everett stated in his oration that; ''His withdrawal 
from the field of arms seems to have been hastened by a serious injury, 
•contracted in some of his farming operations at Pepperell." 

He was elected as a representative to the Massachusetts Legislature 
Tor several years and at the time of the insurrection in 1786 was charged 
with its suppression in Middlesex County. He died in Pepperell, October 
13, 1795. A monument to his memory has been erected near his birthplace 
at Groton, and a statue was unveiled near the scene of the conflict in 
Charlestown, in 1881. We are indebted to his grand-niece, Mrs. Sarah 
(Chaplin) Rockwood, for a description of the Colonel, given to Dr. Samuel 
A. Green in 1887. She was a girl of ten years when Colonel Prescott died, 
and remembered him well. She stated that he was "a tall, welf-proportioned 
man, with blue eyes and a large head. He usually wore a skull-cap, and 
"he parted his hair in the middle, wearing it long behind, braided loosely 
and tied in a club with a black ribbon, as was common in those days. He 
had a pleasant countenance, and was remarkably social and full of fun and 
anecdote. He was dignified in his manners, and always had the bearing 
•of a soldier." 

A writer in Dawson's "Battles of the United States." refers to him as 
""a genuine specimen of an energetic, brave, and patriotic citizen, who 



COLONEL WILLIAM PRESCOTT'S REGIMENT 243 

*was ready in the hour of danger to place himself in the van, and partake 
in all the perils of his country; feeling anxious for its prosperity, without 
taring to share in its emoluments; and maintaining beneath a plain ex- 
terior and simple habits, a dignified pride in his native land, and a high- 
minded love of freedom." Dr. Everett spoke of him as: "Large, athletic, 
•open in his look, generous in his temper, hearty and eager to listen to the 
call of friendship to an exten-t that injured his own fortune, he lived to the 
last, loved and honored in his own town not merely for what he had done 
but for what he was, — a man who could not help charming all who knew 
him." 

LIEUT. COLOXEL JOHX ROBIXSOX, of Westford, entered the 
service as second officer in Colonel William Prescott's Minute-Men's 
Regiment and served with that organization on April 19, 1775. Rev. Dr. 
Ripley stated that he was present at the Concord fight and took an active 
-part in it. He left his home on the alarm, mounting his horse and hurrying 
to Concord. ''Family tradition gives him credit of assuming the command 
rat the bridge upon being invited to do so/'* 

He received his Provincial commission May 26, 1775, and served 
through the year. Much confusion has occurred because his name has 
frequently been spelled "Robertson" in the records. Under that name he 
-was mentioned in the army orders May 18, and 25, 1775. He served as 
field officer of the day May 19, and 26. January 23. 1776, he was chosen 
"by ballot in the House of Representatives to be Colonel in command of a 
regiment to be raised in Middlesex and Lincoln Counties. This was one 
•of six regiments raised at that time to serve until April 1, 1776. On May 8, 
1777, he was commissioned Colonel of a regiment to be raised for the de- 
fence of Boston harbor. June 27, he was commissioned Colonel of a regi- 
ment to serve until January 1. 1778. He served in June 1782, for three 
days as Colonel of Colonel David Mosely's (3d Hampshire County) 
Regiment. 

LIEUT. COLOXEL JOHXSOX MOULTOX was Captain of a 
-company of York County Minute-Men which marched in response to the 
Lexington alarm of April 19. A petition was presented May 15, 1775, 
that he be appointed Colonel of a regiment with James Scammon. Lieut. 
Colonel, but Scammon was commissioned commander and Moulton second 
in command. He served through the year in that regiment (30th in the 

♦History of Westford. 



244 THE MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 

Army of the United Colonies), and January 1, 1776 was commissioned 
Lieut. Colonel in the 7th Continental, under Colonel William Prescott 

MAJOR HENRY WOODS of Peppered was the son of Lieutenant 
Isaac and Abigail (Stevens) Woods of Groton. He was born September 
4, 1733. He served as a Lieutenant at Fort Halifax in the French and 
Indian War, and was afterwards Captain of the troop of horse in Colonel 
Oliver Prescott's Regiment. 'He was a member of the Middlesex County 
Convention in 1774. He held the rank of Major in Colonel William Pres- 
cott's Minute-men's Regiment, April 19. 1775, and in the 10th Regiment 
Army of the United Colonies through 1775 and the 7th Regiment in the 
Continental Army in 177(5, all under the same commander. In 1777-89 he 
served as Lieut. Colonel in Colonel Nathaniel Wade's Regiment. He was 
commissioned Colonel by brevet in 1783. He was a member of the Massa- 
chusetts Constitutional Convention in 1779 and a member of the General 
Court 1777-1780. The following entry is reproduced in ''Groton During 
the Revolution": "Tuesy 7 (Oct., 1783). General Training Col 1 Woods* 
Regt. the Metross Comp>* at Lt Abel Bancroft's expence 2-6 each at 
dinner.'' In Shay's Rebellion he was a Colonel and afterwards Brigadier 
General of Massachusetts Militia. He was a commissioner for the direct 
tax in 1798. At the age of seventy one he rode to Concord to review the 
troops, and coming on to the common on a young horse, the horse reared 
and fell on him. He died a few days later (March 5, 1804) of internal 
injuries. 

CAPTAIN EPHRAIM COREY came from Stow and was engaged 
April 24. 1775 as a First Lieutenant. He is mentioned as serving in this 
rank in the companies of Captains Oliver Parker and Joseph Moore, and 
Lieutenant "Sartell." He was in command of a company of men from 
Groton, Londonderry (N. H.) etc. -at the battle of Bunker Hill and lost 
one man killed and one taken prisoner. He was cashiered November 17, 
1775. His name appears as a Second Lieutenant in the Col. Rufus 
Putnam's 5th Regiment Massachusetts line in 1777. In the ''Historical 
Register of the Officers of the Continental Army" it is stated that he was 
commissioned First Lieutenant in the last named regiment, January 1, 
1777, and that he was cashiered October 29, of the same year. 

CAPTAIN SAMUEL DARBY of York (now Maine) was First Lieu- 
tenant of Captain Johnson Moulton's Company of (York County) Minute- 
men. He was engaged for that service, April 21, 1775. He was chosen 
Captain of a company in Colonel James Scammon's Regiment, his name 



COLONEL WILLIAM PRESCOTT'S REGIMENT 245 

appearing in a list dated May 23, 1775. The company was made up of 
59 officers and men from York and Berwick. He served through the 
year in this command and in Colonel William Prescott's 7th Continental 
Regiment through 1776. January 1, 1777, he was commissioned Captain 
in Colonel John Bailey's 2nd Regiment of the Massachusetts Line, serving 
with the command until September 30. 1778, when he was commi<Moned 
Major of Colonel John Brook's (late Alden's) 7th Regiment of the Line. 
His name is found in connection with the regiment as late as November 
22, 1782. He was transferred to Colonel Michael Jackson's 8th Regiment 
of the Massachusetts Line, January 1, 1783 and served until June 12. He 
died February, 1807. 

CAPTAIN ELIPHALET DIXSMORE commanded a company of 51 
men as early as May 26, 1775. He served until June 13, when Samuel 
Gilbert was commissioned in his place, Dinsmore having petitioned to be 
relieved on account of ill health. 

CAPTAIN REUBEN DOW came from Salem. N. H. and was in 
Hollis, N. H. as early as 1761. He. was a Selectman in 1769-70 and Lieu- 
tenant of the Hollis Militia Company in January 1775. He was chosen 
Captain of the Hollis Minute-men's Company which marched to Cam- 
bridge April 19, 1775. He commanded a company in Colonel William 
Prescott's Regiment, entering upon that service May 19th. On the 26th 
of that month, this company of men raised in the intensely patriotic 
town of Hollis, numbered 51 men. They were in the thickest of the fight 
in the redoubt at Bunker Hill, and seven men in its ranks were killed. 
Captain Dow was among the wounded and was never able to'return to 
the army. A commission was ordered to be delivered to him June 26th 
He was a U. S. pensioner for life. He served as chairman of the Hollis 
Committee of Safety, in 1776, and Representative to the N. H. General 
Court in 1778. His two sons, Evans and Stephen, were revolutionary 
soldiers. He died February 11, 1811, aged 81. 

CAPTAIN HENRY FARWELL was the son of William and Eliza- 
beth Farwell of Groton. He was born in that town July 21, 1724. He com- 
manded a company of Minute-men in Colonel Prescott's Regiment, April 
19, 1775, and was ordered to be commissioned May 26th. His company 
was raised in Groton, Townsend, Chelmsford and Pepperell. It numbered 
69 men on the last named date. In the battle of Bunker Hill there was 
one fatality in this company and the Captain himself was severely 



246 THE MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 

wounded. His name however appears on muster rolls later in the year. 
He died at his homestead near the head of Farmer's Row, in Groton, 
January 9, 1804. 

CAPTAIX SAMUEL GILBERT of Littleton was a Sergeant in Cap- 
tain Samuel Reed's Company of Minute-men in Colonel William Prescott's 
Regiment, April 19, 1775. He was commissioned Captain June 13, 1775, 
in place of Eliphalet Dinsmore. (q. v.) This company was raised in Little- 
ton, etc. Four of its members were killed in the battle of Bunker Hill. He 
served through the year in this regiment and in the 7th Continental 
Regiment in 1776, under the same commander. The Continental Army 
pay accounts from January 1, 1777 until November 1, 1778, show that he 
was enrolled as a Captain in (late) Colonel Prescott's Regiment some of 
the time at least between these dates. 

CAPTAIX HEXRY HASKELL of Shirley commanded a company 
-of Minute-men in Colonel James Prescott's Regiment and marched April 19, 
1775. He returned home after 18 days' service. In 1776 he was a Captain 
in Colonel Prescott's Regiment. A certificate signed by Colonel William 
Prescott, dated February 17, 1776, states that Captain Haskell with the 
officers of his company, "behaved themselves as good officers and appeared 
faithfull in the Cause." His commission was ordered in the Council, Febru- 
ary 23, 1776. A vote of the Council dated February 1, 1777, ordered that 
his commission as Lieut. Colonel of Colonel Nicholas Dike's Regiment, 
be issued to date from Dec. 1, 1776. His name also appears in the Conti- 
nental Army pay accounts as Lieut. Colonel in Colonel Timothy Bigelow's 
15th Regiment, Massachusetts line, from January 1, 1777 to July 1, 1779. 

CAPTAIX JAMES HOSLEY of Townsend, was the commander of 
one of the companies of Minute-men in Colonel William Prescott's Regi- 
ment, April 19, 1775, and served 21 days. April 24, 1776, he was commis- 
sioned Captain of the 10th Company in Colonel Jonathan Reed's 6th 
Middlesex County Regiment. He was engaged as Captain of a company 
of volunteers in a regiment commanded by the same officer, September 
26, 1777, serving one month and fifteen days. 

CAPTAIX ASA LAWREXCE was born in Groton, June 14. 1737. 
He was the son of Deacon Peleg and Ruth (Brooks) Lawrence. He was 
a Corporal in Captain Jonathan Rolfe's Company in the French and Indian 
War, enlisting June 12, 1760, and serving 25 weeks and 2 days. His colonial 
war record was endorsed Feb. 6, 1761. He marched from Groton. April 19, 



COLONEL WILLIAM PRESCOTT'S REGIMENT 247 

1775, in command of a Company of Minute-men from Groton, Pepperell, 
Littleton and Raby (N. H.). This organization left Groton as an in- 
dependent company but was soon after (April 25) attached to Colonel 
"William Prescott's Regiment and served in that command through the 
jear. His commission was dated May 29, 1775. On May 26, the company 
numbered in all 55 men. Six of the quota were killed or taken prisoner 
in the battle of Bunker Hill. Captain Lawrence lost the following articles 
in the battle: a gun valued at £2:8:0, a blanket £0:12:0, a tumpline 
£0:1:8. one "Bagnit" £0:6:0. He commanded a company of volunteers 
in Col. Jonathan Reed's 6th Middlesex County Regiment from September 
27 to .November 9, 1777. May 17, 1778 he was commissioned Captain in 
•Colonel Poor's Regiment. In a regimental order dated West Point. Octo- 
ber 12, 1778 with other officers, he was discharged from further service in 
the regiment. He died at Groton, Jan. 16, 1804. 

CAPTAIN HUGH MAXWELL served as Major in a Minute-men's 
IRegiment, commanded by Lieut. Colonel^ Samuel Williams, service from 
April 21, 19 days. He was engaged May 10, as a Captain in Colonel 
"William Prescott's Regiment and served throughout the year. The com- 
pany was raised in Charlemont, Deerfield and Nottingham and numbered 
52 men, May 26, 1775. One member died on June 17th at Bunker Hill 
and another on the 18th. In the following year he commanded a company 
in Colonel Prescott's 7th Continental Regiment. Jan. 1, 1777, he entered 
Colonel John Bailey's 2nd Regiment of the Massachusetts line, and 
served six months as Captain and thirty months as Major. He con- 
tinued to serve in this command until August 1, 1782, when he became 
L^ieut. Colonel in Colonel Michael Jackson's 8th Regiment of the Massa- 
chusetts line, serving until June 12, 1783. The Historical Register of the 
Officers of the Continental Army states that he was in the service until 
November 3, 1783. and that he died October 14, 1799. 

CAPTAIN JOSEPH MOORS was ordered commissioned a Captain 
in Colonel William Prescott's Regiment, May 26, 1775. This company 
-was raised in Groton, Merrimac, etc. etc. Three of its members were killed 
in the battle of Bunker Hill. Captain Moors was allowed £5:18:00 for 
losses sustained in the battle. He commanded a company in the 7th Con- 
tinental Regiment under Colonel Prescott in 1776, and is without doubt 
the Joseph "Moore" who was commissioned Brigade Major of Middlesex 
•County Militia, April 7, 1778. He was the son of Abraham and Elizabeth 
t(Gilson) Moors. 



248 THE MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 

CAPTAIN JOSEPH MOSS commanded a company in the 7th Con- 
tinental Regiment in 1776. He was the Captain Joseph Morse who 
commanded a company of men from Natick, Roxbury, Medway, Sherborne,. 
etc. in Colonel John Paterson's 26th Regiment in 1775. He was probably 
the Captain Joseph Morse who according to a certificate of Lieut. Colonel 
Ezra Newhall, served as Captain in Colonel Rufns Putnam's Regiment 
in 1777, and was Major of Colonel Bradford's 14th Regiment Massa- 
chusetts line from November 11, 1778 to December 15, 1779, when he 
died. His widow was allowed half pay to December 16, 1786. 

CAPTAIN JONATHAN NO WE'LL came from York (now in 
Maine). He served as Captain in a company from Berwick, York, etc. in 
Colonel James Scammon's 30th Regiment, A. U. C. in 1775, and held a 
similar office in Colonel Prescott's 7th Continental in 1776. He was com- 
missioned Brigade Major of York County Militia, June 12, 1778. 

CAPTAIN JOHN NUTTING of Pepperell marched, April 19, 1775, 
in command of a company in Colonel William Prescott's Regiment of 
Minute-men. He was ordered to be commissioned May 26, his company 
numbering on that date, 61 men from Pepperell etc. Six members of the 
company lost their lives at Bunker Hill. He served through the year in 
Colonel Prescott's 10th Regiment, A. U. C, and in the 7th Continental in 
1776. He was engaged July 30, 1778, as a Captain in Colonel William Mc- 
intosh's 1st Suffolk County Regiment for the Rhode Island Expedition. He 
was discharged September 12, 1778. He lived in the northern part of 
Pepperell and was drowned May 25, 1816. 

(Captain Asa Parker's name is given in Colonel Henshaw's Orderly 
book as commanding a company in this regiment in 1775, and the name 
also appears in the Historical Register of the Officers of the Continental 
Army. We are inclined to think however that this is a mistake, as no "Cap- 
tain Asa Parker" is to be found in the Massachusetts records while the name 
of Captain Asa "Lawrence" whom we know served through the year in 
this regiment does not appear in Colonel Henshaw's list.) 

CAPTAIN JOSHUA PARKER of Westford, entered the service 
April 19, 1775, as a Sergeant in Captain Timothy Underwood's Company 
in Colonel William Prescott's Minute-men's Regiment. He was engaged 
April 26, as First Lieutenant, in Captain Oliver Bates' Company in the 
same regiment and served 29 days, when he was elected Captain. The 
company was made up of men from Westford etc. and numbered 61. May 
26, 1775. Four of his men were killed and two taken prisoner at Bunker 



COLONEL WILLIAM PRESCOTT'S REGIMENT 249 

Hill.' In 1776 he became a Captain in Colonel Jonathan Reed's 5th Middle- 
sex County Regiment, General Brickett's Brigade. He was tried by court 
martial at Ticonderoga, November 1776, and acquitted with honor. He 
■was .a Captain in Colonel Nathaniel Wade's Regiment (engaged January 1, 
■commissioned March 14, 1778) and served with that regiment in Rhode 
Island, the enlistment to expire January 1, 1779. 

CAPTAIN OLIVER PARKER of Groton was a First Lieutenant in 
Captain Asa Lawrence's Company of Minute-men which marched on the 
alarm of April 19, 1775. He was ordered commissioned a Captain in 
Colonel William Prescott's Regiment, May 26, 1775, at which time his 
company numbered but 26 men. He was dismissed August 2, 1775. 

(Cashiered. Historical Register of the Officers of the Continental 
Army, p. 317.) 

CAPTAIN SAMUEL PATCH of Stow, was ordered commissioned 
a Captain in Colonel William Prescott's Regiment, May 25, 1775. On the 
following day he had 26 men in his command, from Stow, Sudbury, 
Winchendon, etc. Two of the company were killed in the battle of 
Bunker Hill. In April 1776, he was allowed £3:13:00 for a coat and a 
""happyfack," lost in the battle. He commanded a company in Colonel 
Prescott's 7th Continental Regiment in 1776. 

CAPTAIN SAMUEL REED of Littleton, commanded a company in 
•Colonel William Prescott's Regiment of Minute-men, which marched on 
"the alarm, April 19, 1775 ; service ten days. 

CAPTAIN SAMUEL STONE of Ashby, marched April 19, 1775 at 
"head of one of the companies in Colonel William Prescott's Regiment of 
Minute-men. He is probably the same Samuel Stone who was elected 
2nd Major of Colonel Jonathan Reed's (6th Middlesex County) Regiment 
of Massachusetts Militia, in place of Jonathan Minot elected 1st Major, 
"February 15, 1776. In 1780 he was Major in Colonel Cyprian How's (4th 
Middlesex County) Regiment. 

CAPTAIN TIMOTHY UNDERWOOD of Westford was a Captain 
in Colonel W T illiam Prescott's Regiment of Minute-men which marched on 
April 19, 1775. He was ordered to be commissioned. May 26th. On that 
<late he was the only one credited to his company, although he was reported 
-as recruiting. A list dated May 25, 1775, published 4 Force II p. 824. 
•gives the name of Captain "Timo. W r oodward," but it is evidently a mis- 
take, Captain Underwood being intended. 



250 THE MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 

CAPTAIN ABIT AH WYMAN served as a Sergeant in Captain 
Samuel Stone's Company in Colonel William Prescott's Minute-men's 
Regiment April 19, 1775. His name appears next (May 25) as Captain 
in the same command. He was ordered commissioned on the following 
day at which time his company numbered 29 men in all. The company 
was raised in Ashby, Westford, etc. etc. Three men belonging to it were 
killed in the battle of Bunker Hill. 

FIRST LIEUTENANT JONAS BARRET of Ashby, was a member 
of Captain Samuel Stone's Company, in Colonel William Prescott's 
Minute-men's Regiment, April 19, 1775. He is named in a list of men who> 
served in New York for three months from December, 1776. 

FIRST LIEUTENANT BENJAMIN BROWN of Myrineld, was 
Sergeant in Captain Oliver Avery's Company of Minute-men, which 
marched April 21, 1775. He was one of the recruiting officers July 15- 
In a list of officers of the 7th Continental Regiment he is credited as First 
Lieutenant in Captain John Nutting's Company. He served as Captain- 
in the 8th Regiment Massachusetts line, from January 1, 1777, to July 26 r 
1779. He died October 1, 1821. 

FIRST LIEUTENANT JOSHUA BROW^N of Stow, served in that 
rank in Captain Samuel Patch's Company in Colonel William Prescott's 
Regiment. He was wounded at the battle of Bunker Hill. November 30. 
1775, he gave a certificate that he had lost in the battle, "a Great Coat 
and a Strait Boidi'd Coat valued at 3:10:0, Great Coat att £3:0:0. ?r 
He was a Captain in Colonel Timothy Bigelow's 15th Regiment Massa- 
chusetts line, Jan. 1. 1777, and served as late as April 9, 1779. as his name 
appears in a list bearing that date. August 1, 1779, he is called a "super- 
numerary." 

FIRST LIEUTENANT THOMAS CUMMINGS of Westford. held 
that rank in Captain Timothy Underwood's Company, in Colonel William: 
Prescott's Regiment of Minute-men, April 19. 1775; service 5 days. A 
commission as Second' Lieutenant in Captain Wyman's Company was 
ordered to be delivered to him, June 25, 1775. He was commissioned a 
Second Lieutenant in Colonel Thomas Marshall's 10th Regiment. Massa- 
chusetts line, November 6, 1776. He is given as Lieutenant in Captain 
Asa Lawrence's Company, in Colonel Jonathan Reed's Regiment, from 
September 27 to November 9, 1777. He became First Lieutenant. Novem- 
ber 1, 1777, and resigned October 13, 1778. He died October 24, 1825. 



COLONEL WILLIAM PRESCOTT'S REGIMENT 251 

FIRST LIEUTENANT AMAZIAH FASSETT of Groton, was Lorn 
in Westford, in 1742. He marched April 19, 1775, as Second Lieutenant 
in Captain Henry Fanvell's Company in Colonel William Prescott's Regi- 
ment of Minute-men. He served as Second Lieutenant in Captain Joshua 
Parker's Company, from May 6, to 24th when he was promoted to First 
Lieutenant. He was taken prisoner at the battle of Bunker Hill and died 
in Boston, Julv "ye 5th". 

FIRST LIEUTENANT ZACHERIAH FITCH was in Captain 
Henry Far-well's Company, in Colonel William Prescott's Regiment of 
Minute-men, which marched from Groton, on April 19, 1775. He was 
engaged August 3, 1776, as a Captain in Colonel Samuel Brewer's 
Regiment. 

FIRST LIEUTENANT JOSEPH GILBERT marched as a Sergeant 
in Captain Samuel Reed's Company, in Colonel William Prescott's Regi- 
ment of Minute-men, on the Lexington alarm, April 19, 1775. He served 
a short time as a Lieutenant in Captain Eliphalet Densmore's Company 
and in the same rank in that company after Captain Samuel Gilbert took 
command. The Historical Register of the Officers of the Continental Army, 
states that he was made a Captain, August, 1776. 

FIRST LIEUTENANT JOHN GOSS was born in Salisbury. Febru- 
ary 13, 1739. He removed to Hollis, N. H.. and was on the tax list there 
in 1770. He married Catherine Conant of Hollis, February 10. 1774. He 
was a selectman of Hollis that year, and a Lieutenant in the Hollis Com- 
pany of Minute-men, April 19. 1775, under the command of Captain Reuben 
Dow\ He was engaged as First Lieutenant in this Company in Colonel 
William Prescott's Regiment, April 25, 1775, and served throughout the 
year. He was Surgeon of the 5th Continental Infantry Regiment, from 
January 1, to December 31. 1776, and was Captain of a (Hollis, N. H.) 
Company in Colonel Nichol's Regiment, General Stark's Brigade, at the 
battle of Bennington. He removed with his family to Hardwick, Vermont, 
where he died September 26, 1821, aged 82. 

FIRST LIEUTENANT AARON JEWETT of Littleton, marched in 
Captain's Samuel Reed's Company, in Colonel William Prescott's Regi- 
ment of Minute-men, April 19, 1775. He was commissioned April 24. 1776, 
Captain in Colonel Jonathan Reed's 6th Middlesex County Regiment, and 
July 25, 1777, was engaged as Captain in Colonel Job Cushing's 6th Wor- 
cester County Regiment. On the 29th of the following month he was 



252 THE MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 

engaged as Captain in Colonel Samuel Ballard's 3th Middlesex County- 
Regiment. 

FIRST LIEUTENANT NATHANIEL LAKIN was born in Groton, 
December 13, 1728, the son of James and Elizabeth (Williams) Lakin. He 
settled in Pepperell and was First Lieutenant in Captain John Nutting's 
Company in Colonel William Prescott's Regiment of Minute-men, April 
19, 1775. He was in the battle of Bunker Hill and June 13, 1776, money 
was allowed him for losses sustained in that engagement. He was com- 
missioned First Lieutenant in Captain Isaac Woods' 6th Company (1st 
Pepperell) in Colonel Jonathan Reed's 6th Middlesex County Regiment, 
April 24, 1776. June 27, 1777, he was engaged as Captain in Colonel John 
Robinson's Regiment, and served in it in the Rhode Island campaign. He 
was commissioned May 13, 1778, a Captain in Colonel Josiah Sartell's 6th 
Essex County Regiment, and September 1, 1778, became Captain in 
Colonel John Jacobs's Light Infantry Regiment, the service ending Novem- 
ber 16, 1779. 

FIRST LIEUTENANT THOMAS NOWELL was in Colonel 
William Prescott's 7th Continental Regiment, in 1776. He had served 
as a Lieutenant in Captain Jonathan Nowell's Company in Colonel James 
Scammon's 30th Regiment, in the previous year. 

FIRST LIEUTENANT ELEAZER SPAULDING of Pepperell 
(also given YVestford) served in Captain" Joshua Parker's Company in 
Colonel William Prescott's Regiment, and was engaged for that service 
June 23, 1775. He may have been the Eleazer Spaulding who was a 
Corporal in Captain Josiah Sartell's Company of Minute-men, which 
marched from Groton, April 19, 1775. He was First Lieutenant in the 7th 
Continental Regiment, commanded by Colonel William Prescott, from 
January 1, to December 31, 1776. 

FIRST LIEUTENANT JOSEPH SPAULDING of Pepperell. was a 
Sergeant in Captain John Sawtell's Company, Colonel James Prescott's 
Regiment, April 19, 1775. He was a Lieutenant in Captain Asa Law- 
rence's Company, Colonel William Prescott's Regiment, enlisting April 
30, 1775. He was reported as either killed in battle or taken prisoner at 
Bunker Hill, June 17, 1775. 

FIRST LIEUTENANT JOSEPH STEBBINS served in Captain 
Hugh Maxwell's Company, Colonel William Prescott's Regiment, from 
May to December, 1775. 



COLONEL WILLIAM PRESCOTT'S REGIMENT 253 

FIRST LIEUTENANT ZACCHEtIS WALKER (called also 
"Zachariah) of Merrimac, was engaged April 26, 1775, for service in Captain 
Joseph Moor's Company, in Colonel William Prescott's Regiment. He 
served in the same rank under the same commander in the 7th Conti- 
nental Regiment in 1776. 

FIRST LIEUTENANT LEVI WHITNEY of Townsend, served in 
'Captain Henry Farwell's Company, in Colonel William Prescott's Regi- 
ment. He, enlisted April 25, 1775. He was the son of Daniel Whitney, 
and was born (probably) in Shrewsbury, December 5, 1739. He was a 
man of much mechanical ingenuity and a manufacturer of agricultural 
tools. 

FIRST LIEUTENANT JOHN WILLIAMS was born in Groton, 
July 4, 1746. He was the son of John Jr. and Elizabeth (Cutter) Williams. 
He enlisted as Second Lieutenant in Captain Asa Lawrence's Company 
: in Colonel William Prescott's Regiment, April 25, 1775. He was First 
Lieutenant in Captain Jonathan Nowell's Company, in Colonel William 
Prescott's 7th Continental Regiment, from January ; 1 to December 31, 
1776. He served as First Lieutenant in the 12th Regiment Massachusetts 
line from January 1 to July 7, when he was promoted to the rank of Captain. 
January 1, 1781, he was transferred to Colonel Joseph Yose's First Regi- 
ment, Massachusetts line. He w r as brevetted Major, November 3, 1783. 
He died July 1, 1822. 

FIRST LIEUTENANT EBENEZER WOODS of Fitchburg. served 
■as Captain in Colonel Asa Whitcomb's Regiment, April 19, 1775. He was 
recommended for commission as Lieutenant in Captain James Burt's 
Company in the same organization, June 9, 1775, and his commission was 
ordered on the 12th. He was First Lieutenant of Captain Joseph Moss's 
Company in Colonel William Prescott's 7th Continental Regiment through 
the year 1776. 

FIRST LIEUTENANT RICHARD WYER of Townsend held that 
rank in Captain James Hosley's Company in Colonel William Prescott's 
Regiment of Minute-men, April 19, 1775. 

.SECOND LIEUTENANT JOSEPH BAKER of Littleton enlisted 
April 30, 1775, in Captain Samuel Gilbert's Company, Colonel William 
Prescott's Regiment, and served through the year. He held the same 
rank in the 7th Continental Regiment in 1776. January 1, 1777, he was 
appointed First Lieutenant in Captain Darby's Company in Colonel John 



254 THE MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 

Bailey's 2nd Massachusetts Regiment of the line. He was deranged, 
April 1, 1779. 

SECOND LIEUTEXAXT BENJAMIN BALL of Townsend, was a 
Sergeant in Captain James Hosier's Company, Colonel William Prescott's 
Regiment of Minute-men, and marched with them April 19th. He enlisted 
April 25, as Second Lieutenant in Captain Henry Farwell's Company.. 
and was commissioned June 25th. In 1776 he served as Second Lieutenant 
in the 7th Continental Regiment and January 1, 1777, was conimissioned 
a First Lieutenant in Colonel John Bailey's 2nd Regiment Massachusetts 
line. He resigned February 23, 1778. 

SECOND LIEL T TENANT EDMUND BANCROFT of Pepperell, 

was a Sergeant in Captain Nutting's Company, in Colonel William Pres- 
cott's Regiment of Minute-men. He was commissioned Ensign in the 
7th Continental Regiment, January 1, 1776, and Second Lieutenant 
August 27. January 1, 1777, he joined Colonel Timothy Bigelow's 15th 
Regiment, Massachusetts line, as First Lieutenant, and served in it until 
his death, June 25, 1777. 

SECOND LIEUTENANT JAMES BENNET of Ashby, was an 
officer in Captain Samuel Stone's Company in Colonel William Prescott's 
Regiment of Minute-men, April 19, 1775. 

SECOND LIEUTENANT ABIJAH BOYNTON of Pepperell. held 
that rank in Captain John Nutting's Company in Colonel William Pres- 
cott's Minute-men's Regiment, April 19, 1775. He w r as commissioned,. 
April 24, 1776. a Second Lieutenant in Captain Jabez Holden's Company, 
in Colonel Samuel Thatcher's 1st Middlesex County Regiment. March 
31, 1778, he petitioned to be released as Second Lieutenant of the 6th 
Company of the 6th Middlesex County Regiment. May 13, 1778, he was 
commissioned First Lieutenant in Captain Nathaniel Lakin's Company 
in the 6th Middlesex County (also given Col. Sartell's 6th Essex County) 
Regiment. 

SECOND LIEUTENANT JOHN BROWN was born in Groton. 
Mass., March 16, 1737. His name was on the Hollis, N. H.. tax list as early 
as 1758. He enlisted April 19, 1775, in Captain Reuben Dow's Company 
of Minute-men from Hollis, N. H. Six days later he was engaged as 
Second Lieutenant of Captain Reuben Dow's Company of Colonel William 
Prescott's Regiment. He was with his company at the battle of Bunker 
Hill. In a company return dated October 6, 1775 he is named as Ensign: 



COLONEL WILLIAM PRESCOTT'S REGIMENT 255 

of the same company and regiment. It is believed that he removed to 
Hancock, N. H., after the war. 

SECOXD LIEUTENANT SAMUEL BROWN of Acton, was in 
Captain Samuel Patch's Company in Colonel William "Prescoat's" Regi- 
ment., (company return dated October 7, 1775) and was reported on 
command at Quebec. He served in the same rank in 1776. in Captain John 
Nutting's Company in Colonel William Prescott's 7th Continental 
Regiment. 

SECOXD LIEUTENANT JOHN CUMIXGS of Hollis, X. H., 

held that rank in Captain Reuben Dow's Company, in Colonel William 

Prescott's Regiment, according to a muster roll dated August 1, 1775. He 

. was also given as Ensign in the same company in October of the same year. 

SECOXD LIEUTEXAXT ISAAC DODGE of Groton. was engaged 
May 10, 1775, to serve in that rank in Captain Joseph Moors's Company, 
Colonel William Prescott's Regiment. He held the same rank in Captain 
Samuel Gilbert's Company in the 7th Continental Regiment in 1776. 

SECOXD LIEUTEXAXT ELIPHALET DUXSMORE of Littleton, 
served in Captain Samuel Reed's Company, in Colonel William Prescott's 
Regiment of Minute-men. April 19, 1775. Service six days. He was re- 
ported to have enlisted in the army, later. 

SECOXD LIEUTEXAXT JAMES LOCK of Townsend, served in 
Captain James Hosley's Company, in Colonel William Prescott's Regiment 
' of Minute-men. on the alarm, April 19," 1775. Service 19 days. 

SECOXD LIEUTEXAXT JOHX MOSHER of Pepperell. was a 
Sergeant in Captain John X"utting's Companv. in Colonel William Pres- 
cott's Regiment of Minute-men, April 19, 1775. He was engaged for 
further service April 25, serving 9 days as Sergeant and then as Second 
Lieutenant. He held the same rank in the 7th Continental Regiment in 
1776, and was commissioned First Lieutenant in Colonel Michael Jack- 
son's 8th Regiment Massachusetts line, lanuarv 1, 1777. Retired December 
15, 1778. 

' SECOXD LIEUTEXAXT PHILIP ROBBIXS of Westford. held 
that rank in Captain Timothy L^nderwood's Company, in Colonel William 
Prescott's Regiment of Minute-men, April 19, 1775. He was engaged as 
Sergeant in Captain Abijah Wyman's Company under the same Colonel. 
April 24, 1775. 



256 THE MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 

SECOND LIEUTENANT THOMAS ROGERS of Westford, was 

a Sergeant in Captain Oliver Bates' Company, in Colonel James Prescott's 
Regiment. He was promoted Second Lieutenant, May 24, 1775, and 
ordered commissioned in Captain Joshua Parker's Company, in Colonel 
William Prescott's Regiment, June 25, 1775. 

SECOND LIEUTENANT JAMES RUSSELL of Litchfield, N. H., 
was engaged for service in Captain Hugh Maxwell's Company, Colonel 
William Prescott's Regiment, April 28, 1775. The records show that he 
remained with the command through the year, although his name is 
omitted from several lists in the archives, and published records. 

SECOND LIEUTENANT JEDEDIAH SANGOR of Sherburne, was 
a private in Captain Benjamin Bullard's Company of Minute-men in 
Colonel Abijah Peirce's Regiment, which marched April 19, 1775. He was 
Second Lieutenant in Captain Joseph Morse's Company in Colonel John 
Paterson's 26th A. U. C. Regiment later in 1775. In the following year he 
Tield the same rank in Colonel William Prescott's 7th Continental Regi- 
ment. He was commissioned July 22, 1779, First Lieutenant in Captain 
Lealand's 1st Company, in Colonel Abner Perry's 5th Middlesex County 
Regiment, and served in the same company in Rhode Island in 1780. He 
"was engaged March 7, 1781, as First Lieutenant in Captain Staples Cham- 
"berlin's Company in Colonel Dean's (4th Bristol County?) Regiment. 
Engaged March 7, 1781. 

SECOND LIEUTENANT NATHANIEL SARTELL (SART- 
WELL) of Pepperell marched as Sergeant in Captain John Nutting's 
Company in Colonel William Prescott's Regiment of Minute-men, April 
19, 1775. He was engaged as Lieutenant in command of a company, April 
.24. Later he served in Captain Ephraim Corey's Company, (q. v.) He 
-was Second Lieutenant in Captain Jonathan Nowell's Company in Colonel 
William Prescott's 7th Continental Regiment, from January 1, to Decem- 
ber 31, 1776. In 1777 he was a Lieutenant in Captain James Hosley's 
Company of Volunteers, in Colonel Jonathan Reed's 6th Middlesex County 
Regiment. In 1779 he served as Lieutenant in Captain Thomas Hovey's 
Company in Colonel Nathan Tyler's 3d Worcester County Regiment. 

SECOND LIEUTENANT THOMAS SPAULDING of Pepperell, 
-was a Sergeant in Captain Asa Lawrence's Company, in Colonel William 
Prescott's Regiment, engaged April 28, 1775. He served in this rank until 
June 17, when he was promoted to Second Lieutenant, serving as late as 
October 6, if not through the year. 



COLONEL WILLIAM PRESCOTT'S REGIMENT 257 

EXSIGX ANDREW BROWN of Pepperell, was a private in Captain 
John Nutting's Company, in Colonel William Preseott's Minute-men's 
Regiment, April 19, 1775. He was First Sergeant in Captain Thomas 
Wait Foster's Company, in Colonel Richard Gridley's Artillery Regiment, 
enlisting in it April 26, 1775. In 1776 he served as Ensign in Colonel 
William Preseott's 7th Continental Regiment. He held the office of 
Deputy Muster-Master General of the Eastern Department, from March 
23, 1777 to the close of the war. He died January 4, 1797. 

ENSIGN SAMUEL LAWRENCE of Groton was the son of Captain 
Amos Lawrence. He was a Corporal in Captain Henry Farwell's Com- 
pany, in Colonel William Preseott's Regiment of Minute-men, April 19, 
1775. He served as Sergeant later in the year and was an Ensign in the 
7th Continental Regiment from January 1, to December 31, 1776. Accord- 
ing to the "Historical Register of Officers in the Continental Army," he 
was Major of Militia in Massachusetts in 1777-8. He died November 8 y 
1827. 

ENSIGN SIMEON LORD of Berwick, held that rank in the 7th 
Continental Regiment in 1776. He w r as a Sergeant in Colonel James 
Scammon's 30th Regiment, A. L T . C. in 1775. He served as a Lieutenant in 
Colonel John Bailey's 2nd Regiment, Massachusetts line, from January 1, 
1777, to December 31, 1779, and as Captain-Lieutenant in the same command 
through the following year. He was commissioned Captain, May 21, 1781, 
and served as Assistant Adjutant General from February 1, to June 3, 1783. 

ENSIGN WILLIAM NEVINS of Hollis, N. H., served as a Sergeant 
in Captain Reuben Dow's Company, in Colonel William Preseott's 
Regiment. He was engaged April 25, 1775, and was in the battle of 
Bunker Hill, loosing a knapsack valued at 1:8, a "jacoat" at £1:4:0 and 
a tumpline 1 :4. He w r as allow-ed 17:4. In 1776 he held an Ensign's com- 
mission in the 7th Continental Regiment. He served as First Lieutenant 
in Colonel John Bailey's 2nd Regiment, Massachusetts line, from January 
1, 1777 to June 1783. 

ENSIGN EPHRAIM PROCTOR of Littleton, was a private in Cap- 
tain Samuel Reed's Company, in Colonel William 'Preseott's Regiment 
of Minute-men, April 19, 1775. Later in- the year he was a Sergeant in 
Captain Samuel Gilbert's Company under the same commander. He was 
an Ensign in the 7th Continental Regiment, and in October, 1776, was 
reported "sick and absent". 



258 THE MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 

ENSIGN JOSEPH SHEAD of the 7th Continental Regiment, was 
-mentioned as being sick October 4, 1776. A Joseph Shead served as a 
private under Major Loammi Baldwin, in May, 1775. 

ENSIGN WILLIAM TAYLOR of Myrifield, was a Sergeant in 
Colonel William Prescott's Regiment from May to December, 1775. He 
Avas an Ensign in the 7th Continental Regiment in 1776 and First Lieu- 
-tenant in Colonel John Bailey's 2nd Regiment, Massachusetts line, January 
1, 1777. He served to June, 1783. 

ENSIGN OBADIAH WETHERELL was a Sergeant in Captain Asa 
Lawrence's Company in Colonel William Prescott's Regiment in 1775. 
He was in the battle of Bunker Hill and was remunerated for clothing lost. 
He served as Ensign in the 7th Continental through 1776, and was elected 
Second Lieutenant in Colonel Michael Jackson's 8th Regiment, Massa- 
chusetts line, January 1, 1777. He resigned September 14, 1780. 

The following served as staff officers under Colonel William Pres- 
•cott; — 

ADJUTANT WILLIAM GREEN, entered the service April 19. 1775, 
and was ordered commissioned May 26th He was wounded at Bunker 
.Hill but served through the year. 

ADJUTANT GEORGE MARSDEN of Londonderry, was Second 
Lieutenant and Adjutant of Colonel James Scammon's 30th Regiment, 
A. U. C. in 1775. (Engaged April 29.) He was Adjutant of the 7th Conti- 
-nental throughout the year 1776. October 1, 1777 he was promoted to 
First Lieutenant in Colonel Sherburne's Additional Regiment. He re- 
signed August 10, 1778. 

SURGEON JOHN HART, son of John Hart a lawyer, was born in 
Ipswich, October 23, 1751. He studied medicine under the eminent Dr. 
John Calef, and began practice at Georgetown, now Bath, Maine, at the 
age of nineteen. He was engaged to serve April 23. 1775, and entered the 
service as Surgeon of Colonel William Prescott's Regiment, May 1st 
He was in this regiment through the year, and in 1776 in the 7th Conti- 
nental under the same commander. January 1, 1777, he was commissioned 
'Surgeon in Colonel John Bailey's 2nd Regiment, Massachusetts line and 
served in that command until it disbanded in July, 1784. He was Principal 
'Surgeon at West Point in 1783-4. At the execution of Major Andre, he was 
one of those appointed to attend. He described it as the saddest scene he 
«ever witnessed. After the war he settled in the South Parish of Reading, 



COLONEL WILLIAM PRESCOTTS REGIMENT 259 

near Crystal Lake, and soon had a large practice. He was a Justice of 
the Peace and of the Quorum, and also of the Sessions, and served eight 
years in the House and five in the Senate of Massachusetts. He was an 
enthusiastic member of the Society of the Cincinnati and always attended 
its meetings. He was Vice- President of the Society from 1834 until his 
death, which occurred April 27, 1836. 

SURGEOX'S MATE ABRAHAM PARLEY of Gloucester was en- 
gaged August 4, 1775, and served through the year in Colonel William 
Prescott's 10th Regiment. He held the same office of the 7th Continental 
Regiment in 1776. 

SURGEOX'S MATE JACOB BACOX was reported "on command in 
Jersey" October 4, 1776. He served in that office in Colonel Scammon's 
Regiment through 1775 and in the 7th Continental in 1776. 

CHAPLAIX ■ COOK of the 7th Continental, was 

reported present but sick. A Chaplain X'oah Cook held that office in the 
Eastern Department of the Continental Army, from September 18, 1777, to 
"October 1, 1780, but he came from New Hampshire. 

QUARTERMASTER ZACHARIAH LOXGLEY of Groton, was en- 
gaged April 19, 1775, in Colonel William Prescott's Regiment, and served 
through the year. A Zachariah Longley also of Groton, served as a private 
in Captain Holden's Company, Colonel Jonathan Reed's 6th Middlesex 
County Regiment, and from 1777 to 1780 in Captain Sylvanus Smith's 
Company in Colonel Timothy Bigelow's 15th Regiment Massachusetts 
line. 

EXSIGX T SAMUEL X'ASOX of York, was Quartermaster in Colonel 
James Scammon's 30th Regiment, from May to December, 1775, and En- 
sign and Quartermaster of the 7th Continental Regiment through 1776. 
He was appointed Captain of a matross company in York County in 1777 
.-and commissioned December 9, 1777. 



(Continued from Vol. 1, No. 3.) 

PERSONAL DIARY OF ASHLEY BOWEN OF 

MARBLEHEAD.* 



III. 

(View of the northern shore of the Saint Lawrence river just below 
Quebec, showing Montmorenci falls and His Majesty's ship Centurion,, 
anchored in the stream.) 



Line of 


Battleships on the Expedition against Quebec 1759. 


Frigates Rates Ships 


Commanders 


G 


uns 


Men 


Divisions 




3 Bedford 


Capt Fowke 




64 


480 




Lowestaff 


B Fredrick 


' ' Routh 




64 


480 




Zephye \ 


Terrible 


" Collins 




74 


600 




Richmond 


P Amelia 


Phil Durell Esq 
Capt Brady 




80 


665 


Rear Adme of 
the Blue. 


Cormorant 


Devenshier 


" Gordon 




66 


520 




Fier S. 












~ 


Porcupine 


4 Sutherland 


Rous 




50 


350 




Foy 


3 Somerset 


Hughes 




64 


480 




Diane 


4 P Orengue 


Wallis 




60 


420 




Scarborough 


Pembroke 


Wheelock 




66 


420 




N 


3 Starling Cast 


Everitt 




64 


480 




Visciveies 


Shrewsbury 


Polliser 




74 


600 




Fier 














Hine 


2 Neptune 


Cholls Sanders 
Capt Hartwell 


Esq 


96 


770 


Vice Admir 
of the Blew 


Scorpiae 


3 Orford 


Sprye 




70 


520 





In this diary are recorded events occurring between April, 1759 and January 31, 1776. The material in 
it prior to 1773 was made up largely of the records of several independent periods and transactions. These 
we have separated and designated by Roman numerals. Some of these sections are of less value than others 
but it has been deemed advisable for the sake of completeness to publish them. We have presented nearly 
all of this miscellaneous material and in the next number will be^in the publication of the daily record of 
events from June, 1773 to January 31, 1776. During these three last named years. Mr. Bowen took copies 
of "Bickerstaff's Boston Almanack" and interleaved them, allowing from two to ei^ht pages of paper between 
the printed monthlv sheets. These inserted leaves he filled with a chronological record of events which 
transpired during this three- year period. 

These were eventful years in the intensely patriotic town of Marblehead, and many interesting things 
transpired. Mr. Bowen has narrated with painstaking accuracy everything which occurred of especial im- 
portance. His interest in shippin:; and military attairs, from his previous experiences in the French war, 
increased his value as a chronicler of Rev.jluti jnary events. Several students of this period who have ex- 
amined the original manuscript have expressed themselves delighted with its contents and their value. We 
feel that as the readers of the Massachusetts Magazine study these records in the next few numbers, they will 
readily understand the peculiar satisfaction which we have in presenting them. 



DIARY OF ASHLEY BOWEN 



261 



Eurus 




Allfred Douglafs 


Squirrel 




Captain Amhust 


Rodney Cutt 


4 


Centurion Mantell 


Seahorse 


o 
O 


Trident 


Strombole 


2 


Roy 1 William 


Trent 


3 


Dublin 


Hunter 




Vanguard 


Echo 


4 


Midway 


Race Horse 


3 


Northumberland 


Pillecan & 






Bothemion 




year 1760 


Pensants 40 


3 


Northumberland 


Diana 30 




Vanguard 


Lezard 30 




Trident 


Fostalf lost 




Altered 


Druds lost 




Pembroke 


Race horse 




Prince Oreng 


Porcupine 




Southerland 


Vengents 




Folkener 
Kingston 
Rochester 



64 500 
64 480 
50 350 



This 



page 



missing. 



(Map of region around Quebec, showing Quebec, 
Orleans, Buport, Montmorenci falls etc.) 



P. Leve," Isle of 



IV. 

(The following list of names is entered in the diary without note or 
comment. It is evidently a list of the men who went on the" voyage to 
Halifax in March and April 1759. That voyage terminated April 16th, which 
is the date given at the end of the list. It will be noted also that many of 
the names in this list were also in the lists published of the men who were on 
the voyage mentioned. See section I.) 

William Cockern March 19 
John Goldsmith Do 20 
« Thomas Woodfine April 2 
John Bateman March 20 



Ashley Bowen March 31 
John Melzard April y e 2 
Thomas Peach Do 2 
Waltor Stouer Do 6 



262 



THE MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 



William Mathews Do 6 
William Horn March 29 
Edward Arcors Do 29 
Johnath Welch April 2 
Robort Tompson Do 2 
Zachir Pain Do 2 
Garatt Fanel Do 6 
Benjamin Nicholus Do 6 
Edward Kinsley Do 6 
Miles Dolton March 21 
Arthur Loyd April 4 
Samu 1 Lock March y e 29 
Roper Linsted Do 19 
Chals Jacob Do 19 



Fridreck Swaburg Do 20 
Robert Bartlett March 29 
Isac Whoren Do 23 
Thomas Dove April 2 
Samu 1 Lines Do 2 
Samu 1 Corfering Do 2 
William Oncles Do 2 
Thomas Wolpy Do 2 
Edward Sovering March 21 
John Stedman Do 29 
Frances Mesalt Do 19 

To Aprill y e 16 1759 



V. 

A List of Men Died on Board of the Ship Thorntun no her Pashage 
from Queback to Boston 

1759 



October y e 


2 Dd Nathanil Bacor 


1 


Ditto 


y 


7 Dd Richord Bacor 


2 


Ditto 


y 


12 Dd John Dier 


3 


Ditto 


y 


14 Dd Josheph Chanler 


4 


Ditto 


y 


16 Dd Josheph Mash 


5 


Ditto 


y 


18 Dd Thomas Youngman 


6 


Ditto 


y 


19 Dd George Robordson 


7 


Ditto 


y 


20 Dd Thomas Lewcos 


8 


Ditto 


y 


20 Dd Will m Dowe 


9 


Ditto 


y 


21 Dd John Ruderford 


10 


Ditto 


y 


21 Dd David Kant 


11 


Ditto 


y 


21 Dd Nathan" Holems 


12 


Ditto 


ye 


21 Dd Thomas Groos 


13 


Ditto 


y 


21 Dd John Hopkings 


14 


Ditto 


y 


22 Dd Jonat Studley 


15 


Ditto 


y 


8 Dd Joseph Bartelatt 


16 


Ditto 


y 


23 Dd Will m Shurley 


17 


Ditto 


y 


24 Dd Benja m Nichcolas 


18 



DIARY OF ASHLEY BOWEN * 263 

VI. 

Sunday y e 28 Recived from on board the fair amarica Capt Tompson 
of Damage flower — 

"by Tridents Long Boat • 45 

Tridents Batto 20 

Tridents flatt Boatt * 39 

Tridents Long Boatt 48 

Tridents flatt Boatt . 38 

Octo y e 1 Recived flower by Prince Oreng 

Long Boat 10 

"by flatt Boat 13 

Ditto by flatt & Long Boatt 34 

Octo y e 2 Recived flower 

oy Tridents Batto ' 20 

Tridents Batto 21 

"by P. Oreng Long Boatt 2 

P Oreng Long Boatt 17 

P Oreng flatt Boatt 29 

Trident Batto 20 

Trident Long Boat 2 

Octo y 3 Recivd flower 

"by P Oreng Long Boatt 13 

and Batto 22 



393 

VII. 

Fryday May 16 1760 
Recivd on board 22 Bundels heay 

Thursday May y e 22 1760 

Pecivd on board 18 bundl of heay Ditto 6 Shovels 6 hand Pumps 1 Lan- 
thoren 6 Warter Pailes 1 Pare of Ox Slings to 7 U of Deck nale 
Ditto Recivd on board 28 Oxen - 



264 THE MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 

Frday May y e 23 1760 
this dav Cash Lavd out 



to a card 


1: 


2- 


to a Scale 


1: 


10- 


to a Callender 


1: 


2- 


to a Jurnel Book 


0: 


1S- 


to a Book of Dr s 


0: 


9- 



this Morning hailed off in the Rohd and gott our Small Stones on Bord. 

VIII. 

Schooner Swallow In a voyage to fitt out at Boston 

350 - 350 - 



at Lewis Burge 


9 - 


for a Pilote at Cuder 


18 - 


to a Barrel of Beef 


18 - 


to 4 gallons of Meloses 


4 -5 


to a Barrell of Porke 


45 - 


old Stuf 


454 -5 



to the five men on pay 4 at 22: 10 135:00 540: 

myself at 30 Pound old Slur 180: 



720 
454 



1174 





IX 




1760 


Shoe Buckels 


£ 5:00:00 


Childrens Ditto 


4:05:00 


2 Large Spoons 


9:10:00 


5 Tea Spoons 


5:00:00 


1 Stone Ring I 


10:10:00 


1 pair Stone Earings 


8:10:00 



DIARY OF ASHLEY BOWEN 205 



Old Tend £ 42:15:00 

Toahattat 8:05:00 

To 4 Tickets @ 2 Dollars E 1S:00:00 
To a pare of Small Skels 2 :05 :00 

To a pare of Shous 2:00:00 

To 3 Bottols of Snuf @ 16s 2:06:00 
To 5i yards of Co ton bl @ 13/6 3:14:03 
To 2 pare of Gloves @ 22/6 2:05:00 



this Sum at Boston 


81:10:03 


To M* T M 


25:00:00 


To Capt T E d 


25:00:00 


To Capt Nath 1 Bowen 


8:00:00 


To Capt Jam s Mugford 


7^00:00 


To M r Swett 


3:00:00 


to horse hire to boston &c 


6:00:00 


To M r John Prince 


2:10:00 


- 


157:00:03 


Tho s Collings Cash 


4:10:00 


to a holl hogg @ 2-3 


5:15:00 


Cor nl Bourne 


6:15:00 


M" Bowen Expense 


30:00:00 




47:00:00 




157 



204:00:00 
to My Self a pair of Breches 6:15:00 



210:15:00 




p 



r; SA s ~i ". ^ 'i-- -V -'* -W -^# 






^^^/^i 



/ . . * 



est- *w*^*; "2%**/ -" 












»-■-"--- V"-J-^-r r-nT-T -nirtii rm 



j£ , .: -■,*-, 



^nl» ' * 



-.--■■ 



"View of the northern shore of the Saint Lawrence river just below Quebec, showing Montmorenci 
falls and His Majesty's ship Centurion, anchored in the stream." 




"Map of region around Quebec, showing Quebec, 'P. Leve,' Isle of Orleans, 
Buport, Montmorency falls etc." 



THE ROLL OF CAPT. JOSIAH WILLARD'S 
COMPANY AT FORT DUMMER. 



By George Sheldon 



Since the History of Northfield was written, I have discovered the roll 
of Captain Josiah Willard's Company at Fort Dummer, June 9, 1742. The 
names show that the garrison were men residing in the neighborhood, and so 
citizens of Massachusetts. 

Fort Dummer was built by Massachusetts, in 1724, and was still held 
by her in 1742. Although the new line which ultimately transferred the 
territory on which it stood to Vermont, had been determined by King 
George in 1740, it was many years before the line was established. 

It will be seen that the names of several Indians are borne on this 
roll. It had been the policy of the government for years to take every 
available means to divert the trade of the northern and western Indians 
from Canada to our frontiers. There were two objects to be attained if 
possible, incidentally to gain the profits of the fur trade, but primarily to 
secure their alliance, or, at least, their neutrality, in case of war with France. 
One of the measures taken was to give some of their leading men nominal 
command, and tangible salaries in the military service. At Fort Dummer, 
as we see, were Ontosogo, Thyhawselkaw, and Conneighaw from Caghna- 
waga. Ontosogo was the orator who represented the tribe at conferences 
and treaty making with the whites as well as with other tribes. He acted in 
that capacity when Gov. Belcher met the western and northern Indians at 
Deerfield in 1735. Three Scatacookes are on the roll, Masseguan, Nanna- 
toohau, Massamak. 

If anything was gained by this movement the innings were short and 
the result must have been disastrous. The Old French War broke out two 
years later. With the first scent of blood these petted savages hurried to 
Canada and eagerly engaged with the French in their raids on New England. 
From the knowledge gained among the English they knew when and where 
to strike the most effectual blows. The bloody attacks upon lone families, 
and little hamlets, in the Connecticut Valley, tend to show that the most 
was made of the knowledge thus acquired. 



268 



THE MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 



UNDER JOSIAH WILLARD 
June 9, 1742 



Jo. Willard Capt 
Eb[enezer] Hinsdale Chap[lain] 
John Sergant Lt 
Orlando Bridgman ' Sergt 
Joshua Lyman Corp 
John Hastings 
Silvanus Hastings 
Samuel Root 
Joshua Wells 
Samuel Ban- 
Jo 3 Severance 
Noah Kellogg 
John Alexander 
Philip Alexander 
Josiah Willard Jr. 
Meseek 

Samuel Ashley 
Jo s Johnson 
Elias Alexander 
Nathan Willard 
W m Phipps 
Jo Kellogg, Intp. 



Ontosogo Coll , 

Thyhawselkaw Lt. Coll 
Conneighaw Majer 
Masseguan 1 Cap 
Nannatoohau 2 Cap 
Massamak Liut 



[Continued from Vol. 1, No. 3.] 



MASSACHUSETTS PIONEERS 
MICHIGAN SERIES. 



By Charles A. Flagg 



Besides the abbreviations of book titles, (explained on pages 76, 77, 78 and 79 of April issue) the following 
are used: b. tor born; d. for died; m. for married; set. for settled in. 



Bissell, Blodget. set. O., 1810. Kalama- 
zoo Port., 522. 

Justus, set. O., 1804. Kalamazoo 

Port., 707. 

Bixby, David, b. Sutton, 17S3; set. X. Y.» 
1815, Mich., 1827. Lenawee Hist. I, 91; 
Lenawee, Port., 1021. 

Blackmax. Ansel, set. O., 182.5? d. 1855- 
Gratiot, 390. 

Elizabeth, m. 1820? Shubael Good- 
speed of X. Y. and Mich. Washtenaw 
Hist., 1084. 

John H., b. 1783; set. O., 1808, Mich., 

1841. Kalamazoo Port., 470.- 

Martha, m. 1800? James Tracy of 

N. Y. Jackson Hist., 873. 

Blackmar, Charles, b. 1784: set. X. Y., 

1810? Mich., 1829. Lenawee Hist. I, 434, 

453. 
Blackmer. Charles M., b. 1844; set. Mich.. 

1856. Washtenaw;; Hist., 1424. 
■ David, b. Hampshire Co., 1803;~set- 

Mich., 1856. Monroe, appendix, 35. 
Blair, Alfred, set. O., 1820? Newaygo, 

183. ^ 

Blaisdell. Joseph S.. set. Vt., 1825? Mich., 

1835. Kent, 1212. 
Blaxchard, Washington Z., b. Andover; 

set. X. Y., 1820' Ionia Port..' 774. 
Bliss, ,of Springfield; m. 1825? Samuel 

Brass of Mich. Clinton Past, 407. 
Elizabeth, b. Berkshire Co., 1795; m. 

1815? Smith Slocum of X. Y. Hillsdale 

Hist., 199. 

Hervey. b. Royalston, 1779 or 1789; 

set. O., 1814, Mich., 1816. Lenawee 
Hist. II, 483; Lenawee Illus., 207; Mon- 
roe, 125. 

Israel, of Royalston; set. Mich.. 1816; 

d. 1819. Monroe. 125. 

Obediah, of Savoy; set. X. Y., 1820? 

O. Grand Rapids 'Hist., 211; Grand 
Rapids Lowell, 699. 



Bliss. Rebecca, b.~ 1802; m. George Walker 

of Mass. and Mich. Ingham Port., 454. 
Silvanus, of Royalston; set. Mich., 

1814. Monroe. 125. 
Thomas, of Salem;- set. Mich., 1836. 

Kalamazoo Port., 509. 
Blivex, Albert H., b. Lee, 1825; set. Mich. 

Lenawee Hist. I, 193. 
George W., b. Great Barrington, 1821; 

set. Mich. Lenawee Hist. I, 193. 
Joseph F., b. Great Barrington, 1823; 

set. Mich. Lenawee Hist. I, 193. 

Blodgett, Ludim, Revolutionary soldier; 
set. X. Y. Branch Port., 412. 

Blood, Anna, b. 1798; m. 1818 Eleazer E. 

Calkins of X. Y. and Mich. Oakland 

Port., 278. 
O. T., b. Middlesex Co., set. Mich., 

1860? Traverse. 165. 

Bly, Lucinda, m. 1820? Lucius B. Barker 

of X. Y. and Mich. Kalamazoo Port., 

456. 
Bodfish, Oliver, of Xew Bedford; set. 

N. Y.; d. 1883. Gratiot, 305. 
Boice. Judson A., b. 1825; set. O., Mich., 

1857. Ionia Port., 744. 

Boies, John K., b. Blandford, 182S; set 
Mich., 1845. Lenawee Hist. I, 364 
Lenawee Illus., 206; Lenawee Port., 750 
St. Clair, 120. 

Bolles, Amelia, m. 1820 5 G. W. Peters of 
X. Y. and Mich. Washtenaw Hist., 863. 

Bolt wood, Lucius, of Hampshire • Co.; 
bought land in Mich., 1836. Allegan 
Hist., 220. 

Lucius, b. Amherst, 1862; set. Mich., 

1887. Grand Rapids Hist., 762. 
Bond, Augustus, b. Lanesboro, 1812 or 
.1821; set. Mich., 1836. Washtenaw Hist., 
494, 1390. 

George, set. Mich., 1838. Lansing. 



308. 



270 » 



* 



THE MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 



Bond, Jonas, of Conway; set. X. Y., 1800. 

Lenawee Illus., 104. 
Jonas, b. Berkshire Co., 1810; set. 

X. Y., 1823, Mich., 1835. Washtenaw 
. Hist., 1390. 



— Josiah. b. Conwav, 1709; set. X*. Y.» 
1803, Mich., 184S. Lenawee Illus.. 103- 



Samuel, b. Worcester, Apr*.. 

set. Mich., 1836. Washtenaw 
1390. 

— Samuel, b. Worcester Countv 
1784; set. X. Y., 1823, Mich., 
Washtenaw Hist., 1390. 

— Theodosia, m. 1825? Luther Bovden 



1781; 
Hist 

An*., 

1836, 



of Mich. Washtenaw Hist., 691. 

Boxxey, Trvphosa, b. Chesterfield, m- 

1810? Ariel Murdock of X. Y. Berrien 

Hist., 521. 
Walter E., set. Mich.? Xewaygo, 

365. 
Boody, Xathan. b. Taunton, 1819; set. 

Mich., 1834. Lenawee Hist. II, 336. 
Sylvester, of Taunton; b. 1787; set. 

Mich., 1S34. Lenawee Hist. II, 336. 

Bordwell, Medad. b. Shelburne. 1790; 
set. X. Y., Mich., 1835. Calhoun, 136 

Boughtox, Guv C, b. Stockbridge; set. 
O., 1818. Lenawee Port., 1140. 

Selleck C, b. W. Stockbridge. 1796; 

set. Pa., 1822, Mich., 1831. Lenawee 

Hist. I, 84. • 
Bourx, Seth, b. Berkshire Co., 1833; set. 

Mich., 1862. Bay Hist., 199. 

Bow, Charles, b. Berkshire Co.. 1794; set. 
N. Y., Mich. Hillsdale Port., 539. 

Bowex, Daniel W.. b. Cheshire. 1810; set- 
N. Y., Mich., 1854. Washtenaw Port.. 
638. 

. Eliza, b. Boston, 1800? m. Isaac 

Lewis of X. Y. Berrien Port., 136. 

Henrv, set. X. Y., 1815? Washte- 
naw Port., 638. 

Henry, 3d. b. Cheshire. 1807; set. 

N. Y.. 1814, Mich., 1849. Lenawee 
Hist. II, 195. 

Martin, of Stafford; set. X. Y., 1810. 

Washtenaw Hist., 1396. 

Xancy, m. 1810? Lemuel S. Scott of 

Mass. and Mich. Washtenaw Hist., 735. 

Sylvanus, b. Rehoboth, 1780; set. 

R. I., X. Y., 1812. Lenawee Hist. I, 339. 



Bowermax, Beniamin, set. X. Y., 1825* 

Jackson Hist.. 884. 
Dorothy, of Berkshire Co.; m. 1810? 

James Hathaway of Mass. and Mich. 

Lenawee Port.. 657. 
Emeline, b. Barnstable Co.; m. 1825"' 

Ira B. Weeks of X. Y., O. and Mich. 

Jackson Port., 432. 

Moses, set. X. Y., 1810? Lenawee 



Port., 323. 
Bowmax, Peace, m. 1795? John Burton of 

Me. Midland, 215. 
Boyce, Anna. m. 1854 Joseph S. Graves of 

Mich. Berrien Port., 345. 

Boyd, Rachel F.. m. 1835' George Taylor 
of Maine. Muskegon Port., 253. 

William A., b. Richmond, 1785; set. 

X. Y. Monroe, 163. 

Boydex, E. L., set. Mich., 1850 ? Wash- 
tenaw Hist., 698. 

Jonathan, set. X. H., 1800. Saginaw 

Hist., 832. 

Luther, of Conway; b. 1788; set. 

Mich.. 1826. Washtenaw Hist., 691; 
W r ashtenaw Past. 803. 

Boyixgtox. L. Permelia, b. Paxton. 1815? 
m. Israel B. Estev of X. H. and Vt. 
Clinton Port., 227.' 

Boyxtox, Xehemiah. b. Medford, 1857; 
set. Mich., 1896." Wayne Land., appen- 
dix 16. . 

Brackett, William H.. b. Lynn, 1841; set. 
Vt., 1857. Mich., 1871. Monroe, appen- 
dix, 44. 

Bradford, Moses, set. Mich., 1830? Kent, 
1331. 

Pollv, m. 1790' John B. Simonson of 

X. Y. 'Oakland Port., 511. 

Bradish, Calvin, b. Cummington. 1773; 

set. X. Y.. 1793; Mich., 1831. Lenawee 

Hist. I, 339; Lenawee Port., 310. 
Cliloe, b. Hardwick, 1775"; m. 1800? 

Gain • Robinson of Mass. and X. Y. 

Lenawee Hist. I, 524; Lenawee Port., 

1103, 
Rowene, b. Cummington, 17S6; m. 

1801 John Comstock of X. Y. and Mich. 

Lenawee Hist. I, 499; Lenawee Port., 648. 
Bradley, Addiniram. b. Sandisfield. 1799; 

set. X. Y., Mich. Branch Twent., 76S. 

• 

Eunice J., of Lanesboro; m. 1833 

Daniel A. Loomis of Mich. Lenawee 
Hist. I, 123. 



MICHIGAN PIONEERS 



271 



Bradley, H. M., b. Lee. 1824; set. O., 1835, 

Mich., 1S55. Bay Hist., 136. 
—> Nathan B., h. Lee, 1831; set. O., 183.5; 

Mich.. 1852. Bav Gansser, 371; Bav 

Hist., 83; Lake Huron, 83. 
William, set. O., 1S35. Lake Huron, 

83. 

Bragg* Sarah W., of Assonet;. m. 1830 
. Hunrphrev Shaw of Mich. ' Saginaw 
Port., 564. 

Braley, Amos, b. 1820; set. X. Y., 1823, 
Mich. Midland, 194. 

Ephraim, set. X. Y., 1823. Midland, 

194. 

— — Phineas D., b. Berkshire Co.. 1811; 

set. Mich., 1823. Saginaw Hist., 652. 
Bramax, Thomas, b. 1799; set. Mich., 1S33. 

Washtenaw Hist., 1425. 
Branch, Abigail, b. Benson? 1807: m. 

1827 George Wallace of Mass. and Mich. 

Clinton Port., 259. 
Elizabeth, m. 1845? W. H. Gardner 



of O. Xorthern P., 542. 
Xathan C, of Worthington; set. O., 

Mich., 1846. Ingham Hist., 335, 347. 
Brant, Simeon, set. X. Y., 1790? Berrien 

Hist., 224. 
Brass. Samuel, b. Boston. 1802; set. Mich. 

Clinton Past, 407. 
Breed, Xathaniel, b. Cape Cod; set. X. H., 

1800? Kalamazoo Port., 911. 
Bridge, Abba G., of Boston; m. 1S39 

James M. Xelson of Mich. Kent, 1090. 
Bridges, Pollv, of Berkshire Co., m. 1810 5 

Ira R. Paddock of X. Y. and Mich. 

Branch Port., 454. 
Bridgman, Charles, b. Xorthampton, 

1815? set. O. Genesee Port., 643. 
George W., set. Mich., 1876. Berrien 

Hist., 147. 
Briggs, Abigail, m. 1855? Sylvanus Kinney 

of Mich. Lenawee Port'.. 223. 

Andreas, b. 1795; set. O. Sanilac, 

252. 

• Daniel B., b. Adams, 1829; set. Mich., 

1854. Macomb Hist., 648; St. Clair, 
12o. 

Ebenezer, set. Mich., 1850? Sagi- 
naw Port., 701. 

Elizabeth V., of Adams; m. 1864 J. 

M. Potter of Mich. Ingham Port., 828. 

Enoch, set. X. Y., ,1821. Clinton 

Port., 721. 



Briggs, Hiram C, b. Mansfield. 1819; set. 
X. Y., 1821, Mich., 1839. Clinton Port., 
721. 

Isaac S., b. Plymouth. 1807; grad- 
uate of Harvard, 1829; set. X. Y. Xorth- 
ern P., 341. 

Xathan H.. set. Mich.. 1835. Grand 

Rapids Hist., 704; Grand Rapids Lowell, 
■ 594. 

Xathaniel W.. of Taunton: set. Ind., 

1872? d. 1877. Washtenaw Hist.. 774. 
Susan X., b. Middleboro; m. 1867 



1793: set, 
478; Kala- 



William J. Loveland of Mich. Saginaw 

Port., 701. 
Brigham, Barna L., b. Prescott. 1813: set. 

Mich., 1836. Kalamazoo Hist., facing 

461; Kalamazoo Port., 798. 
■ Curtis, b. Franklin Co. 

Mich., 1834. Allegan Hist.. 

mazoo Port., 361. 
David, set. X. Y., 1795. Bav Hist., 

201. 
John W.. b. Boston. 1822; set. Mich., 

1834. Kalamazoo Port.. 361. 
Louise, b. Princeton; m. 1815? John 

Proctor of Vt. Kent, 665. 



— Lydia, b. 1820; m. William Y. Gilkey 
of Mich. Kalamazoo Port., 406. 



Sallie 



181, 



Benjamin Eager of 



Vt. and X. Y. Kalamazoo Port.. 586. 
Brightman, Emeline, b. Fall River. 1826; 

m. Uri Blodgett of X. Y. and Mich. 

Branch Port., 413. 
Samuel, b. near Fall River, 1794; 

set. X. Y., Mich. 1844. Lenawee Port., 

1121. 
Brixton, Samuel, b.1794: set. Conn.. 1S20? 

Mich. Branch Twent.. 447. 
Brokelbaxk. Mary. m. 1800? James Eaton 

of X. Y. and Mich. ' Lenawee Port.. 472. 

Broxsox, Daniel, of Berkshire Co.: set. 

X. Y., 1794, Mich., 1818. Oakland 

Hist., 131. 
William, b. Berkshire Co.. 1793: set. 

X. Y., 1794, Mich., ISIS. Oakland 

Hist., 131. 
Brooks, Abiiah E.. b. Wendell. 1842; set. 

Mich., 1873. Kent. 959. 
— — Ebenezer, b. Worcester Co., set. Vt., 

1805. Macomb Hist., 691. 
George, b. Townsend, 1823; set. X.H., 

Mich., 1869. St. Clair, 560. 
John, set. O., 1812. Gratiot, 598. 



272 



THE MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 



Brooks, Martha, m. 1805? Rufus Cody of 

N.Y. Hillsdale Port., 715. 
Bross, Maria, m. 1835? Reuben Gilmore of 

Mass. and Mich. Jackson Port., 700. 
Brown, C. S., b. Hadlev, 1321; set. N. Y., 

Mich., 1848. Northern P., 502. 
■ Caroline, b. Charlemont, 1817; m. 

1838 Perley Bills of Mich. Lenawee 

Port.. 1160. 
Charles. B., b. Brimfield, 1844; set. 

Mich., 1864. Kalamazoo Port., 701. 
Clara, m. 1830? Casper Bartley of 

Mass. and Wis. Northern P., 149. 



Browm. John, set. N. Y.; Revolutionary 
soldier. Ionia Port., 483. 



— Clara, b. Warwick; m. 1852 James 
Farrar of N. H. and Mich. Lenawee 
Illus., 300; Lenawee Port., 260. 

— Clarissa, m. 1820? James DeLong of 
N. Y. and Mich. Ionia Port., 326. 

— Cynthia, b. Cheshire, 1802; m. 1823 
Ezekiel Angell of N. Y. Lenawee Illus., 
339; Lenawee Port., 393. 

— Daniel, set. Vt., 1800? N. Y. Wash- 
tenaw Hist., 969. Washtenaw Port., 255. 

— Daniel, set. O., 1825? Muskegon 
Port., 347. 

— David, set. Mich., d. 1858. 



Muske- 
gon Port., 422. 

E. Gertrude, of Boston; m. 1890 

George W. Webber of Mich. Ionia Port., 
192. 

Elijah, set. N. Y., 1825? Mecosta, 



272. 

Essuck, b. Cheshire; set. N. Y., 1810? 

Lenawee Illus., 340. 
Ethan, b. Stockbridge, 1791; set. 

N. Y. Mecosta, 528. 9 
Frederick E., b. Boston, 1850; set. 



N. Y., Mich., 1869. Bay Hist., 149. 

Genet, of Worcester; set. Mich., 1835. 

Ingham Hist., 453. 

George R., b. 1829; set. Mich., 1840? 



Bay Gansser, 624. 

— Harriet A., of Concord; m. 1832 Jere- 
miah A. Robinson of Mass., O. and Mich. 
Jackson Hist., 701. 

— Henrv B., b. Lee, 1836; set. Mich., 
1859. Wayne Chron., 413. 

— Hepsibah, b. 1776; m. Elijah Hill of 
N. Y. Oakland Port., 429. 

— Israel P., set. Vt., 1800? Kalamazoo 



Port., 895. 

— Joel, set. Vt., 1812 soldier. Muskegon 
Port., 122. 



— John, set. N. Y., 1815. 
Port., 457. 

— Jonas, b. Heath. 1795; 
1836. Monroe, 505. 

— Jonas, set. Mich., 1840? 
ser, 624. 

— Joseph, b 



1810. 



Heath. 1785; 
Hillsdale Hist., 291. 



Washtenaw 
set. Mich.. 
Bay Gans- 
set. N. Y., 



— Lemuel D., b. Hadlev. 1805: set. 
N. Y., 1825, Mich.. 1839. Hillsdale 
Hist., 233; Hillsdale Port., 537. 



— Lorah R., b. 1785? set. N. Y. Hills- 
dale Port., 457. 

— Luther, b. Windsor; 1812 soldier; set. 
N. Y. Berrien Port., 697. 

— Mary H.^m. 1825? David H. Daniels 
of Mich. Kalamazoo Port., 630. 

— Matilda, of Rowe; b. 1777; m. 1793 
Nathaniel Gleason of Mass., N. Y. and 
Mich. Lenawee Hist. I, 303. 

— Nancy, m. 1S00' Samuel Cook of 
Vt. and N. Y. Calhoun, 75. 

— Nicholas, b. 1777? set. N. Y. Branch 
Hist., 193. 

— Noah, set. N. Y., 1825? Calhoun, 131. 

— Otis, b. Worcester. 1787; set. Mich., 
1839. Hillsdale Port., 537. 

— Pollv, of Lunenburg; m. 1805? Moses 



Fitch of Mass. and Mich. Clinton Port., 
263. 

— Samuel, b. Brimfield. 1778; set. Mich., 
1831. Kalamazoo Hist., 460. 482. , 

— Susanna, b. 1793; m. Jacob Rogers 
of Pa. Lenawee Port., 1178. 

— Timothy, b. Levden; set. N. Y., 1805? 
d. 1853. Ionia Port., 483. 

— W. Symington, of Stoneham; Jack- 
son Hist., 659. 

— William, set. N. Y., 1819, Pa., 1837. 
Gratiot, 324. 

William F., b. 1818; set. N. Y., Mich., 



1863. Gratiot, 324. 
William H., of Middlesex Co; set. 

Va., O., Mich., 1866. Mecosta. 553. 
Brownell. P. T.. b. Fairhaven. 1855; set. 

Mich., 1876. Upper P.. 344. 
— — Susan A., b. N. Adams, 1823; m. 

1840 Porter Beal of Mich. Lenawee 

Hist. II, 175. 



MICHIGAN PIONEERS 



273 



Brownell, Thomas, b. 1S04; set. Mich., 
1825. Kan. Lenawee Hist. II, 175. 

Browning, Betsev, m. 1790' William 
Greene of X. Y.' Jackson Port.. S40. 

Brunson, Flavins J., b. 1786; set. X. Y., 
1815? Clinton Port., 70(5; Shiawassee, 
516. 

Bryan, Richard, of Cheshire; b. 1786; set. 
Mich., 1S3S. Hillsdale Hist., 330; Hills- 
dale Port., 410. 

— William, b. Cheshire. 1816; set. Mich., 

1837. Hillsdale Port . 410. 

Bryant, Elizabeth, b. Fitchburg; m. 1885 
Frank H. Milham of Mich. Kalamazoo 
Port., 288. 

Nathaniel, set. Vt., 1S17. Hillsdale 

Port., 512. 

Nathaniel, b. 1S10; set. Mich. Hills- 

* dale Port., 512. 

Otis B.. b. Hingham, 1860; set. Mich., 



1880. Upper P., 344. 

Samuel, of Northampton; set. N. Y., 

1820? Ionia Hist.. 440. 

Susan, b. Cheshire. 1820; m. 1837 Wil- 
liam Bryan of Mich. Hillsdale Port., 410. 

Buck, Aseneth, m, 1815? Joseph B. Leon- 
ard of N. Y. Branch Twent., 779. 

Levi, b. 1786; set. N. Y. ; d. 1816. 



Hillsdale Hist., 249; Hillsdale Port., 553. 
Lucretia, b. western Mass., 1787; set. 

N. Y., 1807; m. 1st Peter Lake of X. Y.; 

m. 2d 1819, Israel Waggoner. Lenawee 

Hist. I, 483. 
■ Reuben, set. X. Y., 1803? Mich. 

Lenawee Hist. II, 287. 

Bull, A. E., of Sheffield; b. 1808; set. 
Mich., 1836. Allegan Hist., facing 480. 

Bullard, Amos, b. Athol, 1809; set. Mich., 
1830. Washtenaw Hist., 1307; Wash- 
tenaw Port., 456. 

Fisher, b. Franklin; set. N. H., 1820? 

Kent, 1392. 

Bullen, Reuben R., b. Charlton, 1806; 
set. X. Y , 1824, Pa., 1828, Mich., 1836. 
Ingham Hist., 224; Lansing, 552. 

Bullock, Esther, m. 1810? Allen Dryer of 

N. Y. Ingham Port., 345. 
George W., b. Savoy, 1809; set. Mich., 

1836. Saginaw Hist., 213. 



Bullock, Shubael, b. Cambridge, 1793; 
set. X. Y. Genesee Port., 811. 

Buncher, Charles, b. Lowell, 1839; set. 

Mich, 1873. Wayne Land. 656 
Burbank, Robert G., set. X. Y., 1840? 

Xorthern P., 546. 
Burden, Xancy, b. Lanesboro, 1805 5 m. 

William Carpenter of X. Y. Hillsdale 

Port., 870. 
Burleigh, John L., b. 1842;. set. X. Y., 

Mich., 1874. Washtenaw Hist., 569. 

Burley, Susan, of Salem; m. 1837 Cortland 
B. Stebbins of X. Y. and Mich. Lan- 
sing, 572. 

Burlingame, Rachel, b. Berkshire Co., 
m. 1830? Seth Aldrich of Mich. Macomb 
Hist., 688. 

Burnett, David, b. S. Hadlev, 1808; set. 
Mich., 1836. Grand Rapids Hist., 176; 
Grand Rapids Lowell, 106; Grand River, 
appendix, 6; Kent, 200. 

Mary, b. Chesterfield, 1782; m. 1802 

Joseph Rice, Jr., of X. Y. and Mich. Len- 
awee Port., 598. 

Burnham, Calvin, set. Mich., 1839. Mon- 
roe, 127. 

Xancy, b. Montague; m. 1843 Jason 

Hemenway of Mich. Lenawee Port., 
438. 

Olive C, b. Montague, 1821; m'. 1840 

Lysander Ormsby of Mich. Lenawee 
Port., 306. 

Burns, George T., b. Lowell, 1843; set. 
Wis., 1856, Mich., 1873. Upper P., 243. 

Burpee, Samuel S., b. Templeton, 1S01; 
set. Mich., 1830. Calhoun, 76. 

Burr, Robert, b. Great Barrington; set. 

N. Y., 1800? Calhoun, 145. 
Burt, Alvin, set. N. Y., 1792. Macomb 

Hist., 241. 
Daniel, set. O., 1825. Muskegon 

Port., 347. 
— : — Scammel, set. Vt., 1805? Saginaw 

Hist., 766. 

William A., b. Petersham, 1792; set. 



N. Y., 1799, Mich., 1S24. Detroit, 
1179; Macomb Hist. 241; Xorthern P., 
10; Upper P., 428. 
Burton, George, b. 1791; set. N. Y. 
Branch Twent., 582. 



(To be continued.) 



SOME MASSACHUSETTS 
HISTORICAL WRITERS 

fUnder this heading in each issue we shall give concise biographical sketches of town historians, family 
genealogists, and writers on other historical subjects pertaining to Massachusetts.] 



CARRINGTON, GEN. HENRY BEEBEE, 

teacher, lawyer, soldier, and historical 
writer, Brigadier General U. S. A. (retired); 
(A. M. Yale College, 184S; LL. D. Wabash, 
Co. Indiana, 1871;) born Wallingford, Ct., 
March 2, 1824, son of Miles M. and Mary 
(Beebee) Carrington; grandson of James 
Carrington, partner of Eli Whitney in man- 
ufacture of rifles for United States at Whit- 
neyville, Ct.; great-grandson of Captain 
Jeremiah Carrington who entertained Wash- 
ington at Wallingford during his visit 
through Xew England in 1778; great grand- 
son of Rev. James Beebee (Yale, 1745), 
who served as Chaplain under General 
Amherst in the French and Indian War, 
1757-9; great-grandson of Captain Caleb 
Atwater, President of the "Connecticut 
Land Company," who laid out "Xew Con- 
necticut ("The Western Reserve"); studied 
at Torringford, Ct., in 1836. at school of 
Goodman and Hudson, noted abolitionists; 
was there visited by John (Osawottamie) 
Brown, who induced the boys "to pledge 
themselves for universal liberty when they 
should reach manhood," thereby fixing his 
anti-slavery views for after life; graduated 
at Yale in 1845; taught at Tarrytown, Xew 
York, where acquaintance with Washing- 
ton Irving initiated his study of the Revo- 
lutionary Battles; at Yale Law School, 
1847, while also teaching at Boots Collegi- 
ate Institute; moved to Columbus, Ohio, 
1848; active as an anti-slavery Whig; 
rescued Fred Douglas from a mob that 
attempted to prevent his speaking at the 
Old State House; partner, first of Aaron F. 
Perry; then, until 1861, or William Denni- 
son, who succeeded Chase as Governor of 
Ohio; Chairman of State Committee ap- 
pointed by Convention of July 13, 1854, 



to organize a fusion of all anti-slavery 
element in new party that adopted the 
name Republican; Adjutant General of 
Ohio under Governor Chase; organized a 
State Militia; escorted the Legislatures of 
Kentucky and Tennessee, as well as the 
Prince of Wales, to Columbus; visited Bos- 
ton as guest, of Adjt. Gen. Wm. Schouler, 
who during Carrington's absence was 
acting as Adjutant General of Ohio; 




'/&2?S£l*/.iX.S.J> 



accompanied Governor Banks and Staff, 
to Harvard Commencement, and Brighton 
dinner, and made official Report to Gov- 
ernor of Ohio of the excellence of the 
Massachusetts Military System as com- 
pared with that of other States; was attor- 
ney of all railroads centering at Columbus; 
onYequest of the Federal Bar was appointed 
by Justice John McLean. "Commissioner 
Pro Hac Vice," to adjudicate Admiralty 



MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL WRITERS 



:/;> 



Cases during the illness of District Judge 
Leavitt; Trustee of Marietta College; elder 
and superintendent Sunday School in 
Second Presbyterian Church; founder of 
first Y. M. C. A. west of Pittsburg; escort 
of President elect .Lincoln from Indiana 
through Ohio, with other escort, in Febru- 
ary, 1861; announced certainty of war in 
special appeal under the title of "The 
Hour, the Peril and Duty," • April 11, 
1861 and was denounced as "crazed;" 
on night of its repetition Fort Sumter 
was announced "to have fallen;" moved 
two regiments to Washington within 
sixty hours after the call for troops was 
received; moved nine militia regiments 
into West Virginia which participated in 
thebattleof Phillippi and saved that section 
to the Union; organized and commissioned 
the first twenty-six Ohio regiments for the 
war; was appointed colonel ISth U. S. In- 
fantry; placed in command of "Regular 
Army Camp of Instruction." Camp Thomas 
Ohio; moved three regular batallions to 
Kentucky in December. 1861; issued an 
order, No. 17, May 6. 1861; calling upon 
Ohio to raise 100 additional regiments, 
wdiich number was realized within the year; 
in August, 1862, was ordered to Indiana as 
Superintendent of Recruiting and Disburs- 
ing service for that State; organized, armed, 
paid and sent into Kentucky 20 regiments 
in twelve days after the invasion of Ken- 
tucky by Bragg; disbursed more than a 
million dollars within four months after 
arrival; commanded the District of Indiana 
organized more than 100,000 Indian troops; 
superintended the drafts of 1862 and 1864; 
ferreted out and exposed disloyal societies; 
joined the Army of the Cumberland; Presi- 
dent of Military Court at Louisville, Ken- 
tucky, to try guerrilla; in 1865 moved with 
his entire regiment to the Plains to relieve 
Volunteers for their muster-out; com- 
manded Nebraska, operating along the 
Republican River against hostile Indians; 
guarded the opening of the Union Pacific 
Railroad; moved in May, 1866. westward, 
to build road around the Big Horn Moun- 
tains in Montana; built Forts Reno, Phil 
Kearney and C. F. Smith in the face of 
active hostil ities ; fifty-one skirmishes during 
the season; held the position against the com- 
bined thousands of Sioux under Red Cloud, 
suffered a loss of three officers and seventy- 
eight men on the 21st of December, 1866; 
known as the "Fetterman Massacre," 
because of that officer disobeying orders 



and being decoyed into a fatal ambush 
beyond reach of rescue from the fort; was 
fully vindicated from responsibility there- 
for, afterwards; wounded in skirmi-h: on 
crutches for a year; again, commanded in 
Colorado and Nebraska: detailed as Mili- 
tary Professor in Wabash College. Indiana, 
in 1869; from increased disability retired 
from active service in l<s70; continued on 
the detail as Military Professor; surveyed 
battle fields of the Revolution; in 1875 was 
admitted by the British and P'rench Govern- 
ments to a full examination of all Revolu- 
tionary military archives; was placed on 
parity with British officers on all occasions; 
present at casting of first SI -ton gun at 
Woolwich; was called from Paris a month 
later, by General Campbell. Director Gen- 
eral of Artillery, to witness test of said gun, 
being the. only foreigner present; member 
of the British Association of Science and 
member of its Standing Committee on 
Engineering, Geography and Anthropology 
at its Bristol meeting, 1875; guest of the 
University of Oxford, Dublin, Belfast, 
Glasgow and Edinburgh; present by special 
invitation as member of the U. S. Supreme 
Court Bar, at the sine die adjournment of 
the High Court of Chancery, being the only 
visitor without wig and gown; was espec- 
iallv aided bv Col. Hamlev of the Oueen's 
Staff College, Col. C. C. 'Chesney ~of the 
Royal Engineers and Lt. Generals, Sir 
Henry Rawlinson and Strachey. in his 
work; guest of the Athenaeum and other 
London Clubs; found equal welcome in 
Paris, being aided by the American Lega- 
tion, ex-Pres. Thiers, Senators Oscar and 
Edmund Lafayette, Count deRochambeau, 
Louis d' Orleans and the Count de Paris; 
returned to America and completed his 
standard work, with forty-two maps, known 
as "The Battles of the American Revolu- 
tion;" superintended Subscription Book 
Department of his publishers, A. S. Barnes 
& Co., New York City; from 1882 to 1886 
their New England representative in 
school-book interests; settled in Hyde 
Park. 1885; in 1889 was sent west to make 
treaty with Flathead Indians, and again in 
1891 to remove same tribe to Jocko Reser- 
vation, Montana; in 1890 took census of 
the Six Nations of New York and the North 
Carolina Cherokees and mapped their reser- 
vations; life member American Historical 
Society, also Society of the Army of the 
Cumberland; member of Loyal Legion; 
delegate from the Massachusetts Depart- 



276 



THE MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 



ment G. A. R. to National Encampments, 
1894, 1895, 1986 and at large, Toledo, 1908. 

Historical Works: Author of "Battles of 
the American Revolution;" "Battle Maps 
and Charts of the American Revolution;" 
"The Six Nations. " "The Patriotic Reader," 
"Beacon Lights of Patriotism;" "Christo- 
* pherus the Christ Bearer;" "The Washing- 
ton Obelisk and Its Voices:" "Washington 
the Soldier;" In manuscript: "Lafayette 
and American Independence," companion 
book to Washington the Soldier;" "The 
Exodus of the Flatheads," illustrated. 

Other literary works : "Columbian Selec- 
tions," "Dream and Story." "Sound Bugle, 
Sound Rally Cry Against Greed and Graft" 
(a song). 

In preparation : "The Americans and 
Their Future;" "The Rent Veil and Other 
Poems." An elaborate work, "The Battles 
of the Bible," or "The Military History of 
the Hebrews," in which he had been assisted 
by his classmate Rev. Dr. Crane, upon his 
return from Palestine, was far advanced. 
but the entire manuscript and maps were 
destroyed in the fire at his house, without 
the means of restoring the original matter. 
Still another work entitled "Pre-Christian 
Assurances of Immortality" embracing 
literal translations from all Greek, Roman 
and other ancient literature was also 
destroyed. 

Historical and Educational addresses 
andjfpamphlets, with and without maps 
have been numerous in connection with 
meetings of Historical Societies and Teach- 
ers Conventions, national or local. 

He has been twice married, first, to Mar- 

faret Irvin, granddaughter of Colonel 
oseph McDowell, of Danville, Kentucky, 
eldest daughter of Joseph Sullivant, Scien- 
tist, of Columbus, Ohio, son of Lucas Sulli- 
vant, pioneer surveyor and one of the 
founders of Columbus, Ohio; and of six 
children, only one, James Beebee Carring- 
ton, of Scribner's Magazine, N. Y. City, 
survives. His present wife is Frances 
Courtney, daughter of Robert and Sarah 
(Haynes) Courtney, of Franklin, Tennessee, 
all of old Virginia stocK, and late widow of 
Lieut. G. W. Grummond, 18th U. S. Infan- 
try, in Civil War, Lieut. Col. U. S. Volun- 
teers, who was killed in the Fetterman 
Massacre, Dec. 21, 1866. Of four children, 
only two, Henrietta Carrington Freeman, 
wife of Surgeon George F. Freeman, U. S. 
Navy, of Everett, Mass., and Eliza Jane 
Carrington, survive. 



GUILD, EDWARD PAYSON, born in Mil- 
ford, Xi H. March 14, 1857; son of Asa and 
Catherine Amelia (Smith) Guild; graduate 
of scientific department of Williston Semi- 
nary, Easthampton, Mass., 1877. Married 
May 11, 1881, to Clara E. Stevenson, and 
has two children: Mildred Alice (now Mrs. 
John H. Marshall; and Theodore Asa 













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Edward P. Guild. 







(banking clerk in Boston). Congregational 
in religion. Republican in politics. Was 
newspaper correspondent, and in 18S6 
edited Boston weekly "Commonwealth; " 
business manager of the "Atlantic Month- 
ly," 1886-1891; now manager of the E. P. 
Guild Special Advertising Agency, Boston, 
and secretary of the Living Age Co. Trustee 
of Reading (Mass.) Public Library; 
charter member and first president of 
Heath (Mass.) Historical Society and now 
director: member Xew England Historic 
Genealogical Society. 



MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL WRITERS 



277 



" Historical Works: Editor of Centennial 
History of Heath, Mass., 18S5; article on 
The Patriot Samuel Adams, in Bay State 
Monthly, 1886; article on Hugh Maxwell, 
in N. E. Historical and Genealogical Regis- 
ter, 1S91; address " The Value of a Historic 
Consciousness," 1892, 

Other literary work: Articles and es- 
says, musical criticisms, verses, in various 
magazines and newspapers; a historical 
story "Christopher Gault. " 

Residence: Reading, Mass. Office, 643 
Old South Building, Washington street, 
Boston, Mass. 



STARK, JAMES HENRY, author and 
publisher, born at Vine House, Mitcham, 
Surray, London, England, July 6, 1847; 



(& 



■ 
V 



m 



m 



m 



Wri-rw J riift*'i fibril 




James Henry Stark. 

son of John H. and Mary Elizabeth Ann 
(A 'Court) Stark; his mother died when he 
was two years old, and he was left with 



his grandparents at Shepton Mallet. Somer- 
setshire, while his father emigrated to 
America. When nine years old his father 
brought him to Boston, where he attended 
Hawes grammar and the Boston Latin 
school. Married, December. 1870. Kath- 
erine Manton, of Kingston, Canada, and 
has three children: Jane Evelyn, born 
1879; Elizabeth Isabel, born 1880; Mil- 
dred Manton, born 1886. Unitarian in 
religion. Republican in.politics. 

Mr. Stark learned the stereotypers and 
electrOtypers trade, and at the age of 
twenty-three engaged in the business on 
his own account; made a voyage in a 26- 
foot cat-boat with two companions, from 
Boston to Florida in the winter season of 
1873-4; made a voyage to French and 
Dutch Guiana in a 35-ton fishing schooner 
in 1875, with a party of gold hunters; en- 
gaged again in electrotyping and photo- 
engraving business in Boston, having the 
second photoengraving establishment in the 
country; has retired from business, and 
devotes his time to yachting, travelling 
and writing, spending his winters at some 
of the islands of the West Indies ; Presi- 
dent of the British Charitable Association 
in 1901-2; president of the British Amer- 
ican Association; one of the organizers of 
the South Boston Yacht Club and the 
Savin Hill Yacht Club, Dorchester, and 
commodore of same. 

■:" Historical Works : History of the Loyal- 
ists of Massachusetts, or the Other Side of 
the American Revolution (now in press); 
Stark's Illustrated Histories and Guides to 
the West Indies, in six volumes; Antique 
Views of Boston, which has reached its 
third edition; a pamphlet entitled The 
British and Dutch in South Africa, pub- 
lished'during the Boer War, which reached 
a circulation of 100,000. 

Residence: 254 Savin Hill Avenue, Dor- 
chester; business address, 31 Milk street, 
Boston, Mass. 



ipprtoatf offdt^mtriranjltoolufian 



Frank A.Gardner.M. D_Edi 



A Review and a Prospectus. 

The editor of this department, desires 
at the close of the first year of issue, to 
express his sincere thanks to the historical 
writers who have kindly given valuable 
aid in reviewing the articles published. 
and in furnishing special information and 
•data. Men who have done historical re- 
search work in the various towns men- 
tioned in the naval and regimental articles, 
Tiave been communicated with by the edi- 
tor, and in each instance have kindly con- 
sented to examine the manuscript. Gene- 
alogical workers have given valuable aid 
in questions of ancestry and biography. 
Experts in military matters have carefully 
reviewed the evidences and added 
valuable judgements. Men who have 
joined the patriotic orders on the records 
of officers who served in either the Glover 
or Prescott regiment have given notes 
upon family history. 

The editor wishes especially to thank the 
Custodians of the State archives and his- 
torical libraries and the town clerks for 
the interest which they have shown and 
the assistance given in furnishing addi- 
tional information. The reception ac- 
corded this first attempt at a systematic 
study of the Revolutionary regiments of 
Massachusetts, has been very gratifying 
to the publishers. Many pleasant words 
of commendation have been received and 
the opinion has been frequently expressed 
that in the regimental and naval articles 
the magazine has provided a welcome and 
much needed addition to the historical 
lore of the Bay State The publication 
of these papers has become a settled policy 
of the magazine and during the coming 



year, each number will contain both a 
regimental and naval article. The Min- 
ute-men's regiments will be taken up first 
to be followed by those of the Army of the 
United Colonies of 1775, the Continental 
Army of 177G, the, Massachusetts Regi- 
ments, of the line in the later years of the 
war. and finally the special service and 
county militia regiments. In the naval 
articles, the State ships will be first pre- 
sented and then the vessels of private 
ownership. 

The chief sources of information in these 
articles are the muster rolls, pay rolls, and 
official letters and documents preserved 
in the state archives, with the records of 
the Provincial Congress. Committees of 
Safety, House of Representatives. Council 
and Board of War. To the material thus 
obtained is added further notes gleaned 
from original papers in the possession of 
our larger historical societies and in the 
hands of descendants of officers of the regi- 
ments. The records of the Continental 
Congress and other national publications 
also give valuable facts. Force's Archives, 
the publications of the Xew England His- 
toric J Genealogical Society, the Massachu- 
setts Historical Society, Essex Institute 
and other similar societies furnish further 
valuable information, particularly as they 
often reproduce verbatim copies of origi- 
nal files and records which are owned by 
private individuals or preserved in their 
own vaults. Xext in importance come the 
various town and family histories which 
furnish facts regarding the raising of the 
regiments, the local conditions and bio- 
graphical sketches of the officers. Lastly 
we will mention the standard histories.* 

Thanks to wise legislation in regard to 
the preservation and arrangement of ori- 
ginal documents, the Massachusetts state 
archives are particularly rich and valuable, 

* Trevelyan's History of the American Revolu- 
tion, Frothinjham's Siesre of Boston. Dawsoa's Bat- 
tles of the United States, Bancroft, Fiske. Drake. 
Wiasor, McClay and many other similar works. 



DEPARTMENT OF THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION 279 



amd the addition of such facts as may be 
gleaned from the above mentioned aux- 
iliary sources make a continuous and 
practically complete story of the exploits 
of the regiment or vessel and biographies 
of the officers. Take for instance the Doo- 
Iittle regiment of 177o. the story of which 
will be given in the January number. One 
■svriter states that "Few. details are pre- 
served cf the services of this regiment, 
or the conduct of its officers," and yet the 
information obtained from all sources 
xnakes quite a complete story. The editor 
will gladlv welcome any additional light 
that can be thrown upon the history of 
these regiments and ships, his endeavor 
"being to make these narrations as full and 
•complete as possible. 



Army and Navy cooperation in the 
Revolution. 

The relations between the two branches 
of service are always interesting to stu- 
dents of. history. In all of the wars in 
-which the soldiers of Massachusetts have 
^engaged, from Louisburg to Santiago, the 
-sailors of our grand old State have fought 
in conjunction. Rivalries and jealousies 
may have been manifested at times, but 
-cooperation in action has always been 
"hearty and effective. The interdepend- 
•cnce which has frequently been shown 
•was especially manifest in the war which 
•gained for us our national freedom, and 
■when we consider the industrial and com- 
mercial conditions which existed here, the 
•particular local reasons are apparent. 

The successful development of the colo- 
-nial towns along the shores of Xew England 
Tiad been due largely to the pluck and 
-enterprise of the large number of inde- 
pendent owners of small vessels, engaged 
-in transporting fish, lumber, furs, etc., to 
various Atlantic and Mediterranean ports. 
Without this means of disposing of these 
products, the fishermen, farmers, lumber- 
men and trappers could not have been the 
important factors that they were in de- 
veloping the country. We gain much 
light regarding the importance of some of 



these lines of activity by scanning the in- 
voices of the revolutionary prizes taken. 
One vessel we find had among other furs, 
one thousand moose skins. Many of the 
comforts and most of the luxuries which 
our colonial fathers enioyed were brought 
back from England. France and Spain in 
these vessels which had carried over fish, 
furs and lumber. Consequently the war of 
the Revolution began with a just appre- 
ciation in the minds of all. of the import- 
ance of ocean traffic, and the necessity of 
maintaining a strong naval force. 

How early this was understood and acted 
upon, we have shown in the history of the 
amphibious Glover Regiment. These men 
now on the sea and now in the heat of an 
infantry charge were equally good at either. 
Neither the fierce gales of the Grand Banks 
nor the midnight blizzard before Trenton 
could dampen their ardor or diminish 
the heat of their patriotic fire. Their 
army captains were commodores of fleets 
a few r months laterand the next year majors 
of infantry, and this was true in a lesser 
degree of many other regiments whose 
ranks were filled with sea coast men. This 
naturally led to a mutual appreciation 
between the men in both branches which 
does not always exist. Many infantry 
and artillery officers, between their terms 
of army service, held commissions as lieu- 
tenants of marines on shipboard, and in 
some instances requests were made and 
granted, that considerable numbers of 
soldiers be allowed to go on cruises for 
such experience as they might gain.* 
These artillery men were ^undoubtedly 
good additions to the ship's force. On 
the other hand, soldiers from Marblehead, 
Salem, Boston or Beverly, with a knowledge 
of the sea were especially selected at the 
battles of Long Island and Trenton, in 

♦Thirty members of Lieut. Colonel Paul Revere '5 
Regiment, upon request of Captain Pere^ Cashing. 
were allowed to go on a cruise in the State BrUan- 
tine Hazard. See Massachusetts Magazine, v. I. p. 
199. 



280 



THE MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 



the operations about the Hudson, and in 
the Rhode Island campaigns. 

Sometimes, when irritated by the hard- 
ships of bivouac and battle, such men even 
as General Glover would begin to feel that 
too much attention was being given to 
privateering and the operations on the 
sea,* but at these very times the clothing, 
ammunition and arms to supply and re- 
plenish the army were being brought in 
large quantities from France by the sailors 
as may be seen by a pexsual of the invoices 
of some of the ships already mentioned in 
this department of the magazine. Several 
times the soldiers were supplied with arms 
and ammunition which the sailors obtained 
for them from prize vessels. One company 
of the Glover Regiment was fitted out 
princiaplly with arms from a company of 
the 42nd. Highland (Black Watch) Regi- 
ment, and many other patriots carried 
armsobtained in the same way from British 
and Hessian soldiers who were captured 
before landing. On the other hand the 
navy was helped by the army in the loan 
of field guns and other pieces from the 
artillery stores of Colonel Craft. 

The co-operation of these branches un- 
doubtedly lessened the length of the war 
by months or years, for without the in- 
juries inflicted upon British shipping in- 
dustries by the national, state and private 
vessels, the contest would have been 
greatly prolonged. The navy exerted 
another powerful influence in hastening 
the dawn of peace by the large number of 
prisoners which were captured on the seas. 
The American authorities were fully awake 
to the strength of this pressure and con- 
stantly urged the commanders of vessels 
to "by all means send or bring in as many 
prisoners as pofsible to the United States 
for the purpose of redeeming our fuffering 
Seamen in the hands of the enemy," or as 
frequently worded "our cruel and in- 
veterate enemy." '\ 

It is a pleasure to present side by side 
in these pages, the stories of the ships with 
the records of the regiments. Neither 
branch alone could have brought about 
the great result of the Revolutionary war. 

♦See Massachusetts Magazine, v. I. p. 86. 



The Independence, State Brigantine. 

The January number will have an ac- 
count of another vessel belonging to the 
state navy, the "Independence," com- 
manded by the able and heroic Captain 
Simeon Samson. The editor has deemed 
it proper to give the records of the state 
naval vessels first, and then take up the 
accounts of the numerous privateers and 
letter of marque ships which were sent out 
from Massachusetts. 



Colonel Doolittle's Regiment. 

The subject of the regimental article in 
the next number will be Colonel Ephraim 
Doolittle's Regiment of Minute Men, April 
19, 1775 and the 24th Regiment, Army, 
of the United Colonies, later in the year. 
This organization was made up largely of 
men from Worcester and Middlesex Coun- 
ties with one company from Franklin 
County and another from York County, 
now Maine. Our plan is to give the his- 
tory of the Minute-Mens regiments first, 
to be followed by those of the Army of the 
United Colonies, the Continental Army of 
1776, and so on through the list. 



The Massachusetts, State Brigantine. 

The authorities honored both the vessel 
and the old Bay Colony, when they selected 
a name for this noted brigantine. Emi- 
nent naval commanders were destined to 
walk her decks and hallow them with deeds 
of glory. The earliest references to her are 
the following: 

"In the Houfe of Reprefentatives, May 
4, 1776. 

Refolved That the Vefsel now building 
at Salisbury, by the Committee of building 
and fixing out armed Vefsels be rigged as 
a Brigantine inftead of a Sloop, and that 
Capt Souter who has been chofen one of 
the Commanders of faid Vefsels have the 



DEPARTMENT OF THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION 281 



command of faid Vefse! building at Salis- 
bury as foon as fhe can be compleated," 
-etc. etc. 

"In Council July 2, 1776. 

Refolved That y e Brigantine now Build- 
ing at Salisbury for y e ufe of this Colony 
& which Captain Daniel Souter is appointed 
-to Command be called Mafsachmetts.. " 
Her first officers were: Daniel Souther, 
Captain; John Lambert, First Lieutenant; 
Joshua Winslow, Second Lieutenant; Mark 
Clark, Master; and Amos Winship, Sur- 
geon. Captain Souther was engaged June 
4, 1776; Lieutenants Lambert and Wins- 
low, and Master Clark, June 10; Surgeon 
Amos Winship, and Surgeon's Mate Alex- 
ander Charters, August 26. 

The following letter explains itself : 

"Salem, 19 August, 1776. 

As my Health will not permit me to at- 
tend my Duty at the Board at Prefent, I 
take the freedom to Inform you that the 
Brigg Mafsachusetts is nearly fixed & has 
on bord 97 men 2-3 of which having En- 
tered within this 4 days. Nothing feems 
now to be wanting but 4 or fix Guns & 
three small fails, & both Guns & fails I 
find to be totally out of my power to Pro- 
cure, without the aid of the Counciil or 
Court — There is a Ship at Dan vers which 
I Suppose is owned in London. She has 
been Launched I believe 18 months & has 
a Compleat Suit of Sails, the Value of the 
three Sails I Want, in Common times would 
not be more than £15. I have offerd the 
Capt of this Ship twice that money for 
them, & tho' there is not the least Proba- 
bility of his getting away, he will not Part 
with them, I have Endeavoured to Borrow 
them, & to Oblige my Self to Replace them 
when he fhould want them, but all to no 
Purpose. I do not Love to use force, but, 
Circumstances Considered, is it not Reafon- 
able that the Board fhould furnish me with 
an Order to take them ? if they Do I could 
wish to have it on the Morrow. 

And if the Board will furnish me with 
an Order on the Commifsary, or which will 
be better. Direct Coll° Crafts to Deliver 
Capt Souther four of fix Suitable Guns 
from any Place from whence they Can be 
most Conveniently Spared I can Soon have 
them. Coll° Crafts Informs me that there 



are two Ship Six pounders on board the 
Rowe Gaily I think they call it and Certainly 
they are of no Sort of use there, nor Dr. I 
think they ever Can be while they Remain 
on bord ther & therefor I hope the Board 
will have no Objection, to those Guns being 
Ordered on bord the Mafsachusetts, there 
are two others Cap 1 Hopkins informs me, 
now on Long Wharf which he Landed out 
of the George Guardship, these may I think 
be Spared & Coll Crafts has fonie others 
the Guns now wanted for this Vefsell are 
not Large Enough to be used to any Great 
Advantage in Battery. . . . May I ask 
the favour of Your Honor to urge this 
matter & Let me know the Refult of your 
Endeavour as foon as Pofsible 
I am Sir 

Your very Huble Serv 1 

Rich d Derby Jun." 

Stores and merchandise to the value of 
about £518 from the schooner '"Dispatch" 
a prize of the "Tyrannicide" and six cut- 
lasses and six pistols from the snow "Ann" 
another prize of the same vessel, were placed 
on board the "Massachusetts" in August 
and September. The "Massachusetts" 
sailed on her first cruise in September and 
was soon successful, as the following letter 
shows : 

"Salem3 0ct r 1776. 
Sir 

Last Evening the Mafsachusetts Cap* 
Souther commander of Brigantine belong- 
ing to this State aryved here, and Informs 
me that a few Days after he failed he fell 
in with & Took a Brigantine of about 250 
Tons from Falmouth in England mounting 
fix three pound Cannon & having on board 
a Captain & about 20 Privates, of the 16th 
Regiment of Dragoons, with their Horse & 
Accoutrements. The Chaplain of the 
Regiment is also with them & fome articles 
of English Goods are on board which the 
Captain fays are' his own Property. But 
what the 'Particulars are Capt Souther 
Cannot Inform. He parted from the 
Prize this Day week in a Storm which has 
Continued almost ever fince. but as the 
wind has been favourable this Day or two I 
Expect every moment to fee or to hear of 
her being aryved at Boston. The prisoners 
in all amount to 35 which Cap Souther 
tho't too many to Gary the Cruise with 
him & therefor tho"t best to Return & Land 
them, Espetially as he Expected to Do it 
in a few Days, but Gales of wind have pre- 
vented him. The Hon bU Board I hope 



2S2 



THE MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 



will fend me Directions how to Dispose of 
the Prisoners, Cap 1 Southy Entertains a 
Good opinion of the Cap 1 & Chaplain Sz no 
Doubt the Board will order them to fome 
Country Town on their Parole, they Enter- 
tain a Contemptible oppinion of the Scotch 
& wish not to be in the fame Town with 
them. The Common People I shall this 
Day have Landed & fnall put them in the 
Goal in this Place untill I Receive your 
Directions about them. . . . They say the 
People in Brittain know Nothing what is 
pafsing in America & Cap r Souther Informs 
me the Chaplain has told him the People 
in England begin to grow very weary. . . . 
Your most ob l Servant 

R. Derby Jun." 

Such officers as would sign the parole 
were to be allowed to go to Bradford. Mas- 
sachusetts. The soldiers and sailors were 
to be confined in Salem jail unless they 
were inclined "to go out to Labour in which 
case such as incline to labour the Sheriff is 
directed to put out." 

October 9, 1776, some duck and a four 
pound cannon for a prize taken by the 
"Massachusetts" were ordered sent to 
Salem by water. Richard Derby Jun. in 
a letter to the President of the Council 
October 21, 1776. suggested that the 
"Tyrannicide" and "Massachusetts" might 
cruise together. The sale of the prize 
brigantine "Henry and Ann" captured by 
the "Massachusetts" together with the 
stores and appurtenances of said prize 
resulted as follows : 

Amount received from sale £5850:02:00 3-4 

Court charges attorneys fees etc. 164:14:07 1-2 



Captors 1-3 
Remains for the State 



5685:07:11 1-4 
1395:02:08 



3790:05:03 1-4 



The following officers left the "Massa- 
chusetts" at the end of the cruise, Decem- 
ber 21, 1776: 

CAPTAIX DANIEL SOUTHER who 
was rated six shares in the division of the 
prize money. 

SECOND LIEUTENANT JOSHUA 
WINSLOW, whose name is found later 
in a list of prisoners exchanged at Rhode 
Island and delivered to Captain Ayresas 
returned by Mr. Reed. Secretary at New- 
port, February 11, 1777. His rank was 
given as Lieutenant and his residence 
Barnstable. 



SURGEON AMOS WINSHIP who was: 
commissioned Surgeon in Colonel Thomas 
Marshall's 10th Regiment, Massachusetts 
line, Janaury 30, 1777. 

SURGEON'S MATE ALEXANDER 
CHARTERS, of whom no further record' 
is found. 

The officers for the next cruise were : 

CAPTAIN JOHN FOSTER WILLIAMS 
who was engaged December 16. 1776. He 
had formerly commanded the sloop "Re- 
public" and captured the ship "Julius 
Caesar" with a valuable cargo, and another 
ship and sent them into Boston. A fuli 
record of his service has been given in the 
Massachusetts Magazine, v. I, pp. 198-4L 

FIRST LIEUTENANT JOHN LAM- 
BERT who had already served on the 
"Massachusetts" on her first Cruise. 

SECOND LIEUTENANT MARK 
CLARK who was promoted from the rank 
of Master. 

MASTER PETER FANEUIL JONES 

who was commissioned Master of the priva- 
teer sloop "True Blue" August 20, 1776, 
and engaged for the "Massachusetts Jan- 
uary 1, 1777. 

SURGEON JOHN HAVEN who was 
commissioned for service on this brigan- 
tine January 14, 1777, and whose commis- 
sion was altered to the brigantine "Free- 
dom," in the following month. (18th.) 

The bond of Captain John Foster Wil- 
liams is preserved in the state archives, in 
which he was bound in £2,000 to "conduct 
himself and govern his Crew according to- 
the Resolves of the American Congress."' 
The document was dated January 6. 1777_ 
January 1, 1777, Richard Derby Jun, peti- 
tioned to have the prize sales of the schooner 
"Dispatch" snow "Ann" and brigantine 
"Henry and Ann" settled. They had 
been captured by the "Massachusetts" 
and "Tyrannicide." 

The cruise terminated February 17, and 
most of the above named officers remained 
for the next service. Those whose service 
ended were Captain Williams and Surgeon 
John Haven, the latter going on the brigan- 
tine "Freedom." 

CAPTAIN JOHN FISK was the new- 
commander, his service dating from Feb- 
ruary 20, 1777. His full record has been 
given in the Massachusetts Magazine, v. I„ 
pp. 103-4. 



DEPARTMENT OF THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION 



283 



EDWARD KITCHEX TURNER, the 
new Surgeon was commissioned March 10, 
1777. 

The "Massachusetts" was with the 
"Tyrannicide' when the "Lonsdale" was 
captured May 10. An "Invoice of Sundry 
Merchandize Shipped by Morris Pliarne 
Penet & C° on board the Brigantine Massa- 
chusetts," dited Xantes, June * 6, 1777, 
showed a total valuation of the shipment of 
£94019:18:06. Among the war articles 
contained in this cargo were: "2 Chests of 
polished & hardened dbl e bride Gun Locks 
containing 500 ea is 1000 G locks (a 4 is 
4.000. 60 Chests of soldiers new Muskets 
with Bavonets & tirebores Contain^ 25 ea 
is 1500'Muske tts . 227 Pigs of Lead vv« 
35580," net value £7925:8. "3 Barrels 
Powder 100 lb ea is 300 lb at 20,300:00:00." 
This cruise in 1777 with the "Tyrannicide" 
was a memorable one. Many vessels were 
captured (six or seven at least) in one of 
which were sixty-three Hessian chasseurs. 
The following documents relating to these 
prisoners, we find in the state archives: 
"Ccl. Thos Crafts ordered to detach escort 
for Hessians from ferry to workhouse in 
Boston, and to station sentry at gate." 
Reference is made to their having been 
captured by Captain Fisk in the "Massa- 
shusetts." 

"State of Massachusetts Bay. 

Council Chamber June 25, 1 777. 
Ordered — That the Commifsary General 
be and h^ hereby is directed to supply the 
Kefsian Prisoners with Rations in such 
Manner as Robert Pierpoint Esq Comifsary 
of Prisoners may draw upon you for pro- 
\-ided Said Comifsary of Prisoners does 
not draw for a greater allowance than is 
allowed to the Soldiers in the Pay of this 
State. 

Read & Accepted 

Jno Avery Dpy Secy." 

"Twine, Cordage, duck, Powder &c" to 
the value of £54:03:08 taken from the 
prize^'Trepafsey" were transferred July 
19, 1777, to the brigantine "Massachusetts" 
according to a bill of Richard Derby and 
Benjamin Austin, agents for the middle 
district. 

A memorial of S. A. Otis is found in the 
archives which recommends court martial 
for Captain Fisk. In this document he 
was accused of failing "in point of Duty 
on a Cruise in Company with the Conti- 



nental Brig Cabot & the State Brig Tyran- 
nicide." Court martial was ordered July 
31, 1777. 

"John Lambert first Lieutenant and 
Mark Clark Second Lieut of the Brigantine 
Mafsachusetts a Vefsel of War belonging 
to the State of Massachusetts Bay. whereof 
Capt John Fisk was commander; Testify 
and Say That on Sunday the first day of 
March last, they Sailed in said Brig from 
Salem on a Cruise, and were joined off 
Cape Ann Harbour by the Brigantine 
Tryannicide, Jonathan Harriden Com- 
mander, and the Brig a Cabot, Cap 1 Olney 
Commander — That at about Eleven o'clock 
at Xight of the same day they saw a Sail 
to Leward which they judged to be the 
Millford Man of War. after discovering 
said Sail they waited for the two Brigs to 
come up with them, which they soon did 
and Spoke with each other." 

The vessels sailed about but did not 

that; 

"they apprehend that in case the Cabot 
really intended to join the other two Brigs 
she might have done it after the Weather 
Cleared up without any danger from the 
Ship, and had the Cabot joined in such 
rough weather it would not have been 
pofsible to Engage the Ship. And the 
deponents further say that Capt Fisk ap- 
peared to be ready & willing to join with 
the other Brigs in Engaging the Ship and 
never discovered the least backwardneis — 
and further saith not 

Jn° Lambert 
Mark Clark." 

The finding of the court reported August 
6, was as follows : 

"Respecting his Conduct at that time 
and the Com™ from the best information 
they can at Prefent Obtain, are of Oppinion 
that Cap 1 Fisk at y e time afore s d behaved 
like a brave & good officer, and that any 
accusations that have bin laid to him con- 
trary their to are unjust and without 
foundation. 

which is submitted 

W. Spooner by order 

In Council August 6, 1777. 

Read & Accepted and thereupon Ordered 
that the foregoing report be published in 
the Boston News Papers in order that 
Cap 1 Fisk's Character may stand fair and 
appear to the World that, he has, in the 



2cU 



THE MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 



Opinion of the Council behaved like a 
brave & Good Officer. 

Jn° Avery D- v Sec J"' 

MASTER JOSEPH ROBIXSOX was 
engaged July 31, 1777. He had served as 
Master's Mate on the previous voyage. 

The following document explains itself: 
"War Office, August 5 th 1777. 
Cap* John Fisk 

You being Commander of the arm'd 
Brig 1 Mafsachufetts your Orders are to 
proceed to cruise in the Track of the Home- 
ward bound Weft India Vefsels, & to use 
your utmoft Endeavours to take, burn, 
fink & destroy all armed and other Vefsels, 
together with their Cargoes, belonging to 
the Subjects of the King, of Great-Britain, 
Enemies to the United States of America 
& the natural Rights of Mankind; — Should 
you be fo fortunate as to make any Cap- 
tures, you are to fend them under proper 
Prize- Mafters. to feme Pert in the Eastern 
Parts of this State of Xew Hampshire, 
from whence the earliest Xotice must be 
given by Exprefs to the Board — You will 
bring or fend all the Priloners you may 
take as fhall be practicable, in order to be 
exchang'd for our furTering Countrymen 
in the Hands of our Cruel and Inveterate 
Enemies; — We heartily wish you Succefs. 

& are— &c 
.»* By order of the Board 

Sam Phps Savage PresV 

Captain Fisk wrote to the Board of War 
for instructions in regard to two prizes and 
received the following: — 

"War Office, August 6, 1777. 
Cap* John Fisk, ^ . 

In answer to vours of Monday Evening 
would have the Favorites People taken on 
Board your Vefsel, leaving the Prize-Mafter 
with fuch People as you can procure, that 
-are trust- worthy to bring up the Brig* — 
The other Vefsel when fhe arrives at Salem 
we will take fuch Measures about as will 
most conduce to the Service — 
We are, Sir 
Yrs &c 

By order of the Board, 
Sam 1 Allvne Otis 

Pres* P. T." 

George Williams presented a bill amount- 
ing to £24:04:11 to the Board of War 
July 24, 1777, for expenses of storing the 
cargo of the brigantine "Massachusetts" 
at Salem. It was paid August 22, 1777. 



The following letters contain so much 
of interest that we have reproduced them 
in full. 
"Sir 

This day we fell in with the Snow Fanny 
Cap* Charles Poang from St Christopher 
for Belfast in Ireland 30 days out saiid in 
Company with 130 sail of British Ships 
four men of War for their Convoy left them 
17 days since, when the Snow was taken 
the Schooner Dolphin Cap* Edward Fitty- 
place of Marblehead mounting ten four 
pounders and fifty two men. The Brig 
Hampden Cap* Benj n Warren of Salem 
mounting fourteen four pounders and 
Eighty Eight men. the Brig* Glocester 
Cap* John Colston of Cape Ann mounting 
four Six pounders fourteen four pounders 
& One Hunderd twenty six men, were in 
Company. Cap* Fittyplace puts a prize 
Master on board and orders her for Marble- 
head, the prize Master has the Ships Papers 
which are all we found on board. I took'a 
Ship the 19 th of this Month called the John- 
son from Liverpool bound to Xew York & 
order' d her for Boston, her Cargo was 
13000 bushells of Salt some Crates of Ware 
a few bales of English Goods — the Snow 
has on board Fifty One Hh d Rum and 
two Barrells of Tobacco Cap* Warren has 
taken from on board- the Snow Two Hh d9 
Rum Cap* Fittyplace One Hh d Rum which 
must be deducted from their proportion 
of said prize. You will be pleas'd to ex- 
cuse hast when I wrote you by the Johnson 
as there was another Sail in Sight which 
proved to be a Spanish Vefsel. I have 
heard since I parted with the Capts Greely 
& Gardner which were at taking Ship John- 
son that they had not so many men as they 
told me. pray Sir look into that attair if 
said Ship should arrive. I hope we shall 
fall in with the Fleet this Snow sail'd with 
& make up our Cruize, having not to add 
rest with Respect 

Your Honors Hum ble Serv* 

Jno Fisk 
At Sea August 31,1777 

Latt d 36.28 X. Long d 51 W. 
Hon ble Sam 1 Phips Savage Esq." 

"Sir. 

This day I fell in with the Brig King 
George John Watmough Master from Bel- 
fast for Xew York fix weeks out I have 
sent you all her Invoices & paoers. I took 
a Brig yesterday from Xew York for New- 
foundland I took this Brig about half past 



DEPARTMENT OF THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION 



2S5 



"Eleven o clock this Morning when we saw 
two sail as far to the westward as we could 
see from masthead. I have spoke with one 
of them a Schooner from Newbury Daniel 
Parfons Commander & he pretends to 
claim part of the prize but we mannd the 
prize and sent her away and then tack'd 
for said Sails & stood for them two hours 
before we spake the Schooner. The Cap 1 
-of the prize says he never saw them untill 
after he struck to me however I suppose 
your Honor will see Justice done *fc that is 
all I want — I am making the best of my 
way home. 

Rest with Respect 

Sir Your most hum ble Serv 1 

Jno Fisk." 
(October 8, 1777) 

MASTER JOSEPH ROBIXSOX left 
the ship October 16. November 21, he 
was commissioned Commander of the 
privateer brigantine "Pluto." March 30, 
1779 he was commissioned Captain of the 
privateer brigantine "Franklin," and 
March 24, 1780, of the privateer ship "Pil- 
grim." At this time he was described as 
follows: "Age 26 yrs.; stature, 6 ft.; com- 
plexion, light; residence, Salem." 

At the end of the cruise, Captain Fisk 
sent the following letter; — 

"To the Honorable Gen 1 Court of the 
State of Massachusetts Bay. 
May it please your Honours. 

I return you thanks for the Honour done 
me in appointing me to the command of 
the State Arm d Brig ts Tyrannicide & Massa- 
chusetts for this eighteen months past but 
am sorry to inform your Honours that the 
Brig 1 Massachusetts, which I command is 
so verry uncomfortable to live on board 
in the winter now coming on that I cannot 
think of going to sea in her at this season 
of the year, must therefore beg your Hon- 
ours leave to resinge my command of s d 
Brig 1 not that I am against going in the 
service but only on Account of the uncom- 
fortablenefs of s d Brig 1 in the winter season. 
I think myself honour d by the command 
the Gen 1 Court has seen fit to beftow on 
me & if at some future time my Country 
shall call for my poor service I shall again 
think myself Honourd by Any command 
your Honours may think me Capable of 
Executing : and am with Great Respect. 

Your Honours Host Ob d Hum e Serv 1 

Jn° Fisk. 
Boston Oct r 24, 1777." 



"In the House of Reprefentatives Oct r 
24. 1777 Read & accepted 8: Resolved that 
the Hon bIe Council be and they are hereby 
defired to appoint another commander for 
the Brig' Mafsachufetts in the Room of 
Capt Fisk, religned — paying due obferv- 
ance to the Rank 8c ftanding of those al- 
ready in the fervice of this State and Capt 
Fisk has the thanks of this Court for his 
fidelity and approved conduct in his late 
command. 

Sent up for Concurrence, 

J. Warren." 

SECOND LIEUTENANT MARK 
CLARK ako left the "Massachusetts" at 
the termination of this voyage. He was 
commissioned May 10, 17S0, commander 
of the brigantine "Saratoga" (privateer); 
and the privateer ship "Rattlesnake" June 
12, 1781. A description of him that year 
gave'his age as 42 years; height, 5 ft. 4 in.; 
complexion, dark. 

" SURGEON EDWARD KITCHEN 
TURNER terminated his service on this 
vessel at the same time. He was Surgeon 
of the "Tyrannicide" from November 8, 
1777, to June 10, 177S. A part of this 
time he was reported as attending the sick 
at Rainsford Island. - 

The officers for the next voyage were as 
follows : 
John Lambert. First Lieutenant October 

16, 1777: Captain November 15. 
Smith Kent, First Lieutenant, November 

27. 
John Roundy, Second Lieutenant, De- 
cember 11. 
Niels Christian, Master, December 13. 
Harris Ellerv Fudger, Surgeon, November 
15. 

They were all new to the brigantine with 
the exception of the Captain who was pro- 
moted from the next lower grade. 

FIRST LIEUTENANT SMITH KENT 

was Master of the privateer brigantine 
"Hawke" in November, 1776. In May, 
1777, he was Second Lieutenant of the 
same vessel under Captain Jonathan Oakes 
with the fleet under Commodore John 
Manley. 

The records fail to show that either John 
Roundy or Neils Christian had held com- 
missions previous to this time." 



286 



THE MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 



SURGEON* HARRIS ELLERY 

FUDGER of Lancaster, served first as 
Surgeon's Mate of Colonel Jonathan 
Brewer's Regiment. He was engaged for 
that service June 15. 1775. He also 
served as Surgeon's Mate to Dr Carver 
at the Watertown Hospital. 

Captain Lambert presented a bill to the 
state authorities, November 21, 1777, for 
blocks and other fittings, amounting to 
£15:18:10. It was approved and paid, 
Janaury 24, 1778. 

Instructions were given to him as follows: 
"War Office. 
Capt* John Lambert, 

Boston Jany 31, 1778. 
Sir 

You being Commander of the arm'd 
Brig* Massachusetts. Your orders are to 
proceed with the first fair wind on a Cruize 
from hence to the Coast of England, Spain 
or Portugal. In this Cruize you are to 
use your best exertions to Capture or de- 
stroy all Arm'd and other Vefsells laden 
with British property. 

Should you meet with Fish or Lumber 
Vefsells from the ('oast of Africa we advise 
your sending them to Martinico, consigned 



to M r Godfrey Hutchinson Merch f and our - 
Agent there. Suitable Cargoes of Fish & 
Oyl you will fend to Mefs w Gardoque & 
Sons Mercht* in Bilboa. Vefsels with 
Mahogony Lignum Vita & other dying 
Woods send either to Xantz or Bordeaux 
if to Xantz consign them to Mefs r * Morris 
Pliarne Penet & Comp- v if to Bourdeaux 
consign them to Mefs rs Raimbeaux & C° 
our Correspondents in those ports, all 
other prizes, that may be laden with pro- 
visions, Cloathing Ammunition & c our 
orders are that you send them immediately 
to this or the nearest port on the Eastern 

Shore of this State You will by all 

means fend or bring in as many prisoners 
as you pofsibly can to the United States 
. . . we wish you a good. Cruize & a fafe 
Return 

& are y r Friends &C 
By order of the Board 

Sam. Phps Savage Prest" 

Xo further reference to the "Massachu- 
setts" or to any of the officers of the last 
named cruise has been found in the archives 
Whether she was lost at sea or captured,. 
the author is unable to state. 



(^ritm^m & (Sammntt 



on Joofys? mtb iBWm ^uhjech? 



William Dummer Powell. 

To the Massachusetts Magazine: 

Perhaps some of your readers can help 
fill in many of the little things I have been 
compelled to omit in this short sketch of 
the life of William Dummer Powell, who 
was first judge of the Courts of Common 
Pleas in Detroit, appointed by the British 
in 1789. He was afterwards chief justice 
of Upper Canada. He was born in Boston. 

Judge Poweli was an American by birth. 
His name shows the connection between 
two important Massachusetts families. 
Not to go back as far even as the records 
of. Massachusetts will permit, we v. ill start 
with Jeremiah Dummer, who married 
Hannah Atwater and had four children. 

(1) Governor William Dummer, who 

married Catherine Dudley, and 
died without leaving any issue. 

(2) Hon. Jeremiah Dummer, who 

represented the Colonies in 
England, and who was un- 
married. 

(3) Samuel Dummer, who married. 

Elizabeth Ruggles, and had 
one child, Elizabeth, and 

(4) Ann, who married John Powell 

May \S, 1714, and had three 
children, as follows 

(5) 1. William Dummer Powell. 

(6) 2. John Powell married Martha 

Winslow July 3, 1748. 

(7) 3. Jeremiah Powell. 

Governor Dummer left a will dated June 
28, 1756, but probated in 1761, leaving 
the larger portion of his estate to his three 
nephews, William, John and Jeremiah 
Powell, sons of his sister Ann. 

William Powell (5) was an enthusiastic 
member of the liberty party, and took an 
active part with the patriot government 
during the revolution. In one of the 
diaries of his time, he is referred to as Wil- 
liam Powell, a merchant, a "high son of 
liberty, if abusive language and assurance 
entitle a person to that character." He 



was offensive to those who opposed the 
revolution, but his acts were approved by 
the citizens of Boston, and he was con- 
stantly placed in important official posi- 
tions. His brother Jeremiah (7), was also- 
highiy esteemed by the Boston citizens, and 
entrusted with important work. 

The second son, John (6) moved to Glou- 
cester where he lived for some time, but 
it is said, that his son. William Dummer 
Powell, the subject of this sketch, was born 
in Boston. If that is a fact, he must have 
returned to that city, as we find his name 
as a resident in Mackerel Lane in 1760. 

William Dummer Powell, was born in 
1755. In 1764, he was sent to England to 
be educated in a school in Tunbridge. 
After some years, he went to Holland to 
study and learn the French and Dutch 
languages. At the age of 17, he returned 
to England to study law. He returned to 
Boston before the commencement of the 
war, but when the troubles began, he 
joined the British army, and had a part in 
the first hostilities. Upon the evacuation 
of Boston, he returned to England, and 
became a student in the Middle Temple. 

He remained in London until 1779. and 
then came to Montreal, and began the 
practice of the law. He was again in Lon- 
don in 1783, trying to persuade Parliament 
to repeal or alter the Quebec Act. 

He visited Boston after the conclusion 
of peace and tried to recover his family 
estates that had been confiscated, but was 
unsuccessful. Going to London again, he- 
was called to the bar in 1785. and then re- 
turned to Canada to take up his permanent 
residence. 

Lord Dorchester gave him the appoint- 
ment of judge of Common Pleas in Mont- 
real, but he preferred the position of judge 
of the Western District, which he accepted 
in 1789. He took an active part in the 
organization of the two provinces of Upper 
and Lower Canada in 1791. which took 
effect Janaury 1. 1792. He held court in 
Detroit until 1794, then removed to New- 
ark (Niagara), the new capital of Upper 



288 



THE MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 



Canada. His home on the banks of the 
Niagara river was called after Lord Dor- 
chester, Dorchester Heights. 

The important positions that he held 
from this time until his death, and he held 
many of them, are a part of the history of 
Canada. He was chief justice from 1815, 
until he retired in 1825. He died at To- 
ronto in 1834, aged 79 years. His wife, 
Anne, lived until 1849, and died at the age 
of 91 years. 

Detroit. Mich. C. M. Burton'. 



Some interesting articles in recent Magazines. 

Colonial. Report of the 12th annual 
meeting of the Mass. state society of 
Mayflower descendants, March. 190S. 
(Mayflower descendant, July, 1908. v. 
10, p. 188-189). 
Revolutionary. D. A. R. Mass. state re- 
port at the 17th Continental congress, 
April, 1908. (American monthly maga- 
zine, July, 190S. v. 32, p. 414-420). 

Boston. Old South Chapter, D. A. R. 
By Jeannette M. Mitchell, historian. 
(American monthlv magazine, July, 
1908. v. 32, p. 30-35). 
^Brockton. Deborah Sampson chapter, 
D. A. R. By Mary E. Charles, historian. 
(American monthlv magazine, July, 1908. 
v. 32, p. 22-25). 

Duxbury. Duxburv vital records, tran- 
scribed by G. E Bowman. (Mayflower 
descendant, July, 1908. v. 10, p. 184- 
186). 
Part 6; began in Oct.. 1906. v. 8. p. 231. 

Gravestone records from the Old 

cemetery on Centre street, South Dux- 
bury. By J. W. Willard. (Mayflower 
descendant, Julv, 1908. v. 10, p. 169- 
172). 
Part 2 (Riplev to Wiswall); began in July, 1907. 
v. 9, p. 159. 

-Eastham. Records of the First church in 

- Orleans, formerly the First church in 

Harwich. Communicated by S. W. 

Smith. (Mayflower descendant, Julv, 

1908. v. 10, p. 165-168). 

Part 1, 1772-1774. 

The records of Wellfleet, formerly 

the North precinct of Eastham. Tran- 
scribed by G. E. Bowman. (Mayflower 
descendant, Julv, 1908. v. 10, p. 152- 
155). 

Part 6 (1736-1739); began in Oct.. 1902. v. 4. 
-p. 227. 



Harwich. Records of the First parish 
in Brewster, formerly the First parish in 
Harwich. (Mayflower descendant, July, 
1908. v. 10, p. 130-131). 
Part 12 (17.51-17.36); beyan in Oct.. 1902. v. 4. 

p. 242. 

Middleborol'gh. Xemasket chapter, D. 
A. R. By Charlotte E. Ellis, historian. 
(American monthlv magazine, Aug., 1908. 
v. 32, p. 462-464)' 

Pembroke. Gravestone records from the 
cemetery at Pembroke Centre. Com- 
municated bv J. W. Willard. (May- 
flower descendant, July, 1908. v. 10, 
p. 155-159). 
Part 5 (Leonard-Osbourne); began in Jan.. 1907. 

v. 9. p. 3. 

Plymouth Colony. Plymouth Colony 
deeds. (Mayflower descendant, July, 
1908. v. 10, p. 140-144). 
1612-1656; began in Apr.. 1899. 
Plymouth Colony wills and in- 
ventories. (Mayflower descendant, July, 
1908. v. 10, p. 159-164). 
1651; began in Jan., 1899. 

Plympton. Gravestone records in the Old 
cemetery at Plvmpton. Communicated 
by J. W. Willard. (Mayflower de- 
scendant, July, 1908. v. 10, 'p. 144-149). 
Part 5 (Gannett-Luce); began in July, 1906. 

v. 8, p. 150. 

Salem. A waxed floor in Salem. By 

C. F. Nichols. (New England magazine, 
Sept., 1908. v. 39, -p. 26-27). 

Hamilton hall. 
Scituate. Records of the First church of 
Scituate. Transcribed by G. E. Bowman. 
(Mayflower descendant, July, 1908, v. 10, 
p. 175-180). 

Part 2 (Rev. N. Pitcher's bantisms. 1707- 
1716): began in April, 1908. v. 10. p. 90. 

Truro. Truro church records. Transmit- 
ted by G. E. Bowman, (Mayflower de- 
scendant, Julv, 1908. v. 10, p. 149-152). 
Part 6 (1733-1736); began in Jan.. 1907. 

Uxbridge. Deborah Wheelock chapter, 

D. A. R. By Beatrice Putnam, histo- 
rian. (American monthlv magazine, 
July, 1908, v. 32, p. 19-20). 

Wellfleet. Records from the Duck 
Creek cemetery, Wellfleet. Communi- 
cated by S. W. Smith. (Mayflower de- 
scendant, July, 1908. v. 10, p. 180-183). 
Part 1. (Arey-Burns). 

Worcester. Colonel Timothy Bigelow 
chapter, D. A. R. By Francis M. Syme. 
historian. (American monthly magazine, 
July, 1908. v. 32, p, 25-26). 




ilffrimsmsa f§lanttt£ 

"•"* 1620-1630 s ^~^ 



Lucie M. Gardner. A. Q., E-di 



Announcement. 

This department during the coming 
year, will be conducted along lines similar 
to those followed in 1908. ^There will be 
a continuance of the biographies of the 
old Planters. Among those to be pub- 
lished during the coming year will be one 
of Thomas Gardner, the first Overseer of 
the Cape Ann Plantation in 1623-4 and 
one of the founders of Salem, with Roger 
Conant in 1626. Another will be of Wil- 
liam Jeffrey. He came in 1623, probably 
with the Robert Gorges party and went 
with John Balch to Cape Ann when that 
settlement of Gorges was broken up. He 
removed with the party to Salem in 1626. 
While a member of the Salem company. 
he resided at Jeffrey's Creek, now Man- 
chester. He returned to Weymouth after 
a stable government was established there, 
andabout 1654 removed to Newport, Rhode 
Island, and became an influential citizen 
of that place. 

The lists of officers of the various socie- 
ties and family organizations connected 
with men who were here before 1630, will 
be published as heretofore, along with 
notes of interest about them. Among 
the longer articles to be published will be 
one on the "Settlers about Boston Prio; 
to 1630." 



Societies 

MAYFLOWER SOCIETY. 
Membership, Confined to Descendants of the May- 
flower Passengers. 
Governor — Asa P. French. 
Deputy Governor — John Mason Little, 
Captain — Edwin S. Crandon. 
Elder — Rev. George Hodges, D. D. 
Secretary — George Ernest Bowman. 
Treasurer— Arthur I. Nash. 
Historian — Stanley W. Smith. 
Surgeon — William H. Prkscott, M. D. 
Assistants — Edward H. Whore. 

Mrs. Leslie C. Wead. 

Henry D. Forhes. 

Mrs. Annie Quincy Emery. 

Lorenzo D. Baker, Jr. 

Miss Mary E. Wood. 

Miss Mary F. Edson. 



THE OLD PLANTERS SOCIETY, 

Incorporated. 

Membership Confined to Descendants of Settlers 

in New England prior to the. T r ar>*fer of the- 

Charter to New England in 1630. 

President — Col. Thomas Wentworth Higginson, 

Cambridge 
Vice Pres. — Frank A. Gardner, M. D., Salem. 
Secretary — Lucie M. Gardner, Salem. 
Treasurer — Frank V. Wright, Salem. 
Registrar — Mrs. Lora A. W. Underbill, 

Brighton- 
Councillors — Wm. Prkscott Greenlaw, Boston. 
R. W. Sprague. M. D., Boston. 
Hon. A. P. Gardner, Hamilton. 
Nathaniel Conant, Brookline. 
Francis H. Lee, Salem. 
Col. J. Granville Leach, Phila. 
Francis N. Balch, Jamaica Plain- 
Joseph A. Torrey, Manchester. 
Edward O. Skelton, Roxburt. 



A very interesting meeting of the society 
was heldin Marblehead,on September 14th. 
The members and friends assembled at the 
rooms of the Marblehead Historical Society 
at two o'clock and listened to an instructive 
talk by Mr. Nathan P. Sanborn, President 
of the last named society upon "The Begin- 
nings of Marblehead." He stated that 
the first settlers of the present town were 
fishermen from Salem, who took up their 
abode at "Little Harbor," in order to be 
nearer the fishing grounds in the earlv 
morning. Many interesting historic relics 
were shown, including a sword carried by 
one of Washington's body guard, a pew- 
door from the first meeting house and an 
old time log. Mr. Sidney Perley of the 
Essex Antiquarian spoke of the work which 
he has been engaged in for the past year 
and a half, in studying the boundaries of 
the lots and grants in the town. He 
pointed out upon an improvised map, the 
sites of many old grants and buildings. 

Dr. Frank A. Gardner, vice-president of 
the Old Planters Society, spoke of the Mili- 
tary record of several of the officers of the 
Glover Regiment. At the close of the 
meeting a pilgrimage was made about the 
town and many places were visited, in- 
cluding the Lee and Hooper mansions. 
Saint Michael's Church, the old Town Hall, 
the Gerry mansion and General Glover's 



290 



THE MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 



House. The party then went across the 
.ferry to the Xeck where a basket lunch 
was enjoyed at Castle Rock. The meeting 
"was largely attended, over eighty being 
present. Many spoke of it as a most in- 
teresting and enjoyable afternoon, and 
expressed a desire that such an outing 
-might become an annual feature of the 
societv. 



ffamilp Hssociations 

* 

BALCH FAMILY ASSOCIATION. 

Descendants of John Balch, Wessagusset 1623; 
Cape Ann, 1624; Salem, 1626; Beverly, 1638. 
President — Galcsha B. Balch, M. D., 

Yonkers, N. Y. 
Vice Pbes. — George W. Balch, Detroit. 
Joseph B. Balch, Df.dham. 
Francis N. Balch, Jamaica Plain. 
Gardner P. Balch, West Roxbury. 
Harry H. Coffin. Brookline. 
Maj. H. H. Clay, Oai.esrurg, 111. 
John Balch, Milton. 
William II. Balch, Stoxeham. 
Alfred C Balch, Phila. 
E. T. Stone, Someryille. 
"Secretary — William Lincoln Balch, Boston. 



THE GARDNER FAMILY ASSOCIATION. 

Descendants of Thomas Gardner, Cape Ann, 1624; 
Salem, 1626. 

President — Frank A. Gardner, M. D., Salem. 
"V. Pres. — Hon. Augustus P. Gardner, Hamilton 
-Sec y & Treas. — Lucie M. Gardner, Salem. 

•Councillors — Rev. Chas. H. Pope, Cambridge. 

Hon. Geo. R. Gardner, Calais, Me. 
Robert W. Gardner, N. V. City. 
George Peabody Gardner, Boston 
Arthur H. Gardner, Nantucket. 
Joseph A. Torrey, Manchester. 



ROGER CONANT FAMILY ASSOCIATION. 

Descendants of Roger Conant, Plymouth, 1622; 
Xantanket, 1624-6; (ape Ann. 1625; 
Salem, 1626; Beverly, 1638. 
President — Samuel Morris Conant, Pawtucket. 
Sec'y A- Treas. — Charles Milton Conant, Boston. 
Chaplin— Rev. C A. Conant, W. Albany, N. Y. 
Executive Committee 

Hamilton S. Conant, Boston, Chairman. 

W. E. Conant, Littleton. ■ 

Nathaniel Conant, Brookline. 

Dr. Mm. M. Conant, Boston. 

Chari.es A. Conant, New York. 

Edward D. Conant, Newton. 

Frederick Odell Conant, Portland. Me. 

Francis Ouer Conant, Brookhaven, Miss. 

Henry E. Conant, Concord, N. H. 

Clarissa Conant. Danvlrs. 

John A. Conant, Wili.imantic, Conn. 

Charlotte H. Conant, Natick. 

Chas. Bancroft Conant, Newark, N. J. 



THE WOODBURY GENEALOGICAL SOCIETY. 

Descendants of John Wor-dhuru, Cope Ann, 1624; 
Salem, 1626; Beverly, about 1638. 

President — Edwin S. Woodbury, Boston. 
Treasurer — Merton G. Woodbury, Melrose. 
Clerk — Mrs. Lora A. (Woodbury) Underhill, 

Brighton. 
Trustees President and Trev^urer. 

John P. Woodbury, Boston. 

Isaac F. Woodbury, Allston. 

Melville Woodbury, Beverly. 

C J. H. Woodbury, Lynn. 

Frank T. Woodbury, M. D., Wakfield. 

Louis A. Woodbury. M. D , Grov eland. 

William R. Woodbury, M. D., Bostoo. 



ALLEN FAMILY ASSOCIATION. 

Descendants of William Allen. Cope Ann. 1624; 
Salem, 1626; Manchester, 1636. 
President- — Raymond C. Allen, Manchester. 
Secretary — Etta Rabardy, Manchester. 
Treasurer — Samuel Knight, Manchester. 



0urE&Uoriar l^&c^ts^ 



Rev. Thomas Frajsklin Waters. 



THE return to out-of-doors is one of 
the most distinguishing and health- 
ful characteristics of Our modern 
New England life. The traditional idea 
was that the Xew England climate must be 
taken very seriously. It was jokingly 
affirmed that it included nine months of 
winter and three months of cold weather. 
As long as the great open fire-place, a 
famous device for compulsory ventilation, 
but a very insufficient source of warmth, 
was the only means of heating the. house, 
very naturally the chief aim in building was 
to keep out the cold. So our forefathers 
faced their houses to the south, ran up a 
brick wall between the studs, allowed small 
space for windows, and battened every 
crack and crevice, at the approach of winter. 
They slept in chambers from which every 
unnecessary breath of freezing air was 
rigidly excluded. Heavily curtained beds 
-and dark bedrooms, near the great chim- 
ney-stack, into which the light of Heaven 
never came were reckoned useful allies in 
the stern fight against the dreadful cold of 
a New England winter. It was a common 
adage that the night air was injurious. 
So successful was this contest with Nature, 
coupled with a variety of other uncon- 
scious violations of the laws of health, and 
the proper methods of treating sickness, 
that the old homes which might have pro- 
vided ideal conditions for sound and 
healthy lives, became the deadly breeding 
ground of consumption and other germ 
diseases. The hardship and exposure of 
worship in cold meeting-houses, the trouble 
and inconvenience of the daily home life, 
the discomfort of travel combined to make 
winter a season to be dreaded. The short 
summer was only a breathing space between 
the arduous conflict with two winters. 



The invention of stoves and the dis- 
covery of anthracite coal marked a new 
era in New England life. Winter was 
robbed of its terrors. A new genial warmth 
soon pervaded the home, and meeting 
house. Life became easy and comfortable. 
The struggle for warmth being over, a 
measured regard for summer comfort be- 
gan to appear. The bareness of house 
architecture began .to respond to the new 
recognition of the significance of summer. 
A modest portico over the front door, pro- 
vided a pleasant out-of-door sitting room 
for a summer evening. The broad covered 
piazza has gradually established itself as 
an accessory of a thoroughly well ap- 
pointed home. The gospel of fresh air, by 
night and by day, in winter as well as sum- 
mer, began to be preached, as the preven- 
tive of sickness and the cure of disease. 

GRADUALLY our Xew England sum- 
mer, short indeed, but hot, bright 
and beautiful has come to its rights. 
Out-of-door life has come to be popular. 
Summer homes are everywhere in evidence, 
the beautiful mansions of the rich, where 
they dwell for half of every year and the 
myriads of cheap cottages and modest 
camps, which afford a cheery, healthful 
resort for people of humbler circumstance. 
The summer vacation is now the recog- 
nized prerogative of clerk, and artisan, 
mill operative and day laborer. 

Within a generation, athletic sports have 
sprung into intense life. The college grad- 
uate of forty years standing knew nothing 
of foot-ball, for the game did not exist. 
Base-ball was played in an old-fashioned 
way, and a few match games were in order. 
Athletics, in the present sense of the word, 



292 



THE MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 



-had not yet begun. To-day the college 
student has a passion for athletics, and 
his enthusiasm is only the reflection of a 
universal devotion to manly games of skill 
and strength, which are begun with the 
first warm days of spring and continue 
until the snow flies. The most amazing 
result of this athletic passion is the great 
Stadium at Cambridge, built on the same 
general lines as the Coliseum at Rome. 
and the Greek amphitheatres, and despite 
the sharp contrast between the sunny 
Italian skies and the soft Greek air and our 
New England summer, so changeable and 
uncertain, the great open air structure has 
proved to be usable and comfortable. 

The great building, the athletic contests 
that find place there, the stately tragedy, 
the Agamennon, which was given there in 
the original Greek, attest the earnestness 
of the look backward to the free sunny life 
of ancient Greece. There great philoso- 
phers taught in groves and gardens, poets 
recited their dramas in popular assem- 
blages at the regularly recurring games, and 
orators delivered their orations in a splen- 
did amphitheatre, roofed only with the sky. 
This discovery that out-of-door life is not 
only possible but delightful and healthful 
in our Northern latitude means much, as 



we have suggested, for a more robust phy- 
sical life. It is stimulating in a very 
marked way the intellectual life. Summer 
schools and camps are supplementing the 
instruction of the regular terms. 

Pilgrimages to historic places are increas- 
ing in favor. Historical anniversaries are 
assuming new grandeur. The splendid 
series of pageants at the Ter-Centenary or 
Quebec dazzled and delighted great multi- 
tudes, and taught them impressive lessons 
of the Past, which can never be forgotten. 
The recent dedication of a great bridge at 
Hartford furnished opportunity for a series 
of historical tableaux, on a grand scale,, 
which epitomized the whole history of the 
city and the colony. 

This aspect of the return to out-of-doors 
is of especial interest to students of his- 
tory. The time is close at hand when the 
two hundred and seventy-fifth or even the 
three hundredth anniversary of our oldest 
towns, will be celebrated. The events 
which are to be commemorated are large 
and grand. The commemorations must be 
large and grand as well, and they should 
be planned not for a hall, or tent, however 
spacious, but for the broad expanses and 
natural back grounds of field, and wood 
and river-side. 



INDEX OF AUTHORS AND SUBJECTS FOR 
VOLUME I, MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 



Prepared by Charles A. Flagg 



Authors' names italicized. 



-Abbott, Charlotte H., historian, 40. 

Adams Abigail, Letter to husband, 1775, 

23. 
.Adams, John, homestead in Quincy, 21. 

Adams houses, Quincy, 21, 45. 

Allen Family Association, 50, 82, 290. 

American frontier, by H. C. Lodge, 132. 
.American Revolution, British flags sold, 
109, 201. 

Cooperation of army and navy, 279. 

Department of the, 51, 103, 195, 



278. 



Mass. brigantine, "Hazard," 104, 



109. 



— Mass. brigantine ."Independence," 
280. 

— Mass. brigantine, "Massachusetts," 
280. 

— Mass. officers, 93, 240. 

— Mass. quota by towns, 109. 

— Mass. sloop, "Tyrannicide," 103. 

— Organization of army, 235. 

— Patriot army at siege of Boston, 13. 



Privateer "Hendrick," 52. 

Quebec expedition, 59. 

Regiments, Doolittle's, 280. 

" Glover's, 14, 85. 

" Prescott's, 109, 149, 235. 

Soldier's field equipment, 53. 

See also Bunker Hill. 
Archives, Printing of, 44. 
Arnold's Quebec expedition commemo- 
rated, 59. 
Balch Family Association, 50, 183, 290. 
Ballard, Harlan H., historian, 39. 
"Between the lines" of family records, 191. 
.Billerica, Manning homestead, 43. 



Books announced 

Crawford, Mary C. St. Botolph's town 

in colonial days, 112. 
Draper, William F. Recollections 111. 
Whidden, John D. Autobiography, 112. 

Books reviewed 

Crawford, Mary C. Little pilgrimages 
among old New England inns, 44. 

Flagg, Charles A. Guide to Mass. local 
history, 46. 

Hart, Albert B. The American nation, 
47. 

History of North America, by Lee and 
Thorpe, 47. 

Porter, Juliet. An account of the an- 
cestry and descendants of Samuel 
Porter, 191. 

Boston, Ladies complete Bunker Hill 

Monument, 63. 
Maverick Square, Proposed change 

of name, 202. 

Old planters, 107. 

Paul Revere House, 133. 

■ Siege, Patriot army at, 13. 



Bowen, Ashley, Diary-. 109, 174, 260. 
British ensigns, Auction sales, 109, 201. 
Bunker Hill, Battle of, 151. 

Battlefield of, 199. 

Monument completed, 63. 

Burton, C. M. William Dummer Powell, 

287. 
Burying places, Neglect of, 117. 
Cape Ann, Settlement at, 29, 177. 
Carpenter, Robert W., historian, 184. 
Carrington, Henry B., historian, 274. 
Cemeteries, Neglect of old, 117. 



294 



THE MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 



Charlestown, Settlement at, 1629, 33. 

See also Bunker Hill. 
Cheney genealogy, Errors in, 24. 
"Chesapeake," Battle flag of, 48, 109. 
Choate, Rufus, on New England courage, 37 
Cole, John N., by John N. McClintock, 137. 
"Common," Use of term, 203. 
Conant, Roger, 34, 177. 
Conant Family Association, 50, 183, 290. 
Courage, New England, bv Rufus Choate, 

37. 
Cox, Harriet C. Paul Revere house, 133. 
Crane, Ellery B., historian, 113. 
Criticism and comment department, 44, 

110, 191, 2S7. 
Dedham, Fairbanks house, 25. 
Deerfield, Early history, 124. 

Memorials at, 59. 

Sheldon house, 130. 

Dennis, Albert W. Criticism and comment, 

45. 

John Adams homestead, 21. 

Some Mass. historical writers, 3S, 

113, 184, 274. 

Whipple house at Ipswich, S3. 

Doolittle's regiment, 280. 
Dorchester company, 29. 
Douglass, Alice M. Whittier's birthplace, 

11. 
Draper, Eben S., 215. 

Dummer, Fort; Willard's company at, 267. 
East Boston, Maverick Square, Proposed 

change of name, 202. 
East Haverhill, Whittier's birthplace, 11. 
Editorial department, 56, 117, 202, 291. 
Emigrants from Mass., Michigan series, 73, 

186, 269. 
Fairbanks house, Dedham, 25. 
Family records, "Between the lines"of, 191. 
Family relics, Preservation of, 57. 
Flagg, Charles A. Mass. Pioneers, Michi- 
gan series, 73, 186, 269. 
Some interesting historical articles 

in recent magazines, 111, 192, 288. 
Two notable undertakings in Amer- 



Franklin County, The idylls of, 123. 
Freemasons, King Solomon's lodge, 63. 
French and Indian war, Bowen diary, 174 r 

260. 
Friends, Society of, Whittier as historian 

of, 3. 
Frontier, American, by H. C. Lodge, 132. 
Frothingham, Louis A., by J. X. McClin- 
tock, 140. 
Gardner, Frank A., M. D. Department of 

the American Revolution, 51, 103,. 

195. 278. 
Founders of the Mass. Bav Colony, 

27. 
Glover's Marblehead Regiment, 14^. 

85. 

Patriot army at siege of Boston, 13. 

Porter's Account of the ancestry- 

and descendants of Samuel Porter. 

Review, 191. 
Prescott's regiment, 149, 235. 



ican history* 47. 
Founders of the Mass. Bay colony, 27. 



Gardner, Lucie M. Pilgrims and planters 
department, 49, 82, 177, 289 

Gardner Family Association, 50, 82, 183,. 
290. 

Genealogical work, Accuracy in, 118. 

Genealogies, Errors in — Cheney, 24. 

Gould, 112. 

Gloucester, Settlement at, 1624, 29. 

Glover's Marblehead regiment, 14, 85. 

Gould, William E. Errors in Gould gene- 
alogy, 112. 

Gould genealogy, Errors in, 112. 

"Green," L T se of term, 204. 

Guild, Curtis. Massachusetts today, 214- 

Guild, Curtis, governor, 207. 

Guild, Edward P. Heath, 219. 

Guild, Edward P., historian, 276. 

Hale, Edward E. The Massachusetts . 
man, 12. 

Hancock, John; by a German officer, 1777 r 

"Hannah," Mass. schooner, 10. 
Haverhill, Whittier's birthplace, 11. 
Haynes, George H., historian, 42. 
"Hazard," Mass. brigantine, 105, 195. 
Heath; a historic hill town, 219. 



- 



V,: f 



INDEX 



295 



Heath Historical Society, 224. 

Heirlooms, Preservation of, 56. 

"Hendrick," privateer, 52. 

Historic buildings, Preservation and mark- 
ing of, 56. 

Historic houses, John Adams house, Quincy 
21. .' 

■ Fairbanks house, Dedham, 25. 

■ Manning house, North Billerica, 43. 

Paul Revere house, Boston, 133. 

Royall house, Medford, 168. 

Sheldon house, Deerrield, 130. 

Whipple house, Ipswich, S3. 

Whittier's birthplace, East Haver- 
hill, 11. 

Historic sites, marking of, 58. 

Hopedale, 215. 

Idylls of Franklin County, 123. 

Inns, New England, 44. 

Ipswich, Whipple house, 83. : 

July fourth, 1909, Suggestions for, 200. 

Kellogg, Mrs. Lucy J. Cutler, historian, 115. 

"Lane," Use of term, 203. 

"Lee," schooner, 17. 

Lieutenant-governor, Republican candi- 
dates for nomination in 1908, 137, 140, 
143. 

Lodge, Henry C. The American frontier, 
132. 

Loud, John J., historian, 185. 

Luce, Robert, by J. N. McClintock, 143. 

McClintock, John N. John N. Cole, 137. 

Lieut. Gov. Eben S. Draper, 215. 

Louis A. Frothingham, 140. 

Governor Curtis Guild, Jr., 207. 

Robert Luce, 143. 

Manning, William H. Manning home- 
stead, 43. 

The printing of records, 44. 

Manning homestead, North Billerica, 43. 

Marblehead, Diary of A. Bowen, 109, 174, 



260. 



Glover's regiment, 14, 85. 



Massachusetts, Described by John Smith 

in 1614, 10. 

Frontiers, 132. 

Historical writers in, 38, 113, 184, 

274 



Massachusetts, Magazine articles on, 111, 
192, 288. 

Navy, See under American Revo- 
lution. 

Observation of July 4th, Proposed, 

200. 

Pioneers, Michigan series, 73, 186, 

269. 

Probation System, 226. 

Regiments, see under American 

Revolution. 

Soldiers in Revolution, Quota, 109. 



Massachusetts Bay Colony, Founders of, 
27. 

Massachusetts Bay Company formed. 30. 

Massachusetts Charitable Mechanic Asso- 
ciation, 67. 

Massachusetts man, by E. E. Hale, 12. 

Massachusetts today, by Curtis Guild, 214. 

"Massachusetts," state brigantine, 280. 

Mayflower Society, 49, 82, 182, 289. 

Medford, Royall house, 168. 

Michigan, County histories, 76, 186. 

Pioneers from Mass., 73, 186, 269. 

Middlesex County, Prescott's regiment, 
149, 235. 

Naming of streets, squares, etc., 202. 

New England courage, by Rufus Choate, 
37. 

New England inns, 44. 

North Billerica, Manning homestead, 43. 

Northfield, Early history, 124. 

Old planters, Boston, 107. 

Cape Ann, 27. 

Salem, 27. 

Old Planters Society, 49, 82, 182, 289. 

Out-of-doors, Return to, 291. 

Pilgrims and Planters department, 49, S2, 
177, 289. 

"Pilgrims" and "Puritans," 110. 

Pocumtuck Valley Memorial Association, 
128. 

Pope, Charles H. Errors in Cheney gene- 
alogy, 24. 

Pope, Charles H., historian, 40. 

Powell, William Dummer, 287. 

Prescott's regiment, 149, 235. 



296 



THE MASSACHUSETTS MAGAZINE 



Press clipping bureau, 145. 

Printing of records, 44. 

Probation work in Massachusetts, 226. 

"Puritans" and "Pilgrims," 110. 

Quakers, Whittier as historian of, 3. 

Quebec expedition 1759, Bowen's diary, 
174, 260.. 

Quincy, John Adams house, 21, 45. 

John O. Adams house, 45. 

Records, Printing of, 44. 

Republican candidates for lieutenant-gov- 
ernor in 1008, 137, 140, 143. 

Revere' s house, Boston, 133. 

Revolution, American, see American Revo- 
lution. 

"Road," Use of term, 203. 

Royall house, Medford, 168. 

Salem, Old Planters at, 33. 

Settlement at, 1626; 30, 178. 

Seabury, Mrs. E. O. "Between the lines," 
191. 

Seaver, W. N. Flagg's Guide to Mass. 
local history. Review, 46. 

Sharpies, Stephen P., historian, 114. 

Sheldon, George. Roll of Capt. Willard's 
company at Fort Dummer, 267. 

Sheldon, George, 38, 128. 

Sheldon house, Deerfield, 130. 

Smith, John. Massachusetts in 1614, 10. 

Society of Mayflower Descendants, 49, 82, 
182, 289. 

Soldier's field equipment in Revolution, 53. 

"Spirit of 1768," a song, 53. 



5 prague, Rufus W. Battlefield of Bunker 
Hill, 199. 

Streets and squares, Naming of, 202. 

Taverns of New England, 44. 

Thompson, Francis M., historian, 41. 

Tilden, William S., historian, 116. 

Titus, Mrs. Lillie B. How the ladies of 
Boston finished Bunker Hill monu- 
ment, 63. 

The old Fairbanks house at Ded- 

ham, 25. 

"Tyrannicide," sloop, 103. 

Shirley, Fort, 220. 

Sleeper, Frank B. Fifty years of proba- 
tion work in Mass., 226. 

Stark, James H., historian, 277. 

War of 1812. Battle flag of the "Chesa- 
peake," 48, 109. 

Waters, Thomas F. The idylls of Franklin 
County, 123. 

Our editorial pages, 56, 117, 202, 

291. 



Whittier as historian, 3. 

Whipple house, Ipswich, 83. 
Whittier, John G., as historian, 3. 

Birthplace, 11. 

Wild, Helen T. The old Royall house, 

Medford, 168. 
Willard's company at Fort Dummer, 1742, 

267. 
Wilson, Daniel M., historian, 184. 
Witchcraft, Whittier as historian of, 3. 
Woodbury Genealogical Society, 50, 290. 



The foregoing is not an index of personal names. Such an index covering every name found on the 
pages of the magazine will be issued at convenient periods, probably every five years; the theory being that 
forjjenealogieal or general reference use such a consolidation will be more helpful than an annual issue. 



2733 X